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Buschke–Lowenstein tumour (BLT) is a rare verrucous lesion often associated with human papillomavirus infection. It is an indolent but locally aggressive lesion usually arising from the genitalia or anorectum, with a potential risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. The first line of management is surgical or laser excision. Topical agents cryotherapy, radiotherapy and chemo-immunomodulators are reserved for residual or recurrent cases and smaller lesions.
A 24-year-old female on antiretroviral therapy presented in our department with a large cauliflower-shaped growth involving the perineum, vulva and lower vagina. A biopsy of the lesion was suggestive of a BLT. Due to the extensive nature of the disease, surgery was deferred. The lesion was treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) using a 6-megavoltage photon beam on a Cobalt-60 unit.
Radiotherapy resulted in a significant response without any acute toxicity, following which, topical podophyllin application was advised for the residual perianal lesion. The patient is disease free after 9 months of follow-up.
A multidisciplinary approach is important to treat the BLT. Lesions not amenable to surgery or local therapies can be treated with EBRT with reasonable control and acceptable toxicities.
From 2016–2019, dry bulb onions were the suspected cause of three multistate outbreaks in the United States. We investigated a large multistate outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections that caused illnesses in both the United States and Canada in 2020. Epidemiologic, laboratory and traceback investigations were conducted to determine the source of the infections, and data were shared among U.S. and Canadian public health officials. We identified 1127 U.S. illnesses from 48 states with illness onset dates ranging from 19 June to 11 September 2020. Sixty-six per cent of ill people reported consuming red onions in the week before illness onset. Thirty-five illness sub-clusters were identified during the investigation and seventy-four per cent of sub-clusters served red onions to customers during the exposure period. Traceback for the source of onions in illness sub-clusters identified a common onion grower in Bakersfield, CA as the source of red onions, and onions were recalled at this time. Although other strains of Salmonella Newport were identified in environmental samples collected at the Bakersfield, CA grower, extensive environmental and product testing did not yield the outbreak strain. This was the third largest U.S. foodborne Salmonella outbreak in the last 30 years. It is the first U.S. multistate outbreak with a confirmed link to dry bulb onions, and it was nearly 10-fold larger than prior outbreaks with a suspected link to onions. This outbreak is notable for its size and scope, as well as the international data sharing that led to implication of red onions as the primary cause of the outbreak. Although an environmental assessment at the grower identified several factors that likely contributed to the outbreak, no main reason was identified. The expedient identification of the outbreak vehicle and response of multiple public health agencies allowed for recall and removal of product from the marketplace, and rapid messaging to both the public and industry on actions to protect consumers; these features contributed to a decrease in cases and expeditious conclusion of the outbreak.
Pain following surgery for cardiac disease is ubiquitous, and optimal management is important. Despite this, there is large practice variation. To address this, the Paediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative undertook the effort to create this clinical practice guideline.
A panel of experts consisting of paediatric cardiologists, advanced practice practitioners, pharmacists, a paediatric cardiothoracic surgeon, and a paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologist was convened. The literature was searched for relevant articles and Collaborative sites submitted centre-specific protocols for postoperative pain management. Using the modified Delphi technique, recommendations were generated and put through iterative Delphi rounds to achieve consensus
60 recommendations achieved consensus and are included in this guideline. They address guideline use, pain assessment, general considerations, preoperative considerations, intraoperative considerations, regional anaesthesia, opioids, opioid-sparing, non-opioid medications, non-pharmaceutical pain management, and discharge considerations.
Postoperative pain among children following cardiac surgery is currently an area of significant practice variability despite a large body of literature and the presence of centre-specific protocols. Central to the recommendations included in this guideline is the concept that ideal pain management begins with preoperative counselling and continues through to patient discharge. Overall, the quality of evidence supporting recommendations is low. There is ongoing need for research in this area, particularly in paediatric populations.
Healthcare disparities and inequities exist in a variety of environments and manifest in diagnostic and therapeutic measures. In this commentary, we highlight our experience examining our organization’s urgent care respiratory encounter antibiotic prescribing practices. We identified differences in prescribing based on several individual characteristics including patient age, race, ethnicity, preferred language, and patient and/or clinician gender. Our approach can serve as an electronic health record (EHR)–based methodology for disparity and inequity audits in other systems and for other conditions.
Studies show ethnic inequalities in rates of involuntary admission and types of clinical care (such as psychological therapies). However, few studies have investigated if there is a relationship between clinical care practices and ethnic inequalities in involuntary admission.
This study investigated the impact of ethnicity and clinical care on involuntary admission and the potential mediation effects of prior clinical care.
In this retrospective cohort study, we used data from the electronic records of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and identified patients with a first hospital admission between January 2008 and May 2021. Logistic regression and mediation analyses were used to investigate the association between ethnicity and involuntary admission, and whether clinical care, in the 12 months preceding admission, mediates the association.
Compared with White British people, higher odds of involuntary admission were observed among 10 of 14 minority ethnic groups; with more than twice the odds observed among people of Asian Chinese, of Asian Bangladeshi and of any Black background. There were some ethnic differences in clinical care prior to admission, but these had a minimal impact on the inequalities in involuntary admission. More out-patient appointments and home treatment were associated with higher odds of involuntary admission, whereas psychological therapies and having a care plan were associated with reduced odds of involuntary admission.
Ethnic inequalities in involuntary admission persist after accounting for potential mediating effects of several types and frequencies of clinical care. Promoting access to psychological therapies and ensuring that care plans are in place may reduce involuntary admissions.
An innovative and simple method for attaining broadband frequency reconfigurable antenna structure is presented using low-cost materials and a compact design. The frequency reconfigurability is attained by the “OFF” and “ON” mechanisms of three PIN diodes. Many performance observations are carried out such as reflectance coefficient, bandwidth (BW), resonance frequency, electric field, feed position variation, and gain among different configurations. The suitability of the presented work for the different applications lies in the X frequency band. The resonating frequency for all switch OFF modes is achieved at 13.2 GHz and one switch ON mode at 10.7 GHz. The proposed design yields the frequency tunability behavior over the broadband of 2.5 GHz. The design yields the directivity of 5.58 dB, the minimum reflectance coefficient of −17.27 dB, and a total gain of 3.87 dB. This design offers an electric field of 46 558 v/m, a BW of 340 MHz, and a normalized directivity of 87° using low-cost substrates. The results of the presented design were also fabricated and related to simulated results. Performance observation of the proposed work with previously published research work is also included. The presented design provides the solution of the low-cost, compact, reconfigurable antennas, which can be used for next-generation communication systems.
There is evidence of an association between life events and psychosis in Europe, North America and Australasia, but few studies have examined this association in the rest of the world.
To test the association between exposure to life events and psychosis in catchment areas in India, Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago.
We conducted a population-based, matched case–control study of 194 participants in India, Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago. Cases were recruited through comprehensive population-based, case-finding strategies. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure life events. The Screening Schedule for Psychosis was used to screen for psychotic symptoms. The association between psychosis and having experienced life events (experienced or witnessed) was estimated by conditional logistic regression.
There was no overall evidence of an association between psychosis and having experienced or witnessed life events (adjusted odds ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.62–2.28). We found evidence of effect modification by site (P = 0.002), with stronger evidence of an association in India (adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.03–2.34), inconclusive evidence in Nigeria (adjusted odds ratio 1.17, 95% CI 0.95–1.45) and evidence of an inverse association in Trinidad and Tobago (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.44–0.97).
This study found no overall evidence of an association between witnessing or experiencing life events and psychotic disorder across three culturally and economically diverse countries. There was preliminary evidence that the association varies between settings.
Using point-prevalence methodology and the World Health Organization (WHO) Access, Watch, and Reserve Classification, we measured antibiotic use in 5 hospitals in Okinawa, Japan, on October 1, 2020. Overall, 29% of patients were prescribed an antibiotic on the survey date and the 3 most used antibiotics in the “Watch” category were cefazolin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and ampicillin.
Individuals with appearance concerns may engage in maladaptive appearance-related safety behaviours aimed at checking, hiding or fixing perceived flaws in their appearance.
This investigation examined the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of appearance-related safety behaviours across three different studies.
The first two studies utilized exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively, to understand the factor structure of the measure. The final version of the Appearance-Related Safety Behavior Scale (ARSB) consisted of 13 items and two subscales related to behavioural avoidance and appearance maintenance.
Number of appearance-related safety behaviours was positively associated with body dysmorphic disorder symptomology and functional impairment, as well as social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. The measure also demonstrated convergent validity with other appearance-related measures. Scores on the ARSB also predicted performance on an appearance-related behavioural task (time spent fixing appearance prior to having a picture taken). The third study found that scores on the ARSB were higher in a body dysmorphic disorder sample compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, change in scores on the ARSB was correlated with change in body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and impairment in a treatment study for body dysmorphic disorder.
Clinical implications and potential uses of the measure as a clinical and research tool are discussed.
Poor academic performance has been linked to factors such as sleep, health, illicit drug use, physical fighting, social media use, cyber bullying, physical activity, homelessness, times spent in video games and television. It is difficult to get a sense of the interplay between and relative importance of different behaviours/factors on academic performance as only limited research has been aimed at quantifying these factors.
To evaluate association of school performance and variables in five categories of the YRBSS: physical fighting, diet/lifestyle, electronic device usage, concurrent substance use, and violence/self-harm.
The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data from 1991-2019 was used in study. Respondents were grouped by good and poor school performance and variables related to nutrition/lifestyle, electronic device use, concurrent substance use, mood/violence/self-harm were analyzed using chi-square
A total of 41,235 student respondents.Nutrition/Lifestyle, electronic device use, concurrent substance use, mood/violence/self-harm are found to be significantly correlated with school performance.
Poor Performance n(%)
Good Performance n(%)
Concurrent Substance Use
Felt sad or hopeless
In national data, we found school performance is affected by nutrition, lifestyle, substance use, mood and exposure to surrounding violence, and self-harm. Further studies should be planned to evaluate benefits from the risk stratification to reduce this burden amongst US adolescents.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruptions in services and necessitated innovation to continue care provision to the vulnerable population of older adults with psychiatric needs.
The objective of this study was to examine the experiences of staff and patients using a hands-free electronic smart-hub (eSMART hub) intervention to keep patients connected with psychiatry of old age following COVID-19 restrictions.
A risk stratification register was created of all patients known to the Psychiatry of Old Age service in the North-West of Ireland to identify those at highest risk of relapse. These patients were offered a smart-hub with remote communication and personal assistant technology to be installed into their homes. Smart-hubs were also installed in the team base to facilitate direct device to device communication. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 staff members and 15 patients at 6-12 months following the installation of the smart-hubs.
The smart-hubs were utilized by the POA team to offer remote interventions over video including clinician reviews, regular contact with key workers and day-hospital based therapeutic interventions such as anxiety management groups and OT led physical exercises. Patients also used the personal assistant aspect of the hub to attend to personal hobbies such as accessing music and radio. Positive feedback related to companionship during isolation and connectivity to services. Negative feedback was mainly related to technology, particularly internet access and narrow scope of communication abilities.
Electronic smart-hub devices may offer an acceptable avenue for remote intervention and communication for isolated high-risk older persons.
The smart hub devices used in this study were donated by Amazon. However, the company was not involved in any other aspect of the study and the researchers have no significant financial interest, consultancy or other relationship with products, manufactur
EHRs contain a rich source of real-world data that can support evidence generation to better understand mental disorders and improve treatment outcomes. However, EHR datasets are complex and include unstructured free text data that are time consuming to manually review and analyse. We present NeuroBlu, a secure, cloud-based analytic tool that includes bespoke NLP software to enable users to analyse large volumes of EHR data to generate real-world evidence in mental healthcare.
(i) To assemble a large mental health EHR dataset in a secure, cloud-based environment.
(ii) To apply NLP software to extract data on clinical features as part of the Mental State Examination (MSE).
(iii) To analyse the distribution of NLP-derived MSE features by psychiatric diagnosis.
EHR data from 25 U.S. mental healthcare providers were de-identified and transformed into a common data model. NLP models were developed to extract 241 MSE features using a deep learning, long short-term memory (LSTM) approach. The NeuroBlu tool (https://www.neuroblu.ai/) was used to analyse the associations of MSE features in 543,849 patients.
The figure below illustrates the percentage of patients in each diagnostic category with at least one recorded MSE feature.
Delusions and hallucinations were more likely to be recorded in people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, and cognitive features were more likely to be recorded in people with dementia. However, mood symptoms were frequently recorded across all diagnoses illustrating their importance as a transdiagnostic clinical feature. NLP-derived clinical information could enhance the potential of EHR data to generate real-world evidence in mental healthcare.
Patients with high fraility indices experience poor mental health due to multiple co morbidity and social isolation.
This was a retrospective observational analysis that studied the correlation of Electronic frailty indices and GAD scores with Depression scores in a rural population.
An annual frailty assessment is offered to elderly patients and we screen routinely for anxiety and depression using the PHQ-9 score and GAD score. This was an observational study examining the correlation of the Electronic Frailty Indices (EFI) depression and anxiety scores.
Of the 118 patients ranging from mild to severe frailty we found a positive correlation of the EFI with the Depression and anxiety scores. Within the data set, the correlation coefficient of EFI scores and PHQ 9 scores was found to be 0.819. Similarly within the same data set we found a correlation coefficient of EFI and GDS scores of 0.651. The higher the EFI the greater was the scale of dependency and comorbidity and this correlation was consistent across the data set with depression and anxiety. We believe physical impairment, loss of independence and social isolation cognitive decline contribute to loss of self-esteem.
Our study found a positive correlation between frailty severity based on EFI scores and depression and anxiety severity. Early detection in deterioration of mental health will enable supportive measures and targeted treatment strategies. Our study shows the strong correlation of EFI severity scores with worse mental health.
The increasing global burden of mental disorders has led to rising demand for mental healthcare services. Effective resource management is essential to ensure safe and timely access to care. Electronic health records (EHRs) provide a real-time source of data on clinical presentation and prognostic factors that could be harnessed to provide clinicians with actionable insights to prioritise mental healthcare delivery. We describe the development and evaluation of MaST, an EHR data visualisation tool that provides information to clinicians on risk of mental health crisis defined as an admission to a psychiatric hospital or acceptance into a community crisis service.
(i) To develop an EHR-data driven risk prediction tool for risk of crisis. (ii) To evaluate predictive performance in a real-world clinical setting.
The risk of crisis algorithm was developed and evaluated with EHR data from six UK NHS mental health providers using Ordered Predictor List propensity scores grouped into 5 quintiles. The predictor variables were clinical and sociodemographic factors including previous mental health service contacts.
Data from 2,620 patients contributed to algorithm development which was subsequently tested on data from 107,879 patients. The risk of crisis algorithm performed well with an overall accuracy for predicting the greatest risk of crisis (top quintile) ranging from 64% to 80%.
The MaST algorithm accurately predicted risk of mental health crisis in UK community mental health services. EHR data visualisation tools can provide actionable insights to clinicians to prioritise mental healthcare delivery in real-world clinical practice.
Ethnic disparities in treatment with clozapine, the antipsychotic recommended for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), have been reported. However, these investigations frequently suffer from potential residual confounding. For example, few studies have restricted the analyses to TRS samples and none has controlled for benign ethnic neutropenia.
This study investigated if service-users’ ethnicity influenced clozapine prescription in a cohort of people with TRS.
Information from the clinical records of South London and Maudsley NHS Trust was used to identify a cohort of service-users with TRS between 2007 and 2017. In this cohort, we used logistic regression to investigate any association between ethnicity and clozapine prescription while adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sociodemographic factors, psychiatric multimorbidity, substance use, benign ethnic neutropenia, and inpatient and outpatient care received.
We identified 2239 cases that met the criteria for TRS. Results show that after adjusting for confounding variables, people with Black African ethnicity had half the odds of being treated with clozapine and people with Black Caribbean or Other Black background had about two-thirds the odds of being treated with clozapine compared White British service-users. No disparities were observed regarding other ethnic groups, namely Other White background, South Asian, Other Asian, or any other ethnicity.
There was evidence of inequities in care among Black ethnic groups with TRS. Interventions targeting barriers in access to healthcare are recommended.
During the conduction of the study, DFdF, GKS, and RH received funds from the NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre. For other activities outside the submitted work, DFdF received research funding from the UK Department of Health and Social Care, Janss
Understanding how and under what circumstances a highly effective psychological intervention, improved symptoms of depression is important to maximise its clinical effectiveness.
To address this complexity, we estimate the indirect effects of potentially important mediators to improve symptoms of depression (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)) in the Healthy Activity Program trial.
Interventional in(direct) effects were used to decompose the total effect of the intervention on PHQ-9 scores into the direct and indirect effects. The following indirect effects were considered: characteristics of sessions, represented by the number of sessions and homework completed; behavioural activation, according to an adapted version of the Behavioural Activation for Depression Scale – Short Form; and extra sessions offered to participants who did not respond to the intervention.
Of the total effect of the intervention measured through the difference in PHQ-9 scores between treatment arms (mean difference: −2.1, bias-corrected 95% CI −3.2 to −1.5), 34% was mediated through improved levels of behavioural activation (mean difference: −0.7, bias-corrected 95% CI −1.2 to −0.4). There was no evidence to support the mediating role of characteristics of the sessions nor the extra sessions offered to participants who did not respond to the treatment.
Findings from our robust mediation analyses confirmed the importance of targeting behavioural activation. Contrary to published literature, our findings suggest that neither the number of sessions nor proportion of homework completed improved outcomes. Moreover, in this context, alternative treatments other than extra sessions should be considered for patients who do not respond to the intervention.