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The growing need of the compact and portable antennas with high speed and low latency wireless communication is the present and future demand of the voice over Internet protocol, on-demand bandwidth, and multimedia applications. Fifth-generation (5G) covers certain low-frequency bands under 6 GHz spectrum, and most of the high-frequency bands under 60 GHz. 5G is the part of the millimeter wave spectrum (30–300 GHz) and is introduced to overcome the problem of spectrum shortage due to exponential enhancement of wireless applications in industry, medical, airborne, radar, satellite, and research fields. The International Telecommunication Union's objective of wireless communications promises to provide higher data rates up to 10 Gbps for 5G mobile users and connectivity to the artificial intelligence devices, along with high spectral efficiencies and enhanced coverage. The users for the 5G require around 5 and 50 Gbps of data rates for low and high mobility, respectively. Beamforming in 5G is the modern powerful technique for the coverage of the intended user/direction using the narrow beam width radiation patterns. A brief survey on 5G beamforming techniques, i.e. analog, digital, hybrid, switched, and adaptive etc. and its types, working algorithms, design of compact antennas, gain, and size/type of the substrates is carried out in this paper. The study of the hybrid coupler, branchline coupler, Wilkinson power divider, and Butler matrix in beamforming is required for 5G smart antennas. Different beam widths like ±15, ±35, ±45, and ±55° etc. are produced for the intended directions using a variety of beamforming techniques. From lower to higher frequency band beamforming applications with Roger's Duroid 4003/4350/5880, tectonic, and aluminum oxide dielectric substrates are discussed here. Various beamforming techniques with their merits, demerits, and applications are included in the paper for the knowledge extension of the beamforming antenna designers and research community.
To assess the clarity and efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand-rub diagram, develop a modified version, and compare the 2 diagrams.
Randomized group design preceded by controlled observation and iterative product redesigns.
The Cognitive Ergonomics Lab in the School of Psychology at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
We included participants who were unfamiliar with the WHO hand-rub diagram (convenience sampling) to ensure that performance was based on the diagram and not, for example, on prior experience.
We iterated through the steps of a human factors design procedure: (1) Participants simulated hand hygiene using ultraviolet (UV) absorbent lotion and a hand-rub technique diagram (ie, WHO or a redesign). (2) Coverage, confusion judgments, and behavioral videos informed potentially improved diagrams. And (3) the redesigned diagrams were compared with the WHO version in a randomized group design. Coverage was assessed across 72 hand areas from multiple UV photographs.
The WHO diagram led to multiple omissions in hand-surface coverage, including inadequate coverage by up to 75% of participants for the ulnar edge. The redesigns improved coverage significantly overall and often substantially.
Human factors modification to the WHO diagram reduced inadequate coverage for naïve users. Implementation of an improved diagram should help in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections.
Convolutional neural networks are a subclass of deep learning or artificial intelligence that are predominantly used for image analysis and classification. This proof-of-concept study attempts to train a convolutional neural network algorithm that can reliably determine if the middle turbinate is pneumatised (concha bullosa) on coronal sinus computed tomography images.
Consecutive high-resolution computed tomography scans of the paranasal sinuses were retrospectively collected between January 2016 and December 2018 at a tertiary rhinology hospital in Australia. The classification layer of Inception-V3 was retrained in Python using a transfer learning method to interpret the computed tomography images. Segmentation analysis was also performed in an attempt to increase diagnostic accuracy.
The trained convolutional neural network was found to have diagnostic accuracy of 81 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval: 73.0–89.0 per cent) with an area under the curve of 0.93.
A trained convolutional neural network algorithm appears to successfully identify pneumatisation of the middle turbinate with high accuracy. Further studies can be pursued to test its ability in other clinically important anatomical variants in otolaryngology and rhinology.
OCD is a complex disorder with multiple aetiological theories. Recent research points to role of autoimmunity as well as hyperactivity of glutaminergic pathways in aetiopathogenesis of the disorder. It is possible that autoimmune mechanisms may modulate excitatory neurotransmission resulting in OCD.
This study aimed to study the association between serum anti-basal ganglia autoantibodies (ABGA) and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) levels in caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex as demonstrated by 1H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy).
Thirty psychotropic-naive OCD patients and an equal number of age, gender matched healthy controls were studied using 1H-MRS and levels of Glx were obtained. ABGA was measured using ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) technique and categorised as present or absent in the serum.
ABGA was present in significantly higher proportion of patients as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Glx level was significantly higher (as measured by 1H-MRS) in patients with ABGA as compared to those without ABGA (P = 0.02). The study results did not differ based on age, gender, disease severity and illness duration.
The study demonstrates presence of ABGA in at least a subset of OCD population. The significant correlation between brain Glx levels and presence of ABGA provides a putative neurobiological framework for OCD. The strengths of the study include psychotropic-naive patients, blinded investigators and use of standardized instruments. The limitations include small sample size, use of Glx as proxy measure of glutamate and lack of other disorder controls. Similar studies on a larger sample are warranted for a better understanding.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In vitro studies have demonstrated possible neuroprotective effects of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α against glutaminergic excitotoxicity in brain through different pathways.
In the current study, we aim to correlate level of the above pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum with glutamate levels in head of caudate nucleus measured using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a neuropsychiatric illness with possible multifactorial aetiology including immunological and excitotoxic factors.
Thirty psychotropic-naïve patients with OCD and an equal number of gender and age-matched normal controls were recruited in the study. A detailed psychiatric assessment was carried out including sociodemographic and clinical variables. A 3T MR imaging and spectroscopy session was carried out in head of caudate nucleus. Further, absolute quantification of glutamate level was obtained using LC model. Simultaneously, 5 mL of blood sample was collected and assayed for the above pro-inflammatory cytokines (Siemens, Immulite™). The level of glutamate was correlated with the cytokine levels in patients with OCD.
The level of Glx was significantly higher in patients with OCD as compared to controls (P < 0.05). The Glx level negatively correlated with two of the three pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-6 and TNF-α (r = −0.807; r = −0.838; P < 0.05) while no significant correlation was demonstrated with IL-1β.
The findings provide preliminary evidence regarding possible neuroprotective effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines against glutaminergic excitotoxicity in patients with OCD. Further studies including patients with other psychiatric illnesses as controls are required for confirmation of the above findings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Methane (CH4) consumption in agricultural soil is imperative for the mitigation of climate change. However, the effect of tillage and cropping systems on CH4 consumption is less studied. Experiments were carried out in Madhya Pradesh, India with soybean-wheat (SW), maize-wheat (MW) and maize-gram (MG) cropping systems under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). Soybean/maize was cultivated during the kharif season (July–October) and wheat/chickpea in the rabi season (October–March) for 9 years consecutively. Soil samples were collected during vegetative growth stages of soybean and maize from different cropping systems. Methane consumption, the abundance of methanotrophs as particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene copies, soil and crop parameters were estimated. Methane consumption rate was higher in NT and upper soil layer (0–5 cm) than CT and 5–15 cm depth. Methane consumption rate k ranged from 0.35 to 0.56 μg CH4 consumed/g soil/d in the order of MW>SW>MG in 0–5 cm. The abundance of pmoA gene copies ranged from 43 × 104/g soil to 13 × 104/g soil and was highest in MW-NT and lowest in MG-CT. Available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were higher in 0–5 cm than in 5–15 cm depth. Soil and plant parameters and abundance of pmoA genes correlated significantly and positively with CH4 consumption rate. No-tillage stimulated CH4 consumption compared to CT irrespective of cropping system and CH4 consumption potential was highest in MW and lowest in MG. However, the magnitude of the positive effect of NT towards CH4 consumption was higher in SW and MG than MW.
This article is a summary of perspectives on training curricula from child and adolescent psychiatry trainees globally. We aimed to identify the relative strengths, weaknesses and gaps in learning needs from a trainee's perspective. The 20 early-career child psychiatrists who contributed are from 16 countries and represent all the five continents. We could identify some global challenges as well as local/regional challenges that need to be addressed to develop competent child psychiatrists.
Liberal internationalism is under the microscope as never before as it faces a world experiencing turbulence and anxiety. The specter of right-wing authoritarianism and even fascism haunt Western societies as struggles for recognition dominate domestic politics, while demands of (re)emerging states for international representation grow more compelling. Simultaneously, there is broader recognition of a growing legitimacy crisis of the American hegemon principally due to the mindsets and failures of its liberal hegemonic elites. Both developments are major advances in the understandings of how the West dominates “diversity regimes” and co-opts discourses universal in origin and character and of how the U.S. foreign policy establishment has brought the world to the current conjuncture. Yet, there are limitations still. Although central, the concepts of diversity, hierarchy, and elites need to be broadened out significantly, and rooted in corporate-class power, to fully comprehend the core crises of the international order today.
We report the case of a 14-year-old female who had tetralogy of Fallot along with anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta with co-dominant double aortic arch forming a complete vascular ring compressing the oesophagus along with a left main coronary artery to right ventricular outflow tract fistula. She underwent surgical correction without conduit placement.
Early-life intervention to reduce obesity and poor dental health through early-life nutrition will improve health outcomes in later life. This study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity and visual dental decay in 4-year old children in New Zealand between 2013 and 2017, and the impact of a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme, Under-5-Energize (U5E), on prevalence of these conditions within ethnic groups and by deprivation. The data set included 277,963 4-year-old children, including 25,140 from the Waikato region children of whom 8067 attended one of the 121 early childhood centres (ECC) receiving the U5E programme from 2014. Purposively the U5E-ECC selected were attended by higher proportions of indigenous Māori children and children living in higher deprivation areas than non-U5E-ECC. From 2013 to 2017, the overall prevalence of obesity, as defined by World Health Organisation criteria, declined slightly but rates of dental decay did not change. In the Waikato region, the prevalence of obesity declined in non-Māori children from 2015 to 2017 and children attending U5E-ECC had lower rates of dental decay than non-U5E children. Binary logistic regression showed that between 2015 and 2017 visible dental decay was more likely in children who were Māori (3.06×3.17), living in high deprivation (1.54×1.66) and male (1.10) but less likely if attending an U5E-ECC (0.83×0.79). Early-life intervention had efficacy at reducing dental decay, and demonstrated that the origins of disparities in health such as ethnicity and deprivation need to be addressed further to break the intergenerational cycles of poor health.
Low-cost, earth-abundant magnetocaloric materials (MCMs) are required for energy-efficient, green, and affordable magnetic cooling technology. We investigated the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth-free Fe75−xCrxAl25 (19≤x≤25) arc-melted alloys. The Curie temperature (Tc) of these alloys could be tuned from 220 K up to room temperature by Cr additions. The relative cooling power/US$ was found to be superior to other promising MCMs. Fe50Cr25Al25 ball-milled powders, with an average particle size of ~25 nm, were used to prepare magnetic fluid. Maximum cooling (ΔT) of 5.4°C was observed for Fe50Cr25Al25-based fluids.
It is well known that the computation of the Basset-like history force is very demanding in terms of CPU and memory requirements, since it requires the evaluation of a history integral. We use the recent rational theory of Beylkin & Monzón (Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal., vol. 19, 2005, pp. 17–48) to approximate the history kernel in the form of exponential sums to reformulate the viscous history force in a differential form. This theory allows us to approximate the history kernel in terms of exponential sums to any desired order of accuracy. This removes the need for long-time storage of the acceleration histories of the particle and the fluid. The proposed differential form approximation is applied to compute the history force on a spherical particle in a synthetic turbulent flow and a wall-bounded turbulent channel flow. Particles of various diameters are considered, and results obtained using the present technique are in reasonable agreement with those achieved using the full history integral.
Objective: To identify the systems available to sub-classify mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to determine their utility in predicting 1-year outcome.
Methods: A systematic review to identify mild-TBI sub-classification systems was conducted until March 2016. The identified systems were applied to a cohort of N = 290 adults who had experienced a mild-TBI, and who had been assessed for post-concussion symptoms 1-year post injury. ANOVAs and regression models were used to determine whether each sub-classification system could distinguish between outcomes and to explore their contribution to explaining variance in post-concussion symptoms 1-year post injury.
Results: Nineteen sub-classification systems for mild-TBI met the inclusion criteria for this review. The Saal (1991) classification system significantly differentiated the experience of post-concussion symptoms in our cohort 1-year post injury (F = 2.39, p = 0.05). However, the findings did not remain significant following correction for multiple comparisons and inclusion of socio-demographic and contextual factors in the regression model.
Conclusions: Current sub-classification systems fail to explain much of the variance in post-concussion symptoms 1 year following mild-TBI. Further research is needed to identify the factors (including socio-demographic and contextual factors) to determine, who may be at risk of developing persistent post-concussion symptoms.
Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) play an important role in the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence through bidirectional cross-talk between oocyte and cumulus cells via gap junctions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of two OSFs, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from two different follicle sizes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from large follicles (LF, >6 mm) or small follicles (SF, <6 mm) were collected and matured in vitro either in the presence of GDF9 or BMP15, or both, or with the denuded oocytes (DOs) as a source of native OSFs. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LF-derived than SF-derived oocytes. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the DOs and the combination groups compared with the control, GDF9 alone and BMP15 alone groups, both in LF-derived and SF-derived oocytes, although the cleavage and blastocyst rates did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between DOs and combination groups. Relative mRNA analysis revealed significantly higher (P > 0.05) expression of the cumulus cell marker genes EGFR, HAS2, and CD44 in LF-derived than SF-derived oocyte; the expression of these markers was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in DOs and combination groups, irrespective of the follicle size. These results suggested that LF-derived oocytes have a higher developmental competence than SF-derived oocytes and that supplementation of GDF9 and BMP15 modulates the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes by increasing the relative abundance of cumulus-enabling factors and thereby increasing cleavage and the quality of blastocyst production.
The Foundation has a structure and interests, symbolized by the people it picks for trustees and officers, that suggest there would, in the long run at least, be limits on our freedom to opt for overly leftist values and objectives, to support scholarship that would show how power and wealth is controlled in a given society or what social patterns are perpetuated by, for example, the operations of a multinational corporation or the foreign assistance programs of the Agency for International Development.
(John Farrell, Ford Foundation; OLAC, 1973: 6, emphasis added)
The ideology of twentieth-century corporate–capitalist democracies, championed by the United States, may be characterized broadly as liberal and internationalist. Heavily based on the core tenets of ‘Americanism’ – including freedom, limited government, private property, markets, a rules-based international system – liberal internationalism has, its champions claim, seen off all rivals – fascists and communists alike – and, since the ‘end of history’ around 1990, reigned supreme (Ikenberry, 2011). However, despite its adherents’ claims, liberal internationalism and Americanism are deeply ideological. As Richard Hofstadter claimed long ago, America does not have an ideology, it is one (Hofstadter, 1948).
The United States, perhaps more than other societies, is central to ‘ideology-free’ ideological production and hyper-efficient dissemination. Foundations claim to be scientific, objective, non-ideological and non-political, beyond the state and big business. In that regard, they attach to the longer American pragmatic philosophical tradition the late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century development of scientific superiority. Hence, foundations claim to pioneer scientific giving and scientific management of society, economy and government. It was just a century ago that American leadership in disseminating a message was demonstrated – presided over by the father of liberal internationalism, President Woodrow Wilson, who gave publicist George Creel licence to sell World War I to the American people; and he did so with devastating effect (Creel, 1920). But inadvertently, Creel's massive PR campaign also revealed the other side of the production of ideological hegemony – that persuasion alone is insufficient to deliver a pro-war public; Creel's efforts were ably supported by severe repression of anti-war dissenters at every level of American society – from the shop floor to the union hall to the Ivy League university. Coercion and persuasion are required to produce ‘consent of the governed’ in ideology-free societies (Miliband, 1969; Hoare and Nowell-Smith, 1971).