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We test for integration of financial markets in China during 1920-1933 using a new dataset of domestic exchange rates. Our data concerns tael-denominated telegraphic transfers between Shanghai and nine other cities. We find that Chinese financial markets, as measured by the efficiency of silver-point arbitrage, were highly integrated among major commercial hubs in north and central China, but there was a lower level of integration for more remote cities in the south. Our paper presents the first comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of the Chinese silver standard and contributes to a revaluation of market performance during pre-communist China.
Patients with substance use disorders (SUD) have higher alexithymia levels and present frequently suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide (SA) [1,2]. Beside, alexithymia has been related to suicidal behaviors in several psychiatric disorders. Although, there are some studies on alexithymia and suicidality in SUD patients, to our knowledge there are no studies on this issue in Spanish population.
To compare the alexithymia levels in SUD patients with and without SI and SA in an outpatient addiction treatment center in Spain.
This is a cross-sectional study performed on 110 patients (74.3%males; mean age 43.6±14.5years old) for whom we had information from the Toronto Alexithymia Scale(TAS-20) and the presence or not of lifetime SI and SA.
Lifetime SI and SA were present in 55.5% and 35.5% of the sample respectively. The mean score of TAS-20, difficulties identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties describing feelings (DDT), and externally-oriented thinking(EOT) were 57.2±13.3, 20.0±7.0, 14.7±4.5, and 22.5±4.5 respectively.
SI and SA may be related to alexithymia levels. Hence, alexithymia should be further analyzed in SUD patients in longitudinal studies in order to analyze the bilateral association with suicidal spectrum behaviors. REFERENCES Rodríguez-Cintas L, et al. Factors associated with lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in outpatients with substance use disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2018;262:440-5. Morie KP, et al. Alexithymia and Addiction: A Review and Preliminary Data Suggesting Neurobiological Links to Reward/Loss Processing. Curr Addict Rep. 2016;3(2):239-48. Hemming L, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between alexithymia and suicide ideation and behaviour. J Affect Disord. 2019;254:34-48.
COVID19 keeps being a challenge, not only facing the outbreak and the treatment of the cases, but also in the education sector. Most learning centres and high schools in the world are closed to avoid further outbreaks, as well as institutes for psychotherapy throughout the world.
To gain a better knowledge and understanding about alternatives identified in the scope of psychiatric trainee training, through the support provided by digital resources.
Systematic review on PubMed and Uptodate databases since declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 was performed using the keywords: Distance Education, Pandemia, COVID-19, Medical Residency. Discussing online-learning.
The described European countries (Germany, Spain, United Kingdom) used different strategies to maintain the e-learning. Practical undergraduate education was replaced in countries like Spain by “problem-based learning” tasks, clarifying and commenting case reports or videos through working groups. The increase of the resources from teachers and trainers wasn´t taken in account for the preparation of the digital program. Social inequities for the digital access for groups of students or clients were also claimed.
Each of the described countries adopted different strategies regarding continuing training of residents, their assessment and their certification. Covid-19 should set down a trend of social collaborative learning as part of resident training and asset hybrid or even digital methods for the mental health training.
Insomnia has been related to a more severe substance use disorder presentation (1). There are few longitudinal studies in outpatients center for SUD treatment that evaluate how insomnia impacts on relapses.
To analyze how insomnia impacts on the time of the first substance relapse in SUD outpatients after the onset of addiction treatment.
This is a one-year follow-up study performed on 116 patients (73.3% males; mean age 43.4±14.3) for whom we had information from baseline insomnia and the time for the first relapse. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. This is part of a greater research on Alexithymia in SUD in a longitudinal study.
The initial sample consisted of 116 patients, information on relapses was available for 113 patients. The main substances used at baseline were alcohol (62.1%), cocaine (56.0%), cannabis (42.2%), and opiates (30.2%).
It is important to evaluate insomnia at the onset of addiction treatment because insomnia may be related to earlier relapses. Furthermore, it should be analyzed further on how insomnia treatment impact on substance relapses. REFERENCES 1. Miller MB, Donahue ML, Carey KB, Scott-Sheldon LAJ. Insomnia treatment in the context of alcohol use disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;181:200-207. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.09.029
This study aimed to identify health behaviours that determine adolescent’s adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) through a decision tree statistical approach.
Cross-sectional study, with data collected through a self-fulfilment questionnaire with five sections: (1) eating habits; (2) adherence to the MD (KIDMED index); (3) physical activity; (4) health habits and (5) socio-demographic characteristics. Anthropometric and blood pressure data were collected by a trained research team. The Automatic Chi-square Interaction Detection (CHAID) method was used to identify health behaviours that contribute to a better adherence to the MD.
Eight public secondary schools, in Algarve, Portugal.
Adolescents with ages between 15 and 19 years (n 325).
According to the KIDMED index, we found a low adherence to MD in 9·0 % of the participants, an intermediate adherence in 45·5 % and a high adherence in 45·5 %. Participants that regularly have breakfast, eat vegetable soup, have a second piece of fruit/d, eat fresh or cooked vegetables 1 or more times a day, eat oleaginous fruits at least 2 to 3 times a week, and practice sports and leisure physical activities outside school show higher adherence to the MD (P < 0·001).
The daily intake of two pieces of fruit and vegetables proved to be a determinant health behaviour for high adherence to MD. Strategies to promote the intake of these foods among adolescents must be developed and implemented.
Exercise counteracts obesity effects, but information on how early-life obesity may affect long-term adaptation to exercise is lacking. This study investigates the impact of early-life postnatal overfeeding (PO) on animals’ adaptation to exercise. Only male Wistar rats were used. On postnatal day (PN) 30, rats from control (NL-9 pups) or PO (SL-3 pups) litters were separated into four groups: NL-sedentary (NL-Se), NL-exercised (NL-Ex), SL-sedentary (SL-Se), and SL-exercised (SL-Ex). Exercised groups performed moderate-intensity exercise, running on a treadmill, from PN30 to PN90. Further experiments were carried out between PN90 and PN92. PO promoted obesity in SL versus NL rats (P < 0.05). Exercise reduced body weight (P < 0.001), body fat (P < 0.01), and improved glucose homeostasis in SL-Ex versus SL-Se. SL-Ex presented lower VO2max (P < 0.01) and higher post-exercise LDH (P < 0.05) compared to NL-Ex rats. Although moderate exercise counteracted obesity in SL rats, early-life overnutrition restricts fitness gains in adulthood, indicating that early obesity may impair animals’ adaptation to exercise.
This study investigates the impact of childhood maltreatment (CM) on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning and on anxiety perception. Moreover, the influence of CM severity and frequency was also explored.
In total, 187 participants aged 7–17 were assessed for CM history using validated questionnaires and ad hoc interviews to be classified according to the criteria of the Tool for Assessing the Severity of Situations in which Children are Vulnerable (TASSCV). Psychopathology was ascertained using the K-SADS-PL5. To assess HPA-axis functioning, salivary cortisol samples were collected throughout a normal day and during an acute psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test for children (TSST-C). Subjective anxiety was evaluated using STAI/-C.
Youth with a CM history had higher overall diurnal cortisol levels (p = 0.001), blunted cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress (p = 0.002) and greater perceived anxiety (p = 0.003), than those without CM. Specifically, participants exposed to moderate/severe or often/frequent CM showed the greater diurnal cortisol output (pseverity = 0.002; pfrequency = 0.003), and blunted cortisol response during the TSST-C (pseverity = 0.006; pfrequency = 0.008). Meanwhile, youth with low CM severity/frequency exhibited a similar cortisol response to those without CM. However, perceived anxiety was higher in those exposed to CM (p < 0.001), regardless of its severity/frequency.
Disturbances in HPA-axis functioning are already evident early after CM exposure, while psychological and physiological responses to an acute stressor are dissociated in youth exposed to CM. The dose–response relationship described in this paper highlights the need to comprehensively evaluate CM so that vulnerable children can be identified and assigned to proper interventions.
In the present study, the influence of three sex ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3; female:male) of the mirid Engytatus varians (Distant) (Hemiptera) on different biological parameters and on its offspring was evaluated. The prey preference of different developmental stages of this predator for different nymphal instars (N) of Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was also evaluated. The fertility was significantly higher (24 nymphs/female) in the 1:3 sex ratio than in the 1:1 and 1:2 sex ratios (14 and 16 nymphs/female, respectively). The females in the 1:1 and 1:2 sex ratios lived 1.14 and 1.43 days more (27 and 28 days, respectively) than those in the 1:3 sex ratio (26 days). The nymphs derived from the females of the three sex ratios (first filial generation, F1) had five instars and a duration of 17 or 18 days. The ratio of the F1 generation females was not affected by the sex ratio of their parents. In choice tests, independent of whether the preys were placed on a single or multiple tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets, the consumption of females and males and N3, N4, and N5 nymphs of E. varians on B. cockerelli, generally showed the order of N2>N3>N4>N5. In conclusion, the findings revealed in this study can help to improve the rearing methodology for increasing populations of E. varians. In addition, they can serve as a guideline for releasing this predator in times when there is an abundance of early instar nymphs of B. cockerelli.
The present chapter focuses on the day fine model in Portugal. Based on an analysis of the historical development, the legal framework, the practical implementation and the public perception of the Portuguese day fines system, as well as of its constitutionality challenges, we conclude that, for the past two decades and although several other alternatives to imprisonment can be imposed, the day fine became the most frequently applied criminal sanction in Portugal, both as a primary and a substitutive penalty. We argue, however, that, in spite of the legal fairness of the adopted day fines regime and of the general level of acceptance of the day fine among the Portuguese courts and academic literature, the day fine has prima facie a retributive quality and, because of its maximum limits, hasn’t proved preventively adequate in the most economically lucrative offences (financial, environmental or political criminality), related to the offender’s cost-benefit equation. Furthermore, the subsidiary liability of corporate leaders for the fines imposed on legal persons raises difficult constitutionality issues.
Ectotherms are vulnerable to environmental changes and their parasites are biological health indicators. Thus, parasite load in ectotherms is expected to show a marked phenology. This study investigates temporal host–parasite dynamics in a lizard community in Eastern Spain during an entire annual activity period. The hosts investigated were Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Psammodromus algirus and Psammodromus edwardsianus, three lizard species coexisting in a mixed habitat of forests and dunes, providing a range of body sizes, ecological requirements and life history traits. Habitat and climate were considered as potential environmental predictors of parasite abundance, while size, body condition and sex as intrinsic predictors. Linear models based on robust estimates were fitted to analyse parasite abundance and prevalence. Ectoparasitic mites and blood parasites from two haemococcidian genera were found: Lankesterella spp. and Schellackia spp. Habitat type was the only predictor explaining the abundance of all parasites, being mostly higher in the forest than in the dunes. The results suggest that particularities in each host–parasite relationship should be accounted even when parasites infect close-related hosts under the same environmental pressures. They also support that lizard parasites can be biomarkers of environmental perturbation, but the relationships need to be carefully interpreted for each host–parasite assemblage.
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality worldwide, and childhood excess weight/obesity are strong correlators of accumulated risk in later life. A relationship between maternal preeclampsia and offspring’s childhood obesity is recognized, but most studies fail to control for strong confounders. Our goal is to analyze the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weight/obesity, after accounting for important confounders. We recruited 5133 women with singleton pregnancies during admission for delivery. Sixty-seven pregnancies were complicated by preeclampsia. Maternal and children outcomes were assessed at 10 years of age. We analyzed the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weight/obesity by fitting a linear regression model (using offspring body mass index (BMI) z-score at 10 years of age) and a logistic regression model (using excess weight/obesity status). We then controlled both models for known confounders, namely maternal prepregnancy BMI, parity, and smoking during pregnancy. At 10 years of age, offspring of preeclamptic mothers had a higher BMI z-score and were more likely classified as overweight/obese, but these differences were not statistically significant. After controlling for maternal prepregnancy BMI, parity, and smoking during pregnancy, there was a high magnitude change in the beta coefficient of preeclampsia in the linear (0.175; −0.014) and the logistic regression models (1.48; 1.23) suggesting that the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weigh/obesity is significantly confounded by these variables. These confounders also showed a significant association with childhood obesity. This finding suggests that in utero exposure to preeclampsia seems to have less impact in childhood obesity than the previously described confounders.
Ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare entity in children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported in the literature with a sinus of Valsalva ruptured aneurysm being successfully treated percutaneously using an AmplatzerTM Duct Occluder II Additional Sizes device.
The canopy-related terms in the transport equations for momentum, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate were described by a perturbative expansion around a velocity scale based on the mean total kinetic energy. The quality of the series and the relative magnitude of the first orders were analysed through comparison with the results of large-eddy simulation of three canopy flows representative of real-life applications. The flows in question were those over a horizontally homogeneous forest, a sequence of forest stands and clearings, and a forested hill. The analysis gave both the highest order required for an accurate evaluation of the canopy effects and a mathematical formulation for the canopy-related terms in a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes formulation. This offers a sounder basis and assured consistency for the turbulence modelling of canopy flows between Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes and large-eddy simulation frameworks.
We present the first results obtained from an extensive study of eclipsing binary (EB) system candidates recently detected in the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) near-infrared (NIR) Survey. We analyse the VVV tile d040 in the southern part of the Galactic disc wherein the interstellar reddening is comparatively low, which makes it possible to detect hundreds of new EB candidates. We present here the light curves and the determination of the geometric and physical parameters of the best candidates found in this ‘NIR window’, including 37 contact, 50 detached, and 13 semi-detached EB systems. We infer that the studied systems have an average of the
mag and a median period of 1.22 days where, in general, contact binaries have shorter periods. Using the ‘Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries’ (PHOEBE) interactive interface, which is based on the Wilson and Devinney code, we find that the studied systems have low eccentricities. The studied EBs present mean values of about 5 700 and 4 900 K for the
components, respectively. The mean mass ratio (q) for the contact EB stars is
0.44. This new galactic disk sample is a first look at the massive study of NIR EB systems.
En las unidades domésticas de las comunidades chinamperas en Xochimilco del posclásico tardío, han sido localizadas un tipo de jarras que tienen como característica principal una aplicación en la parte frontal de la pieza que posiblemente representa una deidad. Con el propósito de entender su función y establecer elementos que permitan identificar estos objetos y su uso en otros contextos, proponemos estudiar estas piezas mediante métodos diferentes a los de los análisis formales tradicionales. Este trabajo expone los resultados de los estudios de residuos químicos impregnados en materiales porosos (spot test) y análisis de gránulos de almidón de 27 muestras obtenidas en 26 ejemplares de jarras efigie procedentes de tres sitios al sur de la cuenca de México. Los resultados indican que fueron enriquecidas con fosfatos, residuos proteicos, carbohidratos, y ácidos grasos, mientras que los almidones recuperados indican una presencia importante de maíz, y en menor medida, de camote, chile, y dioscórea. Basado en lo anterior, en sus contextos de procedencia y en la identificación de las deidades representadas, proponemos que estas jarras contenían bebidas de maíz y que fueron utilizadas en ceremonias domésticas dedicadas a la agricultura—como la fiesta de Huey Tozoztli, entre otras—del calendario mexica.
Superior–inferior ventricular arrangement with double-outlet left ventricle and malposition of the great arteries is an extremely rare congenital cardiac anomaly. The authors present the case of an infant who presented with cyanosis and respiratory distress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported.
Adults with CHD are known to greatly benefit from a prompt access to continuous expert care. On the other hand, coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has determined a dramatic worldwide reconfiguration of the healthcare systems, with rapid redeployment of resources towards this emergency. Italy was the first Western country affected by a large-scale spread of coronavirus disease 2019. The aim of our study is to analyse the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on in-hospital care of patients with CHD in an Italian tertiary centre.
Methods and results:
We retrospectively reviewed data on CHD hospital admissions in our centre since 1 March, 2020, when the adoption of a strict infection containment policy throughout the country resulted in limited access of patients to routine hospital care and resources reallocation to the care of infected patients. Comparison with data from the previous year was performed in order to identify any relevant differences attributable to the outbreak. Despite cancellation of all elective procedures, the overall number of urgent hospital admission remained stable throughout the period of study. Patients admitted during the pandemic had greater disease complexity (p = 0.001) with longer length of in-hospital stay (p = 0.01). No adverse events or positive swabs were reported among CHD patients who were admitted to hospital or medical personnel caring for these patients.
Data from our early experience suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic did not impact significantly on the provision of urgent care to adult patients with CHD.
Correct stress assignment is a requirement for fluent reading in alphabetic languages. This study focuses on two nonlexical mechanisms at the core of stress assignment. In particular, the use of a default stress pattern (e.g., penultimate stress) and the Spanish stress mark. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud words and pseudowords with different stress types (on the antepenultimate or the penultimate syllable), and with or without a stress mark. Results showed longer reaction times (RTs) for words and pseudowords with antepenultimate stress. However, as words with antepenultimate stress always have a stress mark, it could be argued that stress type differences could be due to the presence of the stress mark. In Experiment 2, using a priming procedure participants read aloud words and pseudowords in pure versus mixed stress blocks. Again, words and pseudowords with antepenultimate stress were read slower (longer RTs), suggesting that previous differences were due to stress mark rather than stress type. These results indicate that processing stress marks is cognitively demanding when reading in Spanish.
Alveolar echinococcosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. The pharmacological treatment is based on albendazole (ABZ). However, the low water solubility of the drug produces a limited dissolution rate, with the consequent failure in the treatment of the disease. Solid dispersions are a successful pharmacotechnical strategy to improve the dissolution profile of poorly water-soluble drugs. The aim of this work was to determine the in vivo efficacy of ABZ solid dispersions using poloxamer 407 as a carrier (ABZ:P407 solid dispersions (SDs)) in the murine intraperitoneal infection model for secondary alveolar echinococcosis. In the chemoprophylactic efficacy study, the ABZ suspension, the ABZ:P407 SDs and the physical mixture of ABZ and poloxamer 407 showed a tendency to decrease the development of murine cysts, causing damage to the germinal layer. In the clinical efficacy study, the ABZ:P407 SDs produced a significant decrease in the weight of murine cysts. In addition, the SDs produced extensive damage to the germinal layer. The increase in the efficacy of ABZ could be due to the improvement of water solubility and wettability of the drug due to the surfactant nature of poloxamer 407. In conclusion, this study is the basis for further research. This pharmacotechnical strategy might in the future offer novel treatment alternatives for human alveolar echinococcosis.