To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Atacama Large (Sub-)millimeter Array (ALMA) has provided glimpse of the interstellar medium (ISM) properties of galaxies at the Epoch of Reionization (EoR); however, detailed understanding of their internal structure is still lacking. We present properties of molecular cloud complexes (MCCs) in a prototypical galaxy at this epoch studied in cosmological zoom-in simulations (Leung et al. 2019c). Typical MCC mass and size are comparable to nearby spirals and starburst galaxies (Mgas∼106.5Mȯ and R≃45–100 pc). MCCs are highly supersonic, with velocity dispersion of σgas≃20–100 km s−1 and pressure of P/kB ≃107.6Kcm−3, which are comparable to gas-rich starburst galaxies. In addition, we perform stability analysis to understand the origin and dynamical properties of MCCs. We find that MCCs are globally stable in the main disk of Althæa. Densest regions where star formation is expected to take place in clumps and cores on even smaller scales instead have lower virial parameter and Toomre-Q values. Detailed studies of the star-forming gas dynamics at the EoR thus require a spatial resolution of < 40 pc ( ≃ 0.01″), which is within reach of ALMA, to complement studies of stellar populations at EoR using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
The intracellular concentration of cholesterol is regulated by the balance between endogenous synthesis and exogenous uptake. Oestrogens have been reported to be involved in the physiological regulation of cellular cholesterol content. Relevant reports have focused on long-term responses and there is a lack of information about the relationship between the timing of the oestrogen effect and the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this work has been to set up a systematic picture of the short-term effects induced by oestrogen on hepatic lipid metabolism in vivo and the involvement of some relevant signal transduction pathways. At intervals after oestrogen administration (30 min to 6 h), oestrogen receptor expression and changes in liver cAMP, IP3 and protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) were followed. Changes in the expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor at mRNA and protein levels, and of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity have been verified. At the same time, the content of hepatic cholesterol, ubiquinone and dolichol and of plasma cholesterol have been determined. Changes of rab 5 and rab 8, small GTP-binding prenylated proteins involved in the transfer of neosynthesised proteins through the cell, have been also checked. In vivo treatment with oestradiol produced no change in cyclic AMP but a rapid increase in IP3, increased PKC-α localisation on the membranes and enhanced expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor in the liver occurred. PKC inhibition completely prevented any increase in low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA in isolated and perfused rat liver. Early changes of ubiquinone and dolichol content and a later reduction in hepatic hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity and plasma cholesterol content were also detectable. A functional role of the IP3 -protein kinase C-α pathway in the induction of the low density lipoprotein receptor is suggested. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 39-45.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.