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Global warming and some climate change policies pose additional social risks that necessitate novel responses from the welfare state. Eco-social policies have significant potential to address these challenges, but their wide-scale adoption will depend, among other factors, on public support. In the current article, we theorise how public opinion about eco-social policies is likely to be influenced by a set of contextual and individual-level factors, as well as the perceived welfare deservingness of the target groups. Alongside contributing to the emerging body of literature on eco-social policies, this theoretical framework could help policymakers to anticipate the social groups that will support or oppose eco-social policy agendas and how some of the contradictions could be reduced through policy design.
Invasive species management in natural landscapes is generally executed at the scale of independent jurisdictions, yet the ecological processes and biodiversity to be protected from invasion occur over large spatial scales and across multiple jurisdictions. Jurisdictional land boundaries can influence the flows and dynamics of ecological systems, as well as the social systems that exist in these complex landscapes. Land management entities in large, protected area–centered ecosystems may use different approaches to address cross-boundary management challenges. To understand these differing strategies and their effects on cooperative invasive plant management, we interviewed employees with federal, county, and state agencies, research organizations, nonprofits, and local stakeholder groups in two national parks and their surrounding lands in California, USA. Although all participants stressed the importance of working together, they did so along a continuum of strategies ranging from simple communication to coordination of independent efforts to active collaboration. Barriers to collaboration can be categorized as originating within or externally to the management unit, including limited resources, differing agency priorities, paperwork requirements, and lack of support by higher-level managers. Strategies to reduce barriers depend on where they originate.
Water law regulates the use of freshwater resources, such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, aquifers, and glaciers. A considerable challenge is to ensure that these resources remain in good health, so that future generations can make use of them as well. The most urgent problems facing efforts to ensure the sustainable utilization of these freshwater resources include water pollution, depletion of non-rechargeable underground water and fossil water, and diversion of freshwater resources in a way that negatively affects the ecosystem of which such resources often constitute the beating heart.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
One of the lessons learned from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the utility of an early, flexible, and rapidly deployable disease screening and detection response. The largely uncontrolled spread of the pandemic in the United States exposed a range of planning and implementation shortcomings, which, if they had been in place before the pandemic emerged, may have changed the trajectory. Disease screening by detection dogs show great promise as a noninvasive, efficient, and cost-effective screening method for COVID-19 infection. We explore evidence of their use in infectious and chronic diseases; the training, oversight, and resources required for implementation; and potential uses in various settings. Disease detection dogs may contribute to the current and future public health pandemics; however, further research is needed to extend our knowledge and measurement of their effectiveness and feasibility as a public health intervention tool, and efforts are needed to ensure public and political support.
The aim was to determine the association between healthcare workers’ (HCWs) country of birth and their knowledge of appropriate use of antibiotics, and whether the association changed after an educational intervention.
Older residents in nursing homes have been recognized to receive excessively antibiotic treatments. HCWs often represent an important link between the older resident and the general practitioner prescribing the antibiotics, thus their knowledge of appropriate use of antibiotics is important.
This study was conducted as a prospective pre-post study. Totally, 312 HCWs from 7 nursing homes in Denmark were included. For statistical analyses, χ2 test and a linear mixed regression model were applied.
Native HCWs were more likely to have a higher percentage of correct responses to single statements related to knowledge of appropriate use of antibiotics. Native HCWs had a significantly higher knowledge-of-antibiotic score compared to foreign HCWs (−7.53, P < 0.01). This association remained significant after adjusting for relevant covariates (−5.64, P < 0.01). Native HCWs’ mean change in knowledge-of-antibiotic score after the intervention did not differ from the foreign HCWs’ mean change in knowledge-of-antibiotic score.
Our findings indicate that HCWs born outside Denmark reveal a lower knowledge-of-antibiotic score than HCWs born in Denmark despite comparable educational backgrounds. All participants increased their knowledge from baseline to follow-up. Our findings also indicate that an educational seminar cannot equalize the difference in knowledge between native and foreign HCWs. Studies with larger sample size and a more detailed measurement of cultural identity should investigate this association further.
Kinetoplastid parasites are responsible for both human and animal diseases across the globe where they have a great impact on health and economic well-being. Many species and life cycle stages are difficult to study due to limitations in isolation and culture, as well as to their existence as heterogeneous populations in hosts and vectors. Single-cell transcriptomics (scRNA-seq) has the capacity to overcome many of these difficulties, and can be leveraged to disentangle heterogeneous populations, highlight genes crucial for propagation through the life cycle, and enable detailed analysis of host–parasite interactions. Here, we provide a review of studies that have applied scRNA-seq to protozoan parasites so far. In addition, we provide an overview of sample preparation and technology choice considerations when planning scRNA-seq experiments, as well as challenges faced when analysing the large amounts of data generated. Finally, we highlight areas of kinetoplastid research that could benefit from scRNA-seq technologies.
The entertainment industry is very heterogeneous, also for the MOP. In this chapter, we present various definitions proposed by different authors with varied academic backgrounds. The truth that they agree on is that entertainment is “that which the people find entertaining,” while leisure is about the actions that suppose freedom and enjoyment. On a global level, the entertainment industry itself has been studied from different sectors, which includes the following categories within the entertainment and media industry: cable or free-to-air television, internet, press, magazines, publishing market, cinema, music, and video games. We present in the chapter different cases in Latin America, obtained from secondary and primary sources such as restaurants because this category is one of those preferred by the MOP since it combines leaving the house, accompanied by family or friends, and enjoying time over a meal. Also other cases such as shopping centers, cinemas, and theme parks. Finally, we present the case of transportation because it is an important factor that impacts not only on entertainment options such as tourism, but also on business opportunities.
The challenge of education for everyone is a problem for middle-income countries around the world. The experience demonstrates that these nations cannot provide an extensive and quality education, specifically in the secondary and tertiary Education. At the same time, this reality is a significant opportunity for business. In fact, where the presence of State is weak to fulfill its social obligations to citizens, new opportunities for enterprises emerge. This chapter analyzes the condition of education in Latin America and how some schools and universities that focus on the population of the middle of the pyramid have emerged. As the middle class has risen in these countries, the demands for an accessible and quality education have increased. Therefore, the “emerging middle class” in Latin America is a critical economic and social actor because of its potential as an engine of growth and a way to solve social demands. The analyses of six cases in Peru, Colombia, and Mexico evidence that it is possible to offer quality academic services to the population sector. This article concludes emphasizing the importance of the innovation process to expansion and consolidation of the educational market.
The work of contemporary Barbadian-Canadian artist Joscelyn Gardner engages extensively with the Caribbean historical archive as it manifests in the form of published books, museum collections, paintings, and unpublished plantation journals. In her lithographs as well as her multi-media installations, Gardner refers to a whole range of early Caribbean sources in the form of written or visual quotations, most importantly Maria Sibylla Merian’s Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium (1705) and the diaries of Thomas Thistlewood. Gardner’s three series of lithographic prints, Creole Portraits, combine detailed drawing and handwriting, challenging the visual and written languages of eighteenth-century colonial culture in the Caribbean. For Gardner, lithography as practice – with its close connection to the history of the book – not only opens the colonial ‘book’ to new readings from the perspective of a contemporary Caribbean artist, but it also addresses the question of what constitutes a book more generally in the context of current art practice in the region.
Robust design methods have expanded from experimental techniques to include sampling methods, sensitivity analysis and probabilistic optimisation. Such methods typically require many evaluations. We study design and noise variable cross-term second derivatives of a response to quickly identify design variables that reduce response variability. We first compute the response uncertainty and variance decomposition to determine contributing noise variables of an initial design. Then we compute the Hessian second-derivative matrix cross-terms between the variance-contributing noise variables and proposed design change variables. Design variable with large Hessian terms are those that can reduce response variability. We relate the Hessian coefficients to reduction in Sobol indices and response variance change. Next, the first derivative Jacobian terms indicate which design variable can shift the mean to maintain a desired nominal target value. Thereby, design changes can be proposed to reduce variability while maintaining a targeted nominal value. This workflow finds changes that improve robustness with a minimal four runs per design change. We also explore further computation reductions achieved through compounding variables. An example is shown on a Stirling engine where the top four variance-contributing tolerances and design changes identified through 16 Hessian terms generated a design with 20% less variance.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
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Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
The ‘Maritime Endangered Archaeology’ (MarEA) project is conducting remote, large-scale identification and assessment of vulnerable maritime heritage to assist in its management in the face of challenges such as climate change and rapid urbanisation.
Three fundamental anthropologic dimensions are severely disturbed in anorexia nervosa: corporeality, spatiality and temporality. These dimensions constitute an existential form of anorexia which actualizes a disembodied subject in a purely physical world exhibiting rationalistic thoughts. We will not separate corporeality and spatiality, but indeed temporality. In the chapter we describe the most prominent characteristics.
Inquisitive modal logic, InqML, is a generalisation of standard Kripke-style modal logic. In its epistemic incarnation, it extends standard epistemic logic to capture not just the information that agents have, but also the questions that they are interested in. Technically, InqML fits within the family of logics based on team semantics. From a model-theoretic perspective, it takes us a step in the direction of monadic second-order logic, as inquisitive modal operators involve quantification over sets of worlds. We introduce and investigate the natural notion of bisimulation equivalence in the setting of InqML. We compare the expressiveness of InqML and first-order logic in the context of relational structures with two sorts, one for worlds and one for information states, and characterise inquisitive modal logic as the bisimulation invariant fragment of first-order logic over various natural classes of two-sorted structures.
To investigate family structure differences in adolescents’ consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar-added soft drinks with adjustments for socio-demographic and socio-economic variables.
Cross-sectional data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey.
Norwegian primary and secondary schools.
Adolescents (n 4475) aged 11, 13, 15 and 16 years.
After adjusting for covariates, living in a single-mother family was associated with lower vegetable consumption (OR 0·76, 95 % CI 0·63, 0·91) and higher soft drink consumption (OR 1·29, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·57). Living in a mother and stepfather family was negatively associated with fruit (OR 0·71, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·95) and vegetable (OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·97) consumption. Living in a single-father family was associated with lower sweets consumption (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·72). No significant interactions were demonstrated between family structure and socio-demographic or socio-economic covariates.
The study suggests that an independent association between family structure and adolescents’ food habits exists.
Human dignity is inextricably tied to health equity. In the past quarter century, concerns about widening health inequalities and inequities have increased worldwide. Highlighting this concern is the fact that the Sustainable Development Goals include one health goal and more than fifty health-related targets that are applicable to all countries. Psychology, with an understanding of the importance of the person–environment interaction, can help to meaningfully address health equity and promote the sustainable development goals of the UN 2030 Agenda. In this chapter, we focus on the contributions of psychology to promoting health equity and dignity, and well-being overall, highlighting pertinent research surrounding maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and mental health and well-being.
The Nuremberg trials largely focused on foreign forced labour brought to the Reich, and Norway was a large net receiver as well (whereas most other occupied countries were net suppliers). Therefore, the overall question guiding this chapter is why the nexus between excessive war profits and exploitation of forced labour was so weak during the Norwegian legal settlement. The answer takes account of the fact that the focus on exploitation of forced labour at Nuremberg and subsequent tribunals corresponded to norms inherent in international law (war crimes, crimes against humanity) whereas the Norwegian neglect followed from a strict framing of national law. Cases related to criminal commercial collaboration were pursued from the perspective of national treason. Because the Allies had agreed that each country should prosecute war crimes against its nationals, Norwegian jurisprudence was allowed to sustain its bias towards national treason. This meant that Norwegian businesses which had in various ways been involved in the Nazi slave labour program were never properly investigated for possible exploitation of foreign forced labour. Consequently, whereas German historiography has elaborated the nexus between forced labour and war profits, the Norwegian counterpart has not.