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The modern era of wine journalism has provided abundant information about wines and widespread use of numerical rating systems. A tiny difference, especially at the top of the distribution of ratings, may have striking consequences on wine sales and investment returns. This article provides a general framework to obtain a consensus among tasters’ opinions (reflected as numerical wine ratings) via three subsequent stages: normalization, approval, and aggregation. It is inspired by contributions in political science, social choice, game theory, and operations research. We apply it to the Judgment of Paris as well as to rank 2018 en-primeur Bordeaux wines, rated by five international experts. (JEL Classifications: C18, L15, L66)
Previous research into the effectiveness of healthy eating programmes has shown increases in healthful eating behaviour in primary schools; however, data collection methods have not been sufficiently sensitive to detect micronutrient changes. The present study extends the literature by measuring individual children's intake of macro- and micronutrients at lunchtime, before and after a programme targeting children's consumption of fruit and vegetables, to identify evidence-based health benefits of programme participation. Baseline data were collected over 4 d at lunchtime in two primary schools. The Food Dudes programme was then implemented in the intervention school. Follow-up data were collected over 4 d in each school 2 months after baseline. We employed a validated and sensitive photographic method to estimate individual children's (N 112) consumption of fruit, vegetables, and their intake of calories, macro- and selected micronutrients. Significant changes were observed in the intervention school but not in the control school: Children's consumption of fruit, vegetables, vitamin C and E intake increased, while their total energy consumption, fat, saturated fat, and sodium intake decreased. The present results show that the Food Dudes programme produced a positive nutritional change, with implications for its application as a healthy eating and obesity prevention intervention. These optimistic conclusions should be tested by further research to establish the longevity of the positive effects presented here.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate SARS-CoV-2-exposed masks and respirators. We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The two arms of the study included: 1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment, and 2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination (5CD) to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on three N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and two medical mask (MM) models. We inoculated FFR and MM materials with three coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and treated with 10 µM MB and exposed to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5CD using multiple US and international test methods and compared to the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all three coronaviruses with 99.8 - to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and MMs tested. FFR and MM integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas one FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating three tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5CD. MBL decontamination is effective, low-cost and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in all-resource settings.
Quantitative plant biology is an interdisciplinary field that builds on a long history of biomathematics and biophysics. Today, thanks to high spatiotemporal resolution tools and computational modelling, it sets a new standard in plant science. Acquired data, whether molecular, geometric or mechanical, are quantified, statistically assessed and integrated at multiple scales and across fields. They feed testable predictions that, in turn, guide further experimental tests. Quantitative features such as variability, noise, robustness, delays or feedback loops are included to account for the inner dynamics of plants and their interactions with the environment. Here, we present the main features of this ongoing revolution, through new questions around signalling networks, tissue topology, shape plasticity, biomechanics, bioenergetics, ecology and engineering. In the end, quantitative plant biology allows us to question and better understand our interactions with plants. In turn, this field opens the door to transdisciplinary projects with the society, notably through citizen science.
Hypersonic flow over a two-dimensional compression corner with a Mach number of 7.7 and unit Reynolds number of 4.2 × 106 m−1 is numerically investigated. Special emphasis is given to the onset of global instability with respect to three-dimensional perturbations. Global stability analysis is performed for various ramp angles and wall temperatures. It is found that the shock-induced separated flow system becomes unstable when the ramp angle is beyond a certain value. The critical ramp angle increases slightly with the wall temperature, although the length of the separation region is significantly enlarged. The global instability is shown to be closely linked with the occurrence of secondary separation beneath the primary separation bubble. A criterion is established based on a scaled ramp angle defined in the triple-deck theory to predict the global stability boundary, which depends on the free-stream conditions and geometries only.
This Article deals with the issues related to the judicial review of transnational acts which are adopted particularly within the context of the European integration process. The European Union is a privileged playground for the development of administrative acts of this type, primarily because of the existence of various and diverse administrative cooperation mechanisms. Transnational administrative acts are, either because of their adoption process or because of their conditions of enforcement, governed by at least two national legal orders. The question of the availability of judicial review in the context of transnational administrative acts is a complex one, because the presence of one exogeneous element may disrupt the straightforward path toward the right of access to courts—as both the determination of the competent court and the scope of the review carried out by the court seized become uncertain. This Article first draws up a typology of transnational administrative acts. Second, on the basis of this typology, this Article analyzes the solutions developed by the case law of the Court of Justice and assesses them in the light of the principles of territoriality of administrative law and the right to effective judicial protection.
The Dollo Ado refugee camps, located close to the Ethiopian-Somali border, have been a major focus for the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR)'s attempts to build livelihoods for refugees and the host community. The context presents an analytical puzzle: despite the importance of cross-border activity to refugees’ socioeconomic lives, such transnational activity has been institutionally invisible to and hindered by the international agencies seeking to assist them. The article explores how and why refugees’ cross-border activities have been systematically ignored by international institutions. As a theoretical starting point, it draws upon the post-development literature, and notably the work of James Ferguson, which explores how international institutions frequently misunderstand the agency and strategies of their subject populations. However, contra Ferguson's predominantly Foucauldian methodological and epistemologically approach, the article adopts a mixed methods approach, and emphasises the agency of aid workers, bureaucratic politics, and political economy in its account of the disjuncture between international institutions’ state-centric livelihoods programmes and refugees’ own cross-border economic strategies.
Patients with psychiatric disorders are exposed to high risk of COVID-19 and increased mortality. In this study, we set out to assess the clinical features and outcomes of patients with current psychiatric disorders exposed to COVID-19.
This multi-center prospective study was conducted in 22 psychiatric wards dedicated to COVID-19 inpatients between 28 February and 30 May 2020. The main outcomes were the number of patients transferred to somatic care units, the number of deaths, and the number of patients developing a confusional state. The risk factors of confusional state and transfer to somatic care units were assessed by a multivariate logistic model. The risk of death was analyzed by a univariate analysis.
In total, 350 patients were included in the study. Overall, 24 (7%) were transferred to medicine units, 7 (2%) died, and 51 (15%) patients presented a confusional state. Severe respiratory symptoms predicted the transfer to a medicine unit [odds ratio (OR) 17.1; confidence interval (CI) 4.9–59.3]. Older age, an organic mental disorder, a confusional state, and severe respiratory symptoms predicted mortality in univariate analysis. Age >55 (OR 4.9; CI 2.1–11.4), an affective disorder (OR 4.1; CI 1.6–10.9), and severe respiratory symptoms (OR 4.6; CI 2.2–9.7) predicted a higher risk, whereas smoking (OR 0.3; CI 0.1–0.9) predicted a lower risk of a confusional state.
COVID-19 patients with severe psychiatric disorders have multiple somatic comorbidities and have a risk of developing a confusional state. These data underline the need for extreme caution given the risks of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized for psychiatric disorders.
The interplay between toroidal drift-wave turbulence and tokamak profiles is investigated using a wave-kinetic description. The coupled system is used to investigate the interplay between marginally stable toroidal drift-wave turbulence and geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs). The coupled system is found to be unstable. Notably, the most unstable mode corresponds to the resonance between the turbulent wave radial group velocity and the GAM phase velocity. For a low-field-side ballooned drift-wave growth, a background flow shear breaks the symmetry between inwards- and outwards-travelling instabilities. Although this turbulence–GAM coupling may not be the primary driver for avalanches in standard core ion temperature gradient simulations, this mechanism is generic and displays many of the expected features, and should be of interest in several other regimes, which include towards the edge or in the presence of energetic particles.
This paper proposes a new conceptualization of business model (BM) that rigorously exploits the important insights this notion offers and links them to related views developed in economics and business studies. We develop the foundations of a BM concept consistent with the principles of generalized Darwinism (GD) and with contributions already developed within this framework. Thus, we demonstrate the relevance of GD as a unifying framework for developing the evolutionary theory of firm and industry. We suggest analysing BM as a generative replicator hosted by the firm, which structures interactions between the members of this organization and the social entities of its industrial environment. We argue that GD allows us to clarify the nature and boundaries of the BM concept and to specify its relationships to other key evolutionary concepts, such as organizational routines.
In this work, microwave planar resonators are printed with silver nanoparticle inks using two printing technologies, inkjet printing and aerosol jet printing, on polyimide substrates. The microwave resonators used in this paper operate in the frequency band 5–21 GHz. The printing parameters, such as the number of printed layers of silver nanoparticle inks, drop spacing, and sintering time, were optimized to ensure repeatable and conductive test patterns. To improve the electrical conductivity of silver deposits, which are first dried using a hot plate or an oven, two complementary sintering methods are used: intense pulsed light (IPL) and laser sintering. This paper presents the results of different strategies for increasing the final quality factor of printed planar resonators and the trade-offs (sintering time versus final conductivity/unloaded Q) that can be reached. Improvement of the resonator unloaded quality factor (up to +55%) and of the equivalent electrical conductivity (up to 14.94 S/μm) at 14 GHz have been obtained thanks to these nonconventional sintering techniques. The total sintering durations of different combinations of sintering techniques (hot plate, oven, IPL, and laser) range from 960 to 90 min with a final conductivity from 14.94 to 7.1 S/μm at 14 GHz, respectively.
The positive impact that natural fractures can have on geothermal heat production from low-permeability reservoirs has become increasingly recognised and proven by subsurface case studies. In this study, we assess the potential impact of natural fractures on heat extraction from the tight Lower Buntsandstein Subgroup targeted by the recently drilled NLW-GT-01 well (West Netherlands Basin (WNB)). We integrate: (1) reservoir property characterisation using petrophysical analysis and geostatistical inversion, (2) image-log and core interpretation, (3) large-scale seismic fault extraction and characterisation, (4) Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) modelling and permeability upscaling, and (5) fluid-flow and temperature modelling. First, the results of the petrophysical analysis and geostatistical inversion indicate that the Volpriehausen has almost no intrinsic porosity or permeability in the rock volume surrounding the NLW-GT-01 well. The Detfurth and Hardegsen sandstones show better reservoir properties. Second, the image-log interpretation shows predominately NW–SE-orientated fractures, which are hydraulically conductive and show log-normal and negative-power-law behaviour for their length and aperture, respectively. Third, the faults extracted from the seismic data have four different orientations: NW–SE, N–S, NE–SW and E–W, with faults in proximity to the NLW-GT-01 having a similar strike to the observed fractures. Fourth, inspection of the reservoir-scale 2D DFNs, upscaled permeability models and fluid-flow/temperature simulations indicates that these potentially open natural fractures significantly enhance the effective permeability and heat production of the normally tight reservoir volume. However, our modelling results also show that when the natural fractures are closed, production values are negligible. Furthermore, because active well tests were not performed prior to the abandonment of the Triassic formations targeted by the NLW-GT-01, no conclusive data exist on whether the observed natural fractures are connected and hydraulically conductive under subsurface conditions. Therefore, based on the presented findings and remaining uncertainties, we propose that measures which can test the potential of fracture-enhanced permeability under subsurface conditions should become standard procedure in projects targeting deep and potentially fractured geothermal reservoirs.
Fertility preservation, especially in women of reproductive age undergoing gonadotoxic treatment, has become an important part of our practice. This is reflected in the increasing number of publications on the subject. A recent PubMed search yields 518 articles on fertility preservation published in the time period of 1980–2000 and 4,288 others between 2000 and 2017. Today, failure to discuss fertility preservation with young women scheduled to undergo radiotherapy or chemotherapy could be considered as malpractice.
This chapter studies the impact of the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) at a large scale on the existing and future energy networks. The impact on the grid is assessed in terms of residential distribution network (DN) costs. Essentially, the main goal to optimize the battery charging schedules of EVs to minimize a cost that takes into account residential distribution transformer aging and the distribution energy losses. Within this context, the underlying mathematical tool is a static noncooperative game that describes the interaction between all EVs and the DN operator. An equilibrium analysis is conducted for this game in both its atomic and nonatomic versions.
In this paper, we develop a methodology to automatically classify claims using the information contained in text reports (redacted at their opening). From this automatic analysis, the aim is to predict if a claim is expected to be particularly severe or not. The difficulty is the rarity of such extreme claims in the database, and hence the difficulty, for classical prediction techniques like logistic regression to accurately predict the outcome. Since data is unbalanced (too few observations are associated with a positive label), we propose different rebalance algorithm to deal with this issue. We discuss the use of different embedding methodologies used to process text data, and the role of the architectures of the networks.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The Wake Forest School of Medicine Mentor Academy has adapted to provide continued effective and relevant formal mentoring training to translational researchers in a virtual format, to improve mentoring and provide effective mentor-mentee communication tools. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To determine whether the WFSM Mentor Academy (MA), an effective long-standing mentoring program for research faculty, is compromised after moving from an in-person to an online format as a result of COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A vetted National Research Mentoring Network (NMRN) implemented at WFSM addresses 6 major competencies (Effective Communication, Aligning Expectations, Assessing Understanding, Addressing Equity/Inclusion, Fostering Independence, Promoting Professional Development) over 6 months with 10 sessions (20 contact hrs). COVID-19 required that the MA (13 participants) move to an online format after 3 (out of 10) in-person sessions. We survey 26 self-rated mentoring competencies pre- and post MA, based on a numerical 7-point scale (abstract published for ACTS 2020) and, in 2020, included additional assessments of online versus in-person MA satisfaction/effectiveness and perceived impact on abilities of MA participants to mentor in an exclusively virtual format. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: All 13 participants responded to the survey and rated the online format as effective (9) or somewhat effective (4) for learning content. However, for participant interactions, only 4 found it effective and 9 somewhat effective. When assessing ability to mentor in a virtual format, most negatively affected competencies were ‘helping your mentee network effectively’ (7 of 13), ‘motivating your mentee’ (7), and ‘identifying and accommodating different communication styles’ (6). Goal setting (research goals, career goals) was rated easier under COVID-19 restrictions by 3 mentors. Increases in Pre-Post self-expressed mentoring effectiveness (+1 pt quality; +1 pt meeting mentee expectations) are similar to historical values, and 12 of the 13 mentors changed mentoring practices based on MA experiences. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: While 2020 ratings for increased effectiveness are similar to prior years, since the 2021 MA will remain online, we will adjust content to address challenges identified in training mentors and in mentoring trainees in virtual settings by strategies to keep MA participants engaged online and sharing new resources for virtual/hybrid format mentoring.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Plasma and CSF are not reliable estimates of drug exposure in tissue compartments relevant for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Globally, high dose fluconazole is widely used in the management of cryptococcal meningitis. While it is known to readily penetrate into cerebrospinal (CSF), less is known about drug concentrations in brain parenchymal tissues. Similarly, distribution of fluconazole into gynecological tissues has not been robustly characterized. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: With informed consent from next-of-kin, we conducted autopsies within 24h of death for hospitalized Ugandans receiving fluconazole for treatment or secondary prophylaxis of cryptococcal meningitis. Dosing history was abstracted from medical chart and caregiver interviews. Fluconazole concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in plasma, CSF, 10 brain compartments (frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes, corpus callosum, globus pallidus, hippocampus, midbrain, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and choroid plexus) and 4 female genital compartments (cervix, vagina, ovary, and uterus), depending on tissue availability. Descriptive statistics of tissue to plasma ratios were used to describe concentrations relative to plasma. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fluconazole concentrations were measured in available tissues of 21 individuals with detectable fluconazole in plasma. Daily doses of fluconazole were 200 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=1), 800 mg (n=4), 1200 mg (n=9) or unknown (n=3). CSF concentrations (n=10) ranged from 93-1380% (median 100%) of plasma while brain concentrations (n=3) across all 10 compartments ranged from 45% to 89% (median 69%) of plasma. In the female genital tract, cervical concentrations (n=10) were 9-78% (median 65%) of plasma and in the 2 individuals with available tissue, concentrations in vaginal, ovarian, and uterine tissues were similar to cervix, ranging from 63-105% of plasma. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Measuring drug concentrations directly in tissues, the presumed site of action, improves estimates of drug efficacy. While fluconazole concentrations in CSF were similar to plasma, actual brain tissues were consistently lower. Concentrations were similar between upper and lower female genital tracts, but were consistently lower than plasma.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Learning Health System (LHS) Science that trains postdoctoral scholars from diverse professional backgrounds in methodological and professional skills to implement rigorous research in health care systems and populations, and to disseminate the findings of such research to improve healthcare delivery OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The WFUHS CTSA developed an innovative TL1 in Learning Health System (LHS) Science that trains postdoctoral scholars from diverse professional backgrounds in methodological and professional skills to implement rigorous research in health care systems and populations, and to disseminate the findings of such research to improve healthcare delivery METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Training is centered around formal LHS science coursework and mentored research projects that address a pressing health system issue. Projects are closely guided by a primary mentor and a multidisciplinary mentoring team. Program mission and competencies were carefully evaluated in a competency-course matrix to design new courses for the LHS Certificate and MS program in Translational and Health System Science (THSS). Course domains include biomedical informatics; improvement and implementation science; system science and organizational change management; stakeholder engagement, leadership, and research management; ethics of health systems research; and health systems research methods. Scholars set up Individual Development Plans (IDP) and self-assess 7 domains of LHS core competencies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The first professionally diverse group of scholars (MD, PhD, DrPH, PharmD) began the program in Summer 2020; onboarding was conducted virtually. Scholars currently conduct most of their research and training in a virtual, synchronous format. Each developed a detailed IDP and LHS research project, which was reviewed by their LHS mentoring teams (includes a primary mentor, co-mentor, TL1 core faculty mentor, peer mentor, and health system mentor). Coursework, leading to a 1-year certificate or 2-year MS degree, was selected based on individual background and career goals and was begun in August 2020. In addition to the courses noted above, Scholars are embedded in a healthcare improvement team. We use the process of a LHS and hold weekly TL1 leadership meetings to swiftly address challenges and implement improvements DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We envision that TL1 Scholars will build independent LHS research programs or lead health system innovation. Program evaluation includes assessments of Scholar fluency in LHS competencies and attainment of key milestones during and after training. Annual TL1 faculty retreats will address program fidelity and implementation of program refinements
What are the political effects of fiscal consolidations? Theoretical considerations suggest that consolidations should reduce the public’s support for their governments, but empirical studies have found surprisingly small effects on government support. However, most of these studies analyze electoral outcomes, which are separated from the consolidation by a multi-link causal chain. We argue that more direct measures of government support, such as executive approval, show much stronger negative effects of consolidation, since they are less affected by the strategic timing of consolidations or the political alternatives on offer. We analyze a time series cross-sectional dataset of executive approval in 14 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1978 to 2014, using the narrative approach to measure fiscal consolidations. We find that spending cuts decrease government approval, especially during economic downturns, but tax increases’ impact on approval remains minimal. Finally, left- and right-wing governments are equally likely to lose approval after implementing austerity.