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Dog treats might be contaminated with Salmonella. In Canada and the USA, outbreaks of human salmonellosis related to exposure to animal-derived dog treats were reported. Consequently, surveillance data on Salmonella contamination of dog treats have been gathered in many countries, but not in Japan. In the current study, we investigated whether dog treats in Japan were contaminated with Salmonella. Overall, 303 dog treats (of which 255 were domestically produced) were randomly collected and the presence of Salmonella investigated. Seven samples were positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Among these isolates, three were identified as serovar 4,5,12:i:–; two were serovar Rissen; and two were serovar Thompson. All serovar 4,5,12:i:– and Thompson isolates were resistant to one or more drugs. Two serovar Rissen isolates were fully susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents. All Salmonella isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. The gene blaTEM was detected in two serovar 4,5,12:i:– isolates. The blaCTX−M and blaCMY genes were not detected in any isolates. This study demonstrated that dog treats in Japan could constitute a potential source of dog and human Salmonella infections, including multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates.
Japan is still a medium-burden tuberculosis (TB) country. We aimed to examine trends in newly notified active TB incidence and TB-related mortality in the last two decades in Japan. This is a population-based study using Japanese Vital Statistics and Japan Tuberculosis Surveillance from 1997 to 2016. We determined active TB incidence and mortality rates (per 100 000 population) by sex, age and disease categories. Joinpoint regression was applied to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted mortality rates and to identify the years showing significant trend changes. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates reduced from 33.9 to 13.9 and 37.3 to 11.3 per 100 000 population, respectively. Also, crude and age-adjusted mortality rates reduced from 2.2 to 1.5 and 2.8 to 1.0 per 100 000 population, respectively. Average APC in the incidence and mortality rates showed significant decline both in men (−6.2% and −5.4%, respectively) and women (−5.7% and −4.6%, respectively). Age-specific analysis demonstrated decreases in incidence and mortality rates for every age category, except for the incidence trend in the younger population. Although trends in active TB incidence and mortality rates in Japan have favourably decreased, the rate of decline is far from achieving TB elimination by 2035.
Single photon sources (SPS) are an important building block for realizing quantum technologies for computing, communication, and sensing. For industrialization, electrically controllable color centers acting as SPS are required. We have demonstrated the creation of electrically controllable silicon vacancies (VSis) in the SiC pn junction diode fabricated by proton beam writing (PBW). PBW was successfully used to introduce electrically controllable VSi without degradation of the diode performance. The dependence of the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) intensities from VSi on H+ fluence revealed that the emission efficiency of EL is less than that of PL. For EL, the supply of carriers (electrons and/or holes) was restricted due to the resistive region around each VSi introduced by PBW. The results suggest that further improvement in the VSi creation process without defects acting as majority carrier removal centers (highly resistive region) and nonradiative centers by optimization of PBW conditions are key points to realize highly sensitive quantum sensors using VSi.
Sea-ice thickness in the Sea of Okhotsk is estimated for 2004–2008 from ICESat derived freeboard under the assumption of hydrostatic balance. Total ice thickness including snow depth (htot) averaged over 2004–2008 is 95 cm. The interannual variability of htot is large; from 77.5 cm (2008) to 110.4 cm (2005). The mode of htot varies from 50–60 cm (2007 and 2008) to 70–80 cm (2005). Ice thickness derived from ICESat data is validated from a comparison with that observed by Electromagnetic Induction Instrument (EM) aboard the icebreaker Soya near Hokkaido, Japan. Annual maps of htot reveal that the spatial distribution of htot is similar every year. Ice volume of 6.3 × 1011 m3 is estimated from the ICESat derived htot and AMSR-E derived ice concentration. A comparison with ice area demonstrates that the ice volume cannot always be represented by the area solely, despite the fact that the area has been used as a proxy of the volume in the Sea of Okhotsk. The ice volume roughly corresponds to that of annual ice production in the major coastal polynyas estimated based on heat budget calculations. This also supports the validity of the estimation of sea-ice thickness and volume using ICESat data.
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
Child maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology, including reactive attachment disorder (RAD).
To examine whether neural activity during reward processing was altered in children and adolescents with RAD.
Sixteen children and adolescents with RAD and 20 typically developing (TD) individuals performed tasks with high and low monetary rewards while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Significantly reduced activity in the caudate and nucleus accumbens was observed during the high monetary reward condition in the RAD group compared with the TD group (P=0.015, family-wise error-corrected cluster level). Significant negative correlations between bilateral striatal activity and avoidant attachment were observed in the RAD and TD groups.
Striatal neural reward activity in the RAD group was markedly decreased. The present results suggest that dopaminergic dysfunction occurs in the striatum of children and adolescents with RAD, leading towards potential future risks for psychopathology.
Time series ice-draft data were obtained from moored ice-profiling sonar (IPS), in the coastal northeastern Chukchi Sea during 2009/10. Time series data show seasonal growth of sea-ice draft, occasionally interrupted by coastal polynya. The sea-ice draft distribution indicates a slightly lower abundance of thick, deformed ice compared with the eastern Beaufort Sea. In January, a rapid increase in the abundance of thick ice coincided with a period of minimal drift indicating compaction again the coast and dynamical thickening. The overall mean draft and corresponding derived thickness are 1.27 and 1.38 m, respectively. The evolution of modal ice thickness observed can be explained mostly by thermodynamic growth. The derived ice thicknesses are used to estimate heat losses based on ERA-interim data. Heat losses from the raw, 1 s IPS data are ~50 and 100% greater than those calculated using IPS data averaged over spatial scales of ~20 and 100 km, respectively. This finding demonstrates the importance of subgrid-scale ice-thickness distribution for heat-loss calculation. The heat-loss estimate based on thin ice data derived from AMSR-E data corresponds well with that from the 1 s observed ice-thickness data, validating heat-loss estimates from the AMSR-E thin ice-thickness algorithm.
Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is a synthetic wide band gap material that has attracted attention due to its high thermal conductivity, optical transparency and optical emission. In this work, defects in cBN have been investigated using experimental and theoretical X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Vacancy and O substitutional defects were considered, with O substituted at the N site (ON) to be the most energetically favorable. All defects produce unique signatures in either the B or N K-edges and can thus be identified using XANES. The calculations coupled with electron-irradiation / annealing experiments strongly suggest that ON is the dominant defect in irradiated cBN and remains after annealing. This defect is a likely source of optical emission in cBN.
Data from the Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet) acquired near Barrow, Alaska, during the 2009/10 ice season allow novel comparisons between measurements of ice thickness and velocity. An airborne electromagnetic survey that passed over a moored Ice Profiling Sonar (IPS) provided coincident independent measurements of total ice and snow thickness and ice draft at a scale of 10 km. Once differences in sampling footprint size are accounted for, we reconcile the respective probability distributions and estimate the thickness of level sea ice at 1.48 ± 0.1 m, with a snow depth of 0.12 ± 0.07 m. We also complete what we believe is the first independent validation of radar-derived ice velocities by comparing measurements from a coastal radar with those from an under-ice acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). After applying a median filter to reduce high-frequency scatter in the radar-derived data, we find good agreement with the ADCP bottom-tracked ice velocities. With increasing regulatory and operational needs for sea-ice data, including the number and thickness of pressure ridges, coordinated observing networks such as SIZONet can provide the means of reducing uncertainties inherent in individual datasets.
In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of the InGaP/GaAs heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) before and after the electrical stress at room temperature and assess the effectiveness of the emitter-ledge passivation. Although an electrical stress given to the phototransistors by keeping a collector current density of 37 A/cm2 for 1 hour at room temperature was too small to affect the room-temperature common-emitter current gain and photocurrent of both HPTs with and without the emitter-ledge passivation, they showed a significant decrease at 420 K due to the room-temperature electrical stress. Nevertheless, the room-temperature common-emitter current gain and photocurrent of the HPT with the emitter-ledge passivation were still higher than those of the HPT without the emitter-ledge passivation. The effectiveness of the emitter-ledge passivation against the electrical stress was more significant than that on the current gain in the dark. In addition to the electrical stress experiment, for a potential application of the InGaP/GaAs HPTs in space, we will irradiate the HPTs with 1-MeV electrons at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Both current gain and photocurrent decreased significantly after the electron irradiation. In contrast to the electrical stress, the damage due to the high-energy electron irradiation is a bulk-related phenomenon, and the emitter-ledge passivation does not seem to suppress the degradation.
Formation of supercooled water and frazil ice was studied in the Chukchi Sea coastal polynya off Barrow, Alaska, USA, in winter 2009/10, using moored salinity/temperature sensors and Ice Profiling Sonar (IPS) data along with satellite data. Oceanographic data from two moorings revealed episodic events of potential supercooling at 30–40m depth, including the possibility of in situ supercooling, while the polynya was open. We identified frazil ice-like signals in the IPS data down to 5–15 m depth, associated with large heat loss and windy, turbulent conditions in an active polynya. This likely represents the first IPS observation of frazil ice in the marine environment. On the day of the maximum signal of frazil ice, spaceborne synthetic aperture radar shows streaks of high backscatter within the polynya, indicating active frazil ice formation just downwind of the mooring sites. In addition, the longer-term potential supercooling that persisted for 1–3 weeks occurred twice despite the absence of polynya activity at the mooring sites. These events occurred during periods dominated by the northeastward current. A series of coastal polynyas had formed southwest of the mooring sites prior to these events. Thus, the water masses with potential supercooling were likely advected from these polynyas.
A new modelling framework using Lagrangian particle tracking has been developed to assess dynamic and thermodynamic effects of underwater frazil ice. This frazil-ice model treats a Lagrangian particle as a bulk cluster of many frazil crystals, and calculates the thermodynamic growth of each particle and the corresponding budget of latent heat and fresh water. The effective density and viscosity of sea water depend on the mass fraction of underwater frazil ice, and hence affect ocean convection. An idealized experiment using our model successfully reproduces the formation of underwater frazil ice and its transition to grease ice at the surface. Because underwater frazil ice does not reduce the atmosphere/ocean heat exchange, surface heat flux and net sea-ice production in the experiment with frazil ice are relatively high compared with the experiment where surface cooling directly leads to columnar growth of a solid ice cover which effectively insulates the heat flux. These results suggest that large-scale sea-ice models which do not take account of the effects of frazil ice might underestimate atmosphere/ocean heat exchange, particularly at times of active new ice formation.
Accurately measuring and monitoring the thickness distribution of thin ice is crucial for accurate estimation of ocean–atmosphere heat fluxes and rates of ice production and salt flux in ice-affected oceans. Here we present results from helicopter-borne brightness temperature (TB) measurements in the Southern Ocean in October 2012 and in the Sea of Okhotsk in February 2009 carried out with a portable passive microwave (PMW) radiometer operating at a frequency of 36 GHz. The goal of these measurements is to aid evaluation of a satellite thin-ice thickness algorithm which uses data from the spaceborne Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System AMSR-E) or the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-II (AMSR-II). AMSR-E and AMSR-II TB agree with the spatially collocated mean TB from the helicopter-borne measurements within the radiometers’ precision. In the Sea of Okhotsk in February 2009, the AMSR-E 36GHz TB values are closer to the mean than the modal TB values measured by the helicopter-borne radiometer. In an Antarctic coastal polynya in October 2012, the polarization ratio of 36GHz vertical and horizontal TB is estimated to be 0.137 on average. Our measurements of the TB at 36 GHz over an iceberg tongue suggest a way to discriminate it from sea ice by its unique PMW signature.
Reproductive characteristics of poorly studied hyperiid amphipods, especially Phronimella elongata, are described. Among nine species of hand-collected phronimids, females of Phronimella elongata, Phronima dunbari and Phronima sedentaria cohabited with their young in a ‘barrel' derived from gelatinous zooplankton. Five growth stages of young were identified in Phronimella elongata: young of stages I–IV were found with the mother in the barrel, but stage-V young clinged to the mother retaining no barrel. The cohabiting young in Phronimella elongata and Phronima sedentaria always consisted of single growth stage. In a single female of Phronima dunbari, however, two different stages of young coexisted in a barrel. In Phronimella elongata, the mother size significantly correlated with the number of brooded eggs or cohabiting young regardless of growth stages of young. Considerable variation in the number of eggs or young per female among phronimid species may attribute to the differences in the volumes of the brood pouches.
Gliding arc discharge is one of the unique plasmas of which the dynamic behavior is extremely complex in time and space. In this work, we report on time-resolved dynamic behavior of gliding arc discharge plasma in He and Ar using comparison of obtained results between high-speed camera (54 000 fps) photographs and the corresponding electrical properties. Both measurements were synchronized via an external trigger. For a gliding arc discharge in Ar 20 L/min, gliding of serpentine plasma was observed due to turbulent gas flow and reconnections of plasma path were observed. It was revealed that the applied voltage was decreased and small pulsed current flowed at the moment of the reconnection.
Superconducting NMR pickup coils have to have a low surface resistance (Rs) under a high magnetic field. One way of reducing the Rs of superconducting thin films is adding artificial pins to the films. We examined the hetero-epitaxial growth of MgB2and YBCO thin films on decorated sapphire and MgO substrates while using nano-wires and nano-particles to add pins to the films.
We used ZnO nano-wire to add artificial grain boundary pins to MgB2 films. The tilted c-plane sapphire substrate with nano-step edges was used for these substrates. The terrace width with one lattice step edge can be controlled by changing the tilt angle. AFM images showed that the tilted c-plane sapphire substrate had straight nano-step edges. ZnO nono-wires were decorated on the nano-step edges by MOCVD, and then deposited on MgB2 films by sputtering. The Rs of the films was then measured with a sapphire rod resonator. The Rs of MgB2 thin films fabricated on the tilted c-plane sapphire substrate with ZnO nano-wires was lower than that of MgB2thin films on a conventional sapphire substrate under a high magnetic field.
We used BaZrO3(BZO) nano-particles to add the artificial pins to YBCO thin films. The BZO particles on the MgO substrates were fabricated by laser deposition. The size and density of these particles were controlled with a pulse number of laser shot. YBCO thin films were formed on decorated MgO substrate by laser deposition. The Rs of YBCO thin films on the decorated MgO substrate was lower than that of the YBCO films formed on a conventional MgO substrate under a high magnetic field.
We clarified that artificial pins in MgB2and YBCO thin films are useful for decreasing the Rs under a high magnetic field.
Although satellite data are useful for obtaining ice-thickness distribution for perennial sea ice or in stable thin-sea-ice areas, they are still largely an unresolved issue for the seasonal ice zone (SIZ). We address this problem using L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the SIZ, ice-thickness growth is closely related to deformation, so surface roughness is expected to correlate with ice thickness. L-band SAR, suitable for detecting such surface roughness, is a promising tool for obtaining thickness distribution. This idea was supported by an airborne polarimetric and interferometric SAR (Pi-SAR) validation. To extend this result to spaceborne L-band SAR with coarser resolution, we conducted in situ measurements of ice thickness and surface roughness in February 2008 in the southern Sea of Okhotsk with an icebreaker in coordination with the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Phased Array-type L-band SAR (PALSAR) orbit. A helicopter-borne laser profiler was used to improve the estimation of surface roughness. It was found that backscatter coefficients (HH) correlated well with ice thickness (R = 0.86) and surface roughness (R = 0.70), which confirms the possibility of determining ice-thickness distribution in the SIZ. the interannual variation of PALSAR-derived ice-thickness distribution in the southern Sea of Okhotsk is also discussed.
In the southwestern part of the Sea of Okhotsk off Hokkaido, sea-ice drift characteristics are investigated using the ice and water velocities obtained from a moored upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) during the winters of 1999–2001. Using hourly-mean values of these data along with the wind data measured at a nearby coastal station, the wind factor and turning angle of the relative velocity between the ice and water velocities with respect to the wind are calculated assuming free drift under various conditions. Since the simultaneous sea-ice draft data are also available from a moored ice-profiling sonar (IPS), we examine the dependence of drift characteristics on ice thickness for the first time. As ice thickness increases and wind decreases, the wind factor decreases and the turning angle increases, as predicted by the theory of free drift. This study clearly shows the utility of the moored ADCP measurement for studying sea-ice drift, especially with the simultaneous IPS measurement for ice thickness, which cannot be obtained by other methods.