Background: Despite literature establishing a relationship between maladaptive beliefs and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there are few studies addressing how these beliefs develop. Salkovskis and colleagues (1999) proposed specific domains of childhood experiences leading to heightened beliefs regarding responsibility. Prior studies in students and individuals who just completed treatment for OCD have found support for this theory. However, we are not aware of published data from individuals with current OCD. Aims: This paper presents initial data from adults currently meeting criteria for OCD as well as both anxious and non-anxious controls. Method: Recollections of childhood experiences, current OCD-related beliefs, and OCD symptoms were assessed using self-report measures in 39 individuals seeking treatment for OCD, 36 anxious controls and 39 healthy controls. Results: Initial data suggested that in individuals with OCD, increased reports of childhood exposure to overprotection and experiences where one's actions caused or influenced misfortune were associated with stronger OCD-related beliefs. Further, compared to community controls, individuals with OCD reported more childhood experiences where one's actions caused or influenced misfortune, though they did not differ from anxious controls in childhood responsibility experiences. Conclusions: These initial findings provide minimal support for the proposed model of the development of inflated responsibility beliefs, and highlight the need for research examining the etiology of OCD related beliefs with updated models, larger samples, and ultimately using prospective methods.