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In the mid fourth century b.c. some Roman gentes drew on a Pythagorean tradition. In this tradition, Numa's role of Pythagoras’ disciple connected Rome (and the gentes) with Greek elites and culture. The Marcii, between 304 and 300 b.c., used Numa's figure, recently reshaped by the Aemilii and the Pinarii for their propaganda, to promote the need for a plebeian pontificate. After the approval of the Ogulnium plebiscite (300 b.c.), the needs for this kind of propaganda fell away. When Marcius Censorinus became censor, Numa's pontificate was no longer relevant for promoting the gens. For this reason, the Marcii used another genealogy for similar propagandistic effect: the figure of Marsyas, a symbol of plebeian ideals.
This paper sheds new light on the drivers of civil service reform in US states. We first demonstrate theoretically that divided government is a key trigger of civil service reform, providing nuanced predictions for specific configurations of divided government. We then show empirical evidence for these predictions using data from the second half of the 20th century: states tended to introduce these reforms under divided government, and in particular when legislative chambers (rather than legislature and governor) were divided.
Decision support systems play an important role in medical fields as they can augment clinicians to deal more efficiently and effectively with complex decision-making processes. In the diagnosis of headache disorders, however, existing approaches and tools are still not optimal. On the one hand, to support the diagnosis of this complex and vast spectrum of disorders, the International Headache Society released in 1988 the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD), now in its 3rd edition: a 200 pages document classifying more than 300 different kinds of headaches, where each is identified via a collection of specific nontrivial diagnostic criteria. On the other hand, the high number of headache disorders and their complex criteria make the medical history process inaccurate and not exhaustive both for clinicians and existing automatic tools. To fill this gap, we present head-asp, a novel decision support system for the diagnosis of headache disorders. Through a REST Web Service, head-asp implements a dynamic questionnaire that complies with ICHD-3 by exploiting two logical modules to reach a complete diagnosis while trying to minimize the total number of questions being posed to patients. Finally, head-asp is freely available on-line and it is receiving very positive feedback from the group of neurologists that is testing it.
Since the publication of Cagan's seminal contribution in 1956 and its further development by Sargent (1982) there has been a growing literature that seeks to explain German hyperinflation in terms of the monetary hypothesis. However, this article shows that the origins of this hyperinflation can be traced back to a sudden stop that occurred in the summer of 1922 at a time when expectations that the German economy would stabilise began to subside. The reversal of capital flows that took place in those months led in the short term to a dramatic depreciation of the mark, a significant increase in prices and a decline in output. This decline sparked bitter social conflict that fuelled a wage and price spiral. This spiral was accommodated by monetary authorities, leading in turn to explosive inflation.
Bureaucratic discretion and executive delegation are central topics in political economy and political science. The previous empirical literature has measured discretion and delegation by manually coding large bodies of legislation. Drawing from computational linguistics, we provide an automated procedure for measuring discretion and delegation in legal texts to facilitate large-scale empirical analysis. The method uses information in syntactic parse trees to identify legally relevant provisions, as well as agents and delegated actions. We undertake two applications. First, we produce a measure of bureaucratic discretion by looking at the level of legislative detail for US states and find that this measure increases after reforms giving agencies more independence. This effect is consistent with an agency cost model, where a more independent bureaucracy requires more specific instructions (less discretion) to avoid bureaucratic drift. Second, we construct measures of delegation to governors in state legislation. Consistent with previous estimates using non-text metrics, we find that executive delegation increases under unified government.
Artificial intelligence has dramatically changed the world as we know it, but is yet to fully embrace ‘hot’ cognition, i.e., the way an intelligent being's thinking is affected by their emotional state. Artificial intelligence encompassing hot cognition will not only usher in enhanced machine-human interactions, but will also promote a much needed ethical approach. Theory of Mind, the ability of the human mind to attribute mental states to others, is a key component of hot cognition. To endow machines with (limited) Theory of Mind capabilities, computer scientists will need to work closely with psychiatrists, psychologists and neuroscientists. They will need to develop new models, but also to formally define what problems need to be solved and how the results should be assessed.
Previous evidence has shown the efficacy of day treatment programmes and partial hospitalisation in moderate to severe mood disorders. Therefore, these treatments are considered as a valid alternative to full hospitalisation. The present study examines retrospectively the experience of our treatment programme in difficult patients with a Major Depressive Episode (MDE).
The treatment programme focuses on: reducing symptoms, developing new coping skills, improving relational ability and psycho-educational rehabilitation. The programme was carried out over 12 weeks. Multidimensional assessments were made throughout the treatment using clinical interviews and psychometric tests. Outcomes were evaluated considering remission, severity of residual symptoms, social and professional functioning. During 2006, 93 depressed patients who had previously not responded to conventional monotherapy (M/F = 36/57; Mean Age: 46,87± 15,00), have been treated.
At the end of the programme a significant clinical improvement could be observed in most patients: 60,6% achieved full remission, while only 14,8% continued to present consistent residual symptoms. 70% of the patients took at least two drugs and also took part in a psycho-educational programme.
Our day treatment programme is intended to implement a model for a prompt management of difficult patients with moderate to severe MDE. Our findings concur with previous evidence in showing the efficiency of such integrated treatment programmes in patients with mood disorders. In our sample, a partial response has been dependent on social isolation, chronicity of the disorder and relevance of co-morbidities.
The Brexit referendum, as a project to resolve the internal political conflicts within the British Conservative Party, has been a political misjudgement of monumental proportions. Historical comparisons are thin on the ground but the political crisis, within the Whigs and the Liberal Party, arising from the repeal of the Corn Laws in the 19th century is one of the few historical precedents on such a scale in English history. Unlike the Corn Law repeal, however, the Brexit debate occurs in an era in which the British economy is no longer a rising global power, but instead the reverse, with its world economic importance increasingly under question. The British economy has experienced a long-run relative economic decline and falling international competitiveness with the replacement of manufacturing sectors by a broad-based service sector. Manufacturing now accounts for under 20 per cent of GDP, and services account for 70 per cent. This has implications for European and global economic integration and hence economic policy. Thus, the parallel noted here with debates over the Corn Laws lie not simply with their relevance as a moment of political crisis but that sharp economic change shaped future economic policy. Consequently, there is a need to examine the economic importance Brexit has for the wider economy as a moment of economic transition, articulated through a debate over Britain's future trading relationships.
Lukács’ (1990) concept of class consciousness identifying the importance of agency is an important tool in this respect, suggesting that ‘praxis’ represents the political articulation of collective consciousness arising from the specific sectoral position of differing class interests. The chapter demonstrates how differing elements of British business not only have divergent interests in Brexit but that these differences arise from their position in the economy. This is not to suggest we can simply reduce political interests to economic interests; rather, it is to suggest that it is the dominant interests within each economic sector that plays a disproportionate role in determining policy and outlook for these sectors.
In taking case studies of Brexit, divergent interests can be identified and agency and praxis examined.
Scientific quality and feasibility are part of ethics review by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). Scientific Review Committees (SRCs) were proposed to facilitate this assessment by the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) SRC Consensus Group. This study assessed SRC feasibility and impact at CTSA-affiliated academic health centers (AHCs).
SRC implementation at 10 AHCs was assessed pre/post-intervention using quantitative and qualitative methods. Pre-intervention, four AHCs had no SRC, and six had at least one SRC needing modifications to better align with Consensus Group recommendations.
Facilitators of successful SRC implementation included broad-based communication, an external motivator, senior-level support, and committed SRC reviewers. Barriers included limited resources and staffing, variable local mandates, limited SRC authority, lack of anticipated benefit, and operational challenges. Research protocol quality did not differ significantly between study periods, but respondents suggested positive effects. During intervention, median total review duration did not lengthen for the 40% of protocols approved within 3 weeks. For the 60% under review after 3 weeks, review was lengthened primarily due to longer IRB review for SRC-reviewed protocols. Site interviews recommended designing locally effective SRC processes, building buy-in by communication or by mandate, allowing time for planning and sharing best practices, and connecting SRC and IRB procedures.
The CTSA SRC Consensus Group recommendations appear feasible. Although not conclusive in this relatively short initial implementation, sites perceived positive impact by SRCs on study quality. Optimal benefit will require local or federal mandate for implementation, adapting processes to local contexts, and employing SRC stipulations.
The presence of counter-rotating (CR) components in galaxies is not that rare but their origin is still unclear. Important clues to the formation and evolution of CR galaxies are provided by galaxy kinematics, such as the mass distribution and the shape of the gravitational potential. In order to better understand the origin and incidence of CR galaxies, we aim at modeling CR stellar disks, as they would be observed with Integral Field Units (IFU) instruments, and measuring the kinematics of these peculiar astrophysical objects to reveal the CR signatures. In the bi-dimensional maps of analysed models, the double sigma signature is the best diagnostic to spot the presence of a CR disk component.
We examine the causal effect of legislative activity on private benefits, which have been largely neglected by previous research in legislative studies. By relying on a natural experiment in New Zealand, where randomly selected Members of Parliament (MPs) are given the opportunity to propose legislation, we find evidence for a causal relation between proposing a (successful) bill and the private benefits MPs receive, in terms of gifts and payments for services. We conclude that the allocation of private benefits depends on legislative performance.
The article analyses various cases of captivity in a region comprised within modern-day South Africa and Lesotho in the late precolonial period. Focusing on a single social institution, bohlanka, the article follows its traces scattered among the Batlhaping, the Basotho, the Barolong, the Bataung, and other smaller precolonial communities. Generally considered by scholars as a form of clientship based on cattle-loans, bohlanka is here redefined as originating from warfare and captivity, and later expanding to include the destitute. The fundamental elements of the institution — violence, natal alienation, and suspended death — lead to the conclusion that bohlanka constituted a local form of slavery that pre-dated colonial influences.
Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of early vocal production on infants’ speech processing and later vocabulary. This study focuses on the relationship between vocal production and new word learning. Thirty monolingual Italian-learning infants were recorded at about 11 months, to establish the extent of their consonant production. In parallel, the infants were trained on novel word–object pairs, two consisting of early learned consonants (ELC), two consisting of late learned consonants (LLC). Word learning was assessed through Preferential Looking. The results suggest that vocal production supports word learning: Only children with higher, consistent consonant production attended more to the trained ELC images.
In 2014/2015, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated two Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs) in Liberia and three in Sierra Leone when the Ebola virus disease epidemic killed over 11,000 people across Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. As Ebola cases declined in Liberia, IMC Psychosocial teams transitioned to working in communities highly affected by the epidemic. This article describes IMC's experience with developing and implementing a community-based mental health and psychosocial group intervention in a rural, severely affected Liberian town – Mawah – where 46 out of approximately 800 community members were infected, 39 of whom died. In this paper, we present how the group intervention, named ‘Social Reconnection Groups’, was developed and implemented. We then discuss intervention strengths, challenges, key lessons learnt and recommendations for how Social Reconnection Groups can be adapted for use in similar settings.
The rate of technological change is quickly outpacing today's methods for understanding how new advancements are applied within industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology. To further complicate matters, specific attempts to explain observed differences or measurement equivalence across devices are often atheoretical or fail to explain why a technology should (or should not) affect the measured construct. As a typical example, understanding how technology influences construct measurement in personnel testing and assessment is critical for explaining or predicting other practical issues such as accessibility, security, and scoring. Therefore, theory development is needed to guide research hypotheses, manage expectations, and address these issues at this intersection of technology and I-O psychology. This article is an extension of a Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) 2016 panel session, which (re)introduces conceptual frameworks that can help explain how and why measurement equivalence or nonequivalence is observed in the context of selection and assessment. We outline three potential conceptual frameworks as candidates for further research, evaluation, and application, and argue for a similar conceptual approach for explaining how technology may influence other psychological phenomena.
Earthquake-related trauma results in crush injuries and bony- and soft-tissue trauma. There are no systematic reviews analyzing the typical injury patterns and treatments in “Mega-Mass-Casualty” earthquakes. The characterization of an injury pattern specific to disaster type, be it natural or manmade, is imperative to build an effective disaster preparedness and response system.
The systematic review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A comprehensive search strategy was developed to identify all publications relating to earthquakes and the orthopedic treatment in adult patients. The following databases were searched: PubMed (Medline; US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Ovid (Ovid Technologies; New York, New York USA), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA), and The Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom).
The searches identified 4,704 articles: 4,445 after duplicates were removed. The papers were screened for title and abstract and 65 out of those were selected for full-text analysis. The quality of data does not permit a standard-of-care (SOC) to be defined. Scarcity and poor quality of the data collected also may suggest a low level of accountability of the activity of the international hospital teams. Qualitatively, it is possible to define that there are more open fractures during daytime hours than at night. Excluding data about open and closed fractures, for all types of injuries, the results underline that the higher the impact of the earthquake, as measured by Richter Magnitude Scale (RMS), the higher is the number of injuries.
Regarding orthopedic injuries during earthquakes, special attention must be paid to the management of the lower limbs most frequently injured. Spinal cord involvement following spine fractures is an important issue: this underlines how a neurosurgeon on a disaster team could be an important asset during the response. Conservative treatment for fractures, when possible, should be encouraged in a disaster setting. Regarding amputation, it is important to underline how the response and the quality of health care delivered is different from one team to another. This study shows how important it is to improve, and to require, the accountability of international disaster teams in terms of type and quality of health care delivered, and to standardize the data collection.
BortolinM, MorelliI, VoskanyanA, JoyceNR, CiottoneGR. Earthquake-Related Orthopedic Injuries in Adult Population: A Systematic Review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):201–208.
The reported incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with complex CHD with ductus-dependent systemic circulation ranges from 6.8 to 13% despite surgical treatment; the overall mortality is between 25 and 97%. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications after hybrid palliation for neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation still has to be defined, but seems comparable with that following the Norwood procedure.
We reviewed the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in a series of 42 consecutive neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation, who received early hybrid palliation associated with a standardised feeding protocol.
The median age and birth weight at the time of surgery were 3 days (with a range from 1 to 10 days) and 3.07 kg (with a range from 1.5 to 4.5 kg), respectively. The median ICU length of stay was 7 days (1–70 days), and the median hospital length of stay was 16 days (6–70 days). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days. Hospital mortality was 16% (7/42). In the postoperative period, 26% of patients were subjected to early extubation, and all of them received treatment with systemic vasodilatory agents. Feeding was started 6 hours after extubation according to a dedicated feeding protocol. After treatment, none of our patients experienced any grade of necrotising enterocolitis or major gastrointestinal adverse events.
Our experience indicates that the combination of an “early hybrid approach”, systemic vasodilator therapy, and dedicated feeding protocol adherence could reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in this group of neonates. Fast weaning from ventilatory support, which represents a part of our treatment strategy, could be associated with low incidence of necrotising enterocolitis.
This article examines the theoretical underpinning of living wage campaigns. The article uses evidence, derived from the UK Quarterly Labour Force Survey from 2005 to 2008, to examine the extent to which a living wage will address low pay within the labour force. We highlight the greater incidence of low pay within the private sector and then focus upon the public sector where the living wage demand has had most impact. The article builds upon the results from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey with analysis of the British Household Panel Survey in 2007 in order to examine the impact that the introduction of a living wage, within the public sector, would have in reducing household inequality.