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In the decade since the publication of the first edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology, the field has expanded into areas such as social work and education, while maintaining the interest of criminal justice researchers and policy makers. This new edition provides cutting-edge and comprehensive coverage of the key theoretical perspectives, assessment methods, and interventions in forensic psychology. The chapters address substantive topics such as acquisitive crime, domestic violence, mass murder, and sexual violence, while also exploring emerging areas of research such as the expansion of cybercrime, particularly child sexual exploitation, as well as aspects of terrorism and radicalisation. Reflecting the global reach of forensic psychology and its wide range of perspectives, the international team of contributors emphasise diversity and cross-reference between adults, adolescents, and children to deliver a contemporary picture of the discipline.
In a rapidly ageing world, more and more older people live alone.1 Whereas almost one-third of the older adult population in the United States lives alone,2 more than 50% of those over age 75 in the United Kingdom live by themselves.3 Although this phenomenon varies widely throughout the world (mainly observed in developed countries), its social relevance and study have increased in recent decades.4 In general terms, older people who live alone tend to be elderly women, widowed spouses, have a higher level of education and tend to use health services more often than those who live accompanied.1–6 Nevertheless, the amount of information available about this population is still sparse.
COVID-19 can spread rapidly in psychiatric inpatient settings. Previous studies have found that patients have a higher risk of hospitalisation and death than adults in the community. The aim of this project was to improve the care of patients with COVID-19 in psychiatric inpatient settings.
A baseline audit was conducted of care COVID-19 patients received in wards that experienced outbreaks in January 2021 in a London Mental Health Trust. Clinical notes were reviewed for management plans, including clear documentation of risk of serious illness, frequency of vitals monitoring, and thresholds for escalation to medical teams.
A new protocol was subsequently developed and implemented at one inpatient unit: “COVID-19: Early Identification of Risk and Management”. This included an adjusted 4C mortality score to determine risk of deterioration, and schedules for observation monitoring based on this outcome. Each schedule specified separate frequencies of monitoring of critical observations (oxygen saturations, respiratory rate) and routine observations, thus minimising unnecessary staff exposure. It prompted venous thromboembolism (VTE) assessment and documentation of escalation criteria.
44 patients were identified across three working age (WAA, n = 29) and two older age (OA, n = 15) adult wards. 7.5% of WAA and 33.3% of OA patients were hospitalised. 20% of OA patients died following a positive test. 58% of patients had a documented management plan for COVID-19, but only 56% mentioned observation frequency, 19% escalation criteria, and 9% risk of serious disease. No patient received a repeat VTE assessment following diagnosis. The audit identified inconsistent approaches to COVID-19 management between wards, and found no relationship between risk of deterioration and frequency of observation monitoring. Following implementation of this protocol, 100% (n = 4) of patients had a robust plan for COVID-19 management, and 100% received a VTE assessment.
The audit supported previous findings that psychiatric inpatients are at risk of serious COVID-19 infection. This highlights an urgent clinical and ethical need to optimise COVID-19 care in psychiatric inpatient settings. The results of this audit suggest that risk factors for severe infection and elements of routine care are not widely understood or implemented by clinical staff. Introducing evidence-based protocols to support clinicians in managing the physical healthcare of these patients may be one way of promoting best practice. The improvement in care observed in the pilot study has resulted in this protocol being rolled out across the Trust in an ongoing quality improvement project.
The suggestion has been made that future advanced artificial intelligence (AI) that passes some consciousness-related criteria should be treated as having moral status, and therefore, humans would have an ethical obligation to consider its well-being. In this paper, the author discusses the extent to which software and robots already pass proposed criteria for consciousness; and argues against the moral status for AI on the grounds that human malware authors may design malware to fake consciousness. In fact, the article warns that malware authors have stronger incentives than do authors of legitimate software to create code that passes some of the criteria. Thus, code that appears to be benign, but is in fact malware, might become the most common form of software to be treated as having moral status.
Acute pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertensive crisis may result in adverse clinical outcomes if unsuccessfully treated. Inhaled nitric oxide has long been considered as the standard pharmacotherapy for acute pulmonary hypertension, but lack of feasibility in some settings and evidences challenging its benefits lead to the use of alternative treatment, amongst which is nitroglycerin inhalation. The purpose of this review article is to discuss available data on the use of nitroglycerin inhalation for acute treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children with CHD and its potential benefit in post-operative setting.
Literatures included in this review were acquired by searching in PubMed online database. Keywords used were “Pulmonary Hypertension”, “Congenital heart defects”, “Pediatrics”, “Inhaled nitroglycerin”, and its synonyms.
Title and abstract were screened to select relevant literatures including the three paediatric clinical trials on nitroglycerin inhalation. Critical appraisal of the clinical trials was then done using the University of Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine Critical Appraisal Tools.
Paediatric studies showed the benefit of nitroglycerin inhalation in uncorrected cases of CHD during catheterisation procedures. Until recently, there have been no studies conducted in paediatric post-operative CHD cases. Further study is required to provide evidence for inhaled nitroglycerin use in this setting including the appropriate dosing and potential side effects with repeated administration,
To assess the feasibility of implementation, and customer perspectives of, a sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction initiative across YMCA Victoria aquatic and recreation centres.
Two data sources were used to assess implementation and customer acceptability. Photo audits were used to assess the type of drinks available for purchase six months prior to initiative implementation and 6 months after, in 30 centres. Change in the range of SSBs targeted for removal, non-targeted SSBs, as well as drinks classified as red’ (limit), ‘amber’ (choose carefully) and ‘green’ (best choice), were reported. Customer surveys were conducted in three centres to assess acceptability and awareness of the initiative. Inductive and deductive thematic analysis was used to analyse customers’ perspectives of the initiative.
30 aquatic and recreation centres in Victoria, Australia
Post-implementation, 87% of centres had removed targeted SSBs. ‘Red’ drinks reduced by an average of 4.4 drink varieties compared to pre-implementation (11.9 varieties) and ‘green’ drinks increased by 1.4 varieties (3.2 varieties pre-implementation). Customers were largely unaware of the SSB-reduction initiative (90%) but supported YMCA Victoria in continuing the initiative (89%), with many believing it would support children in making healthier choices.
Implementation of an initiative that limited SSB availability across a large number of aquatic and recreation centres was feasible and considered acceptable by customers. Customers frequently mentioned the importance of protecting children from consuming SSBs.
WHILE SARAH KAY's previous books focused on the ways in which political structures or figures of thought were expressed through a range of literary genres and manifestations, the most recent monograph we explore in this volume turns to the materiality of the pages on which medieval literature is written: skin. Kay's work has consistently attended to the idea that there is more than text in any discussion of medieval textuality; the figure she uses to do so in Animal Skins is the suture – a term borrowed from Slavoj Žižek – to indicate the moment at which ‘the distinction of levels between content and medium on which reading normally relies is momentarily suspended, with uncanny effect’ (5). A suture is also the stitching together of skin to repair a wound: the figure of the suture in Kay's work, then, becomes a suture itself – as it refers both to the material reminders of physical fragility upon which medieval literature is inscribed, and to an often fleeting feeling of defamiliarisation, shock, or revulsion experienced by readers of that literature, as they encounter it via the medium of a parchment page displaying its origin as the flayed, scraped, soaked, stretched skin of a slaughtered animal.
The work of Animal Skins is heralded in a series of innovative articles, in which Kay explores in meticulous detail the implication and impact of the medieval manufacture of books – artefacts which transmit and represent human culture as a definitive mark of human superiority – from animal skin. In ‘Original Skin’, Kay relates the flaying of animals for parchment to the hagiography of Saint Bartholomew, who, according to legend, was tortured by being skinned alive: the skin that is removed is often represented in manuscripts as looking like a second body (50–2). This article is revisited in ‘Legible Skins’, as Kay refines her argument to point out the crucial difference between human and non-human skin in the ways in which modern and medieval readers may find their own embodied experience implicated in their encounter with texts inscribed on vellum. As Kay points out, ‘There are reminders everywhere’ in medieval literature ‘that animal skins are bearers of meaning that can be assumed by speakers of human language or by selves that at other times inhabit human bodies’ (Kay 2011: 17).
THIS VOLUME CELEBRATES the scholarship of Sarah Kay, one of the world's foremost scholars of medieval French. Kay's work combines methodological and theoretical rigour to explore medieval literary culture from new and challenging angles; her insights are always innovative and sometimes startling, and have played a major role in shaping our understanding of the field today. This introduction offers a brief overview of her career and publications in order to situate the essays in this book relative to her work. Not only has Kay's scholarship significantly shaped the field, the power of Kay's analyses and range of her materials are such that they attract audiences not usually attuned to medieval French literature. Therefore, and in keeping with Kay's publications, which address writing in Occitan, Catalan, Italian, and Latin as well as Old and Middle French and which maintain a consistent dialogue with other disciplines and periods, we aim to make this volume accessible to readers who are not specialists in medieval French literature, whether students of the French Middle Ages or advanced scholars in other fields.
Kay undertook her undergraduate and research degrees at Oxford, and a Masters degree in Linguistics at the University of Reading. At Oxford, she was taught by two inspirational women medievalists: Rhoda Sutherland, a remarkable teacher, and Elspeth Kennedy, a pioneering scholar of prose romance. Her first professional post was at the University of Liverpool, from where she moved to a university lectureship at Cambridge in the early 1980s. There, Kay became a Fellow of Girton College, where she later served as Senior Tutor (a major administrative post, involving responsibility for the education and welfare of the college's student population); she also undertook the role of Head of the University's Department of French. After two decades in Cambridge, Kay moved to Princeton in 2006 and then to New York University, where, as well as teaching and continuing to produce world-leading research, she held head of department and other influential leadership roles.
For this volume honouring Kay's scholarship, we invited twenty-four academics working across the disciplines of medieval studies to write in response to one of her six major monographs.