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This volume brings together recent insights about the psychology of organizational change. The authors are leading scholars in the study of organizational change, taking on a micro-perspective for understanding the process through which responses to change emerge and impact work-related outcomes. Each chapter approaches the topic from a different perspective, highlighting a different aspect of the phenomenon. The book includes review chapters, chapters with new theoretical developments, and descriptions of empirical studies and their findings. It is intended for both academic and practitioners who wish to keep up to date about the mechanisms that explain how recipients of organizational change respond to and cope with change.
Illustrated with over 800 colour images, this practical guide covers the unique morphology and disease spectrum in pediatric patients, ranging from normal physiologic changes to pathologic states. In addition, it covers newly described pediatric diseases, such as GATA-2 haploinsufficiency and reflects the latest WHO classification for hematolymphoid neoplasms. With the visual format of an atlas, the book provides a quick reference for trainees and physicians in hematopathology, as well as for hematologists and oncologists treating pediatric patients. An online version of the book with expandable figures can be accessed on Cambridge Core, via the code printed on the inside of the cover.
Lithic technologies dominate understanding of early humans, yet natural processes can fracture rock in ways that resemble artefacts made by Homo sapiens and other primates. Differentiating between fractures made by natural processes and primates is important for assessing the validity of early and controversial archaeological sites. Rather than depend on expert authority or intuition, the authors propose a null model of conchoidally fractured Antarctic rocks. As no primates have ever occupied the continent, Antarctica offers a laboratory for generating samples that could only have been naturally fractured. Examples that resemble artefacts produced by primates illustrate the potential of ‘archaeological’ research in Antarctica for the evaluation of hominin sites worldwide.
A mathematical model is developed to investigate seabed heat transfer processes under long-crested ocean waves. The unsteady convection–diffusion equation for water temperature includes terms depending on the velocity field in the laminar boundary layer, analogous to mass transfer near the seabed. Here we consider regular progressive waves and standing waves reflected from a vertical structure, which complicate the convective term in the governing equation. Rectangular and Gaussian distributions of seabed temperature and heat flux are considered. Approximate analytical solutions are derived for uniform and trapezoidal currents, and compared against predictions from a numerical solver of the full equations. The effects of heat source profile, location and strength on heat transfer dynamics in the thermal boundary layer are explained, providing insights into seabed temperature forced convection mechanisms enhanced by free-surface waves.
Peer support interventions for dietary change may offer cost-effective alternatives to interventions led by health professionals. This process evaluation of a trial to encourage the adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high CVD risk (TEAM-MED) aimed to investigate the feasibility of implementing a group-based peer support intervention for dietary change, positive elements of the intervention and aspects that could be improved. Data on training and support for the peer supporters; intervention fidelity and acceptability; acceptability of data collection processes for the trial and reasons for withdrawal from the trial were considered. Data were collected from observations, questionnaires and interviews, with both peer supporters and trial participants. Peer supporters were recruited and trained to result in successful implementation of the intervention; all intended sessions were run, with the majority of elements included. Peer supporters were complimentary of the training, and positive comments from participants centred around the peer supporters, the intervention materials and the supportive nature of the group sessions. Attendance at the group sessions, however, waned over the intervention, with suggested effects on intervention engagement, enthusiasm and group cohesion. Reduced attendance was reportedly a result of meeting (in)frequency and organisational concerns, but increased social activities and group-based activities may also increase engagement, group cohesion and attendance. The peer support intervention was successfully implemented and tested, but improvements can be suggested and may enhance the successful nature of these types of interventions. Some consideration of personal preferences may also improve outcomes.
This article examines recent controversies sparked by the critical reception of work by Global Majority theatre artists in Canada and the USA, including Yolanda Bonnell, Yvette Nolan, and Antoinette Nwandu. It argues that, when faced with works that fall outside of their presumed expertise and experience, critics commonly resort to a strategy of critical disengagement, which displaces the focus from the work and refuses to evaluate it on its own terms. Through an analysis of case studies, we elucidate the concept of critical disengagement and its three distinct categories, ‘othering,’ ‘imposing’, and ‘self-staging’. These acts are representative of larger patterns in dominant theatre criticism practices, which are descended from neoclassical and Enlightenment formulations of criticism, and centre around the ideals of fair judgement and critical objectivity. When applied to the work of Global Majority theatre artists by a largely white critical establishment, they enact, consolidate, and reproduce what Gayatri Spivak calls epistemic violence. During this pivotal moment, as theatre communities in the Global North respond to calls for racial justice and decolonization, this article sheds light on the often overlooked role of criticism in sustaining white supremacy within theatre production and reception, and stresses the urgent need to re-imagine critical practices. Signy Lynch is a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Toronto Mississauga and recipient of the Governor General’s Gold Medal (York University, 2022). She has published articles on theatre criticism and intercultural theatre in Contemporary Theatre Review, Canadian Theatre Review, and Theatre Research in Canada. Michelle MacArthur is associate professor at the University of Windsor’s School of Dramatic Art. She has published articles in Contemporary Theatre Review, Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism, Theatre Research in Canada, Canadian Theatre Review, and several edited volumes. She is the editor of Voices of a Generation: Three Millennial Plays (Playwrights Canada Press, 2022).
Despite three decades of research, gaps remain in meeting the needs of people with dementia and their family/friend carers as they navigate the often-tumultuous process of driving cessation. This paper describes the process of using a knowledge-to-action (KTA) approach to develop an educational web-based resource (i.e. toolkit), called the Driving and Dementia Roadmap (DDR), aimed at addressing some of these gaps.
Aligned with the KTA framework, knowledge creation and action cycle activities informed the development of the DDR. These activities included systematic reviews; meta-synthesis of qualitative studies; interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders; development of a Driving and Dementia Intervention Framework (DD-IF); and a review and curation of publicly available resources and tools. An Advisory Group comprised of people with dementia and family carers provided ongoing feedback on the DDR’s content and design.
The DDR is a multi-component online toolkit that contains separate portals for current and former drivers with dementia and their family/friend carers. Based on the DD-IF, various topics of driving cessation are presented to accommodate users’ diverse stages and needs in their experiences of decision-making and transitioning to non-driving.
Guided by the KTA framework that involved a systematic and iterative process of knowledge creation and translation, the resulting person-centered, individualized and flexible DDR can bring much-needed support to help people with dementia and their families maintain their mobility, community access, and social and emotional wellbeing during and post-driving cessation.
Different dietary indexes are proposed to investigate adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD). However, they are based on different methodologies, and limited research has compared them to each other, particularly in non-Mediterranean populations. We aimed to compare five indexes intended to measure adherence to the MD. The sample was composed of adults and older adults (n 1187) from 2015 ISA-Nutrition, a cross-sectional population-based study in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Dietary data obtained through two 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) from which the Mediterranean diet scale (MDS), Mediterranean diet Score (MedDietscore), Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) and Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS) were calculated. The correlations and agreements between them were analysed by Spearman's correlation and linearly weighted Cohen's Kappa coefficients, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were applied to investigate their convergent validity. The highest correlations were found between MDP and MAI (r = 0⋅76; 95% CI 0⋅74–0⋅79) and between MDP and MDS (r = 0⋅72; 95% CI 0⋅69–0⋅75). The greatest agreements observed were moderate, between MDP v. MAI (κ = 0⋅57, P < 0⋅001) and MDP v. MDS (κ = 0⋅48, P < 0⋅001). The goodness-of-fit of CFA for MedDietscore (RMSEA = 0⋅033, 90% CI 0⋅02–0⋅042; SRMR = 0⋅042) and MSDPS (RMSEA = 0⋅028, 90% CI 0⋅019–0⋅037; SRMR = 0⋅031) had acceptable values for absolute fit indices. Vegetables, olive oil, MUFA:SFA ratio and cereals with legumes were more relevant to characterise the MD (factor loadings ≥0⋅50). The MDS, MAI and MDP classified the population similarly, but the MedDietscore showed better performances in evaluating adherence to the MD. These results provided guidance for the most appropriate Mediterranean dietary index to be applied in non-Mediterranean populations.
We developed a high-resolution magnetochronology of the Pleistocene stratigraphy of the Monte Netto hillock, a tectonically uplifted structure in the Po Plain of northern Italy. Our data allowed reconstructing the depositional age of the sequence and assessing rates of deformation and rock uplift of the neotectonic structure, thus providing constraints on the tectono-sedimentary evolution of this seismically active part of the buried Southern Alps. Using a combination of magnetostratigraphy and paleosecular variation analysis, we generated an age-depth model for the Monte Netto stratigraphy that encompasses, from the top, Upper Pleistocene (11–72 ka) loess-paleosols overlaying fluvial sediments spanning the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (773 ka) and the top of the Jaramillo (990 ka). The identification of the same magneto-chronostratigraphic surfaces in nearby drill cores from regions of the Po Plain that have not been affected by neotectonic deformation allowed estimating a mean rate of tectonic uplift of the hillock relative to the neighboring plain of 11.3 ± 1.5 cm/ka, and an absolute uplift relative to sea level of ~19.3 cm/ka. Finally, our paleomagnetic analyses from the uppermost loess sequence disclosed the complexity of the tectonic evolution of the Monte Netto structure, which shows evidence of a two-phase rotational deformation linked to coseismic surface faulting due to recent seismic activity.
The study of the cranial endocast provides valuable information to understand the behavior of an organism because it coordinates sensory information and motor functions. In this work, we describe for the first time the anatomy of the encephalon of an early Miocene pan-octodontoid caviomorph rodent (Prospaniomys priscus Ameghino, 1902) found in the Argentinean Patagonia, based on a virtual 3D endocast. This fossil rodent has an endocast morphology here considered ancestral for Pan-Octodontoidea and other South American caviomorph lineages, i.e., an encephalon with anteroposteriorly aligned elements, mesencephalon dorsally exposed, well-developed vermis of the cerebellum, and rhombic cerebral hemispheres with well-developed temporal lobes. Prospaniomys Ameghino, 1902 also has relatively small olfactory bulbs, large paraflocculi of the cerebellum, and low endocranial volume and degree of neocorticalization. Its encephalization quotient is low compared with Paleogene North American and European noncaviomorph rodents, but slightly higher than in several late early and late Miocene caviomorphs. Paleoneurological anatomical information supports the hypothesis that Prospaniomys was a generalist caviomorph rodent with terrestrial habits and enhanced low-frequency auditory specializations. The scarce paleoneurological information indicates that several endocast characters in caviomorph rodents could change with ecological pressures. This work sheds light on the anatomy and evolution of several paleoneurological aspects of this particular group of South American rodents.
Little is known about whether brief mindfulness ecological momentary interventions (MEMIs) yield clinically beneficial effects. This gap exists despite the rapid growth of smartphone mindfulness applications. Specifically, no prior brief MEMI has targeted generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Moreover, although theories propose that MEMIs can boost executive functioning (EF), they have largely gone untested. Thus, this randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to address these gaps by assessing the efficacy of a 14-day smartphone MEMI (versus self-monitoring placebo [SMP]).
Participants with GAD were randomly assigned to either condition (68 MEMI and 42 SMP). MEMI participants exercised multiple core mindfulness strategies and were instructed to practice mindfulness continually. Comparatively, SMP participants were prompted to practice self-monitoring and were not taught any mindfulness strategies. All prompts occurred five times a day for 14 consecutive days. Participants completed self-reports and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up (1MFU). Piecewise hierarchical linear modeling analyses were conducted.
MEMI (versus SMP) produced greater pre-1MFU reductions in GAD severity and perseverative cognitions (between-group d = 0.393–0.394) and stronger improvements in trait mindfulness and performance-based inhibition (d = 0.280–0.303). Further, MEMI (versus SMP) led to more considerable pre- to posttreatment reduction in state-level depression and anxiety and more mindfulness gains (d = 0.50–1.13). Overall, between-treatment effects were stronger at pre-1MFU than pre- to posttreatment for trait-level than state-level treatment outcome measures.
Preliminary findings suggest that the beneficial effect of an unguided brief MEMI to target pathological worry, trait mindfulness, and EF is modest yet potentially meaningful. Other theoretical and clinical implications were discussed.
This study examined relationships between dimensions of social capital (SC) (social trust, network diversity, social reciprocity and civic engagement) and fruit, vegetable, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among rural adults. Potential moderators (neighbourhood rurality, food security, gender and race/ethnicity) were explored to develop a more nuanced understanding of the SC–healthy eating relationship.
Data were from a 2019 mailed population-based survey evaluating an eleven-county initiative to address health equity. Participants self-reported health behaviours, access to health-promoting resources and demographics. Logistic regression models were used to analyse relationships between predictors, outcomes and moderators.
Five rural counties, Georgia, USA.
Among participants who lived in the country (as opposed to in town), greater network diversity was associated with consuming ≥ 3 servings of fruit (OR = 1·08; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·17, P = 0·029), yet among participants who lived in town, greater civic engagement was associated with consuming ≥ three servings of fruit (OR = 1·36; 95 % CI 1·11, 1·65, P = 0·003). Both food-secure and food-insecure participants with greater social reciprocity had lower odds of consuming 0 SSB (OR = 0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·98, P = 0·014, OR = 0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·99, P = 0·037, respectively). Men with greater social trust were more likely to consume 0 SSB (OR = 1·09; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·18, P = 0·038), and Whites with greater network diversity were more likely to meet daily vegetable recommendations (OR = 1·10; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19, P = 0·028).
Findings provide a basis for future qualitative research on potential mechanisms through which SC and related social factors influence healthy eating in rural communities.
‘Dietary variety’ has been identified as a factor associated with food intake. Whilst this relationship may have longer-term benefits for body weight management when eating low-energy, nutrient-dense foods, it may increase the risk of overconsumption (and body adiposity) when foods are high energy density. This study sought to further explore pathways underpinning the relationship between dietary variety and body weight, by considering energy density as a moderating factor and portion size as a mediating factor in this relationship. Using prospective data from the UK Biobank, dietary variety scores (DVS), cumulative portion size and energy density were derived from 24-h dietary recall questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. BMI, whole-body fat percentage and fat-free mass were included as outcomes. Contrary to predictions, linear multiple regression models found some evidence of a negative, direct association between DVS and body weight outcomes at baseline (b = –0·13). Though dietary variety was significantly associated with larger portions across time points (b = 41·86–82·64), a moderated mediation effect was not supported at baseline or follow-up (Index ≤ 0·035). Taken together, these findings provide population-level evidence to support a positive association between variety and food intake, which in turn has potential implications for body weight management, both in terms of moderating food intake and benefitting diet quality.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and medication are widely accepted and useful interventions for individuals with depression. However, a gap remains in our current understanding of how CBT directly benefits adolescents with depression.
The purpose of this study was to examine the short- and long-term effectiveness of CBT only, CBT+Medication, or Medication alone in reducing the duration of major depressive episodes, lessening internalizing and externalizing symptoms and improving global functioning.
Data were extracted from 14 unique studies with a total of 35 comparisons. Network meta-analysis was conducted and p-scores, a measure of the extent of certainty that one treatment is better than another, were used to rank treatments.
There was no significant difference between any two treatments for depression, nor internalizing or externalizing symptoms. For global functioning, CBT had significantly greater effect at the longest follow-up than CBT+Medication. CBT+Medication had the highest p-score for depression, short- and long-term effects, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms long-term effects. No indication of publication bias was found.
Neither modality, CBT nor medication, is superior for treating adolescent depression. However, CBT was superior in improving global functioning, which is essential for meeting developmental goals.
This research communication reports the responses to supplementing dairy cattle with a hydrogenated fat-embedded calcium gluconate feed additive. The role of hindgut health in ruminant performance and wellbeing is an area of growing interest. Various prebiotic compounds have been used to promote lower gut health in various non-ruminant species. Calcium gluconate, a prebiotic compound, has previously been observed to increase milk fat yield when fed to ruminants in a form capable of resisting fermentation in the rumen, though the mechanism(s) behind this response remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the responses of lactating cattle to two different supplementation levels of a hydrogenated fat-embedded calcium gluconate (HFCG) product to evaluate a potential linear dose response. Forty-six lactating Holstein dairy cattle were used in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design with 28 d periods to evaluate a previously used dose of HFCG (approximately 16 g/d) with both a negative control and a dose of 25 g/d. Supplementation of multiparous animals with 16 g/d HFCG significantly (P < 0.05) increased milk fat yield and content relative to the negative control, and subsequently improved gross feed efficiency (P < 0.05); additionally, the presence of a potential non-linear dose response was observed for these parameters. Responses when supplemented with 25 g/d HFCG did not differ from the negative control. No production responses were observed in primiparous animals. The mode of action of HFCG, in addition to the potential differential response in primiparous animals remains unclear and warrants further investigation.
The effects of a (30 cm high) elevated platform as an enrichment structure on the behaviour and performance of fattening rabbits kept in groups were investigated. Three housing systems for fattening rabbits were compared using a stocking density of 15 rabbits m–2. The rabbits were housed either in large pens (3.67 m2 plus a platform of 0.39 m2; with 60 rabbits per pen) or in small pens (0.503 m2 plus a platform of 0.159 m2; with10 rabbits per pen), or in conventional standard cages (0.39 m2, with 6 rabbits and without any enrichment) from 31 to 72 days of age. The conventional cages without a platform were used as a control and reference model. Rabbits housed in each small pen or in each cage belonged to the same litter, and the 60 rabbits sharing the same large pen were from six or seven litters. At the end of fattening, rabbits reached the weight of 2,508 g in cages, 2,397 g in small pens, and 2,340 g in large pens; the only significant difference was daily weight gain which was better in cages than in both pens. There was no difference in growth parameters between the two types of pens. The mortality rate was less than 1% for all treatments. No sanitation problems or severe lesions were seen with rabbits even those reared in large pens and large groups. Neither housing systems, nor elevated platform affected activities such as dietary intake or resting. The use of the platform appears to depend upon the amount of space available; in a large pen, an elevated platform can be utilised as an exercise structure while in a small pen it was used more as simply extra space to occupy.
Deficits in social cognition (SC) are significantly related to community functioning in schizophrenia (SZ). Few studies investigated longitudinal changes in SC and its impact on recovery. In the present study, we aimed: (a) to estimate the magnitude and clinical significance of SC change in outpatients with stable SZ who were assessed at baseline and after 4 years, (b) to identify predictors of reliable and clinically significant change (RCSC), and (c) to determine whether changes in SC over 4 years predicted patient recovery at follow-up.
The reliable change index was used to estimate the proportion of true change in SC, not attributable to measurement error. Stepwise multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors of RCSC in a SC domain (The Awareness of Social Inference Test [TASIT]) and the effect of change in TASIT on recovery at follow-up.
In 548 participants, statistically significant improvements were found for the simple and paradoxical sarcasm of TASIT scale, and for the total score of section 2. The reliable change index was 9.8. A cut-off of 45 identified patients showing clinically significant change. Reliable change was achieved by 12.6% and RCSC by 8% of participants. Lower baseline TASIT sect. 2 score predicted reliable improvement on TASIT sect. 2. Improvement in TASIT sect. 2 scores predicted functional recovery, with a 10-point change predicting 40% increase in the probability of recovery.
The RCSC index provides a conservative way to assess the improvement in the ability to grasp sarcasm in SZ, and is associated with recovery.
Three housing systems for fattening rabbits were compared using a stocking density of 15 rabbits m–2. The rabbits were housed in large pens (3.67 m2, 50 rabbits), small pens (0.66 m2, 10 rabbits) or in conventional standard cages (0.39 m2, 6 rabbits) from 31 to 72 days of age. Rabbits housed in each small pen or in each cage belonged to the same litter, and the 50 rabbits housed in each large pen were from six or seven litters. At the end of fattening, when rabbits were 72 days old, there was no significant difference in the weight of rabbits from the three different housing systems, even though the rabbits from small pens were slightly heavier in weight compared with rabbits from large pens. The best feed conversion ratio was found in rabbits from cages, but was only significantly different from rabbits housed in small pens. No significant differences were found in the main activities: nutrition, social behaviour, resting, and standing; however, the frequency of runs, hops and consecutive hops was significantly higher in rabbits from large pens compared with rabbits from the two other housing systems. These results confirm that the total surface area available for animals is the most important factor for such locomotory activities. This study did not reveal any significant difference in aggressive behaviours between rabbits from different litters housed in large pens and between rabbits from the same litter housed in small pens or cages.