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This study aimed to verify the association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and dietary patterns (DP) of children assisted by the Conditional Cash Transfer Program, Bolsa Família (BFP).
This is a cross-sectional study. DP were defined using a principal component analysis. The association of the predictive variables and DP was modelled using multilevel linear regression analysis.
This study was conducted in six municipalities from the State of Alagoas, Brazil.
The participants were children aged 6–24 months who were assisted by the BFP.
A total of 1,604 children were evaluated. Four DPs were identified (DP1, DP2, DP3, and DP4). DP1 is composed of traditional Brazilian food. DP2 is formed mostly from ultra-processed foods (UPF). DP3 consists of milk (non-breast) with added sugar, while DP4 consists of fresh and minimally processed foods. Caregivers with higher age and education (β = −0.008; 95%CI: [−0.017; −0.000]; β = −0.037; 95%CI: [−0.056; −0.018], respectively) were negatively associated with DP2. We observed a negative association between households with food insecurity (β = −0.204; 95%CI: [−0.331; −0.078]) and DP4 and a positive association between caregivers with higher age and education (β = 0.011; 95%CI: [0.003; 0.019]; β = 0.043; 95%CI: [0.025; 0.061], respectively) and DP4.
This study identified the association between socioeconomic inequities and DP early in life, with an early introduction of UPF, in children assisted by BFP in the State of Alagoas.
A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to the number of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing polygenic vulnerability. Here, we investigated, in the largest sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases to date, whether childhood adversity and high polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (SZ-PRS) combine synergistically to increase the risk of psychosis, over and above the effect of each alone.
We assigned a schizophrenia-polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS), calculated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2), to all participants in a sample of 384 FEP patients and 690 controls from the case–control component of the EU-GEI study. Only participants of European ancestry were included in the study. A history of childhood adversity was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Synergistic effects were estimated using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) [odds ratio (OR)exposure and PRS − ORexposure − ORPRS + 1] with adjustment for potential confounders.
There was some evidence that the combined effect of childhood adversities and polygenic risk was greater than the sum of each alone, as indicated by an ICR greater than zero [i.e. ICR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.29 to 3.85]. Examining subtypes of childhood adversities, the strongest synergetic effect was observed for physical abuse (ICR 6.25, 95% CI −6.25 to 20.88).
Our findings suggest possible synergistic effects of genetic liability and childhood adversity experiences in the onset of FEP, but larger samples are needed to increase precision of estimates.
To investigate the influence of parental physical activity on offspring’s nutritional status in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.
Birth cohort study.
The main outcomes were overweight and obesity status of children. The main exposure was parental physical activity over time, measured during the 11, 15 and 18 years of age follow-ups. The exposure was operationalised as cumulative, and the most recent measure before the birth of child. We adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance to evaluate crude and adjusted associations between parental physical activity and offspring’s nutritional status. All analyses were stratified according to the sex of the parent.
A total of 874 members from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort followed-up at 22 years of age with their first-born child were analysed.
Children were, on average, 3·1 years old. Crude analyses showed that the mother’s cumulative physical activity measure had an indirect association with the prevalence of children’s obesity. The most recent maternal physical activity measure before the birth of the child was associated with 41 % lower prevalence of obesity in children, even after adjustment for confounders.
The most recent maternal physical activity measure was indirectly associated with the prevalence of obesity in children. No associations were found for fathers, reinforcing the hypothesis of a biological effect of maternal physical activity on offspring’s nutritional status.
Reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing physical activity (PA) by sitting less and standing/walking more is advised to prevent chronic diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying this recommendation are not well established, especially in individuals with obesity living in low-income regions. The present study evaluated whether there are associations between PA indicators (PAI – standing time, walking time and the number of steps/d) and SB indicators (SBI – sitting/lying down time) with the hormonal profile and resting energy expenditure (REE) of adult women living in a low-income region. This is a cross-sectional study. We collected data on hormones (insulin resistance, leptin and thyroid axis), body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance), REE (indirect calorimetry), and PAI and SBI (triaxial accelerometers, ActivPAL). Multivariable linear models adjusting for age and fat-free mass were performed. Fifty-eight women (mean age of 31 years and BMI of 33 kg/m2) were included. The mean sitting/lying down time and standing time were 16·08 and 5·52 h/d, respectively. Sitting/lying down time showed a direct association with free thyroxine (FT4) (β = 0·56 ng/dl; 95 % CI = −1·10, −0·02). Standing time showed a direct association with FT4 (β = 0·75 ng/dl; 95 % CI = 0·01; 1·48) and inverse association with free triiodothyronine (β = −2·83 pg/ml 95 % CI = −5·56, −0·10). There were no associations between PAI and SBI with the REE, insulin resistance, leptin and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thus, decreased SB is associated with thyroid hormones levels but not with REE, insulin resistance or leptin in women with obesity living in low-income regions.
The objective was to evaluate the fermentation profile, in vitro gas production and nutritional quality of pornunça (Manihot spp.) silages containing levels of condensed tannin (CT; 0, 4, 8 and 12% on dry matter (DM) basis), at five opening times (0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days). A completely randomized design in a 4 × 5 factorial arrangement was adopted, with four replications, totalling 80 experimental silos. The pH and NH3-N analyses were performed at all opening times of the silos. The other analyses were performed only with silages opened at 56 days of storage. There was an interaction effect between CT levels and silo opening times for pH and NH3-N. Tannin levels in pornunça silages after 56 days ensiling increased the pH and DM and reduced crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). There was a quadratic effect for NH3-N, acetic acid, butyric acid, gas losses, dry matter recovery (DMR), hemicellulose and acid detergent fibre. Inclusion of 4 and 8% CT in pornunça silage promotes a rapid decline in pH, being within the acceptable limit for adequate fermentation at 3 days of ensiling. Silages with 4% CT establish the pH at 28 days of opening the silos, with reduced NH3-N. Silages with 4% CT present higher concentrations of acetic and butyric acids and greater DMR. Inclusion of CT in pornunça silage after 56 days ensiling increases DM and reduces CP and NDF, directly affecting the in vitro degradability and reducing gas production.
Population-based seroprevalence studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in low- and middle-income countries are lacking. We investigated the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in Sergipe state, Northeast Brazil, using rapid IgM−IgG antibody test and fluorescence immunoassay. The seroprevalence was 9.3% (95% CI 8.5–10.1), 10.2% (95% CI 9.2–11.3) for women and 7.9% (IC 95% 6.8–9.1) for men (P = 0.004). We found a decline in the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies according to age, but the differences were not statistically significant: 0–19 years (9.9%; 95% CI 7.8–12.5), 20–59 years (9.3%; 95% CI 8.4–10.3) and ≥60 years (9.0%; 95% CI 7.5–10.8) (P = 0.517). The metropolitan area had a higher seroprevalence (11.7%, 95% CI 10.3–13.2) than outside municipalities (8.0%, 95% CI 7.2–8.9) (P < 0.001). These findings highlight the importance of serosurveillance to estimate the real impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and thereby provide data to better understand the spread of the virus, as well as providing information to guide stay-at-home measures and other policies. In addition, these results may be useful as basic data to follow the progress of COVID-19 outbreak as social restriction initiatives start to be relaxed in Brazil.
Evidence suggests that maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. This study was aimed at assessing the association of maternal prepregnancy BMI with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence and adulthood. We also evaluated whether offspring BMI was a mediator in this association. The study included mother–offspring pairs from three Pelotas birth cohorts. Offspring cardiometabolic risk factors were collected in the last follow-up of each cohort [mean age (in years) 30.2, 22.6, 10.9]. Blood pressure was measured using an automatic device, cholesterol by using an enzymatic colorimetric method, and glucose from fingertip blood, using a portable glucose meter. In a pooled analysis of the cohorts, multiple linear regression was used to control for confounding. Mediation analysis was conducted using G-computation formula. In the adjusted model, mean systolic blood pressure of offspring from overweight and obese mothers was on average 1.25 (95% CI: 0.45; 2.05) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.66; 3.59) mmHg higher than that of offspring from normal-weight mothers; for diastolic blood pressure, the means were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.26; 1.34) and 2.60 (95% CI: 1.62; 3.59) mmHg higher, respectively. Non-HDL cholesterol was positively associated with maternal BMI, whereas blood glucose was not associated. Mediation analyses showed that offspring BMI explained completely the association of maternal prepregnancy BMI with offspring systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI is positively associated with offspring blood pressure, and blood lipids, and this association is explained by offspring BMI.
Biofilm formation is a central feature to guarantee staphylococcal persistence in hosts and is associated with several diseases that are difficult to treat. In this research paper, biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility were investigated in staphylococcal strains belonging to several species. These strains were isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis and most of them were coagulase-negative, with the prevalence of Staphylococcus chromogenes. High genetic diversity was observed among the strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by disk diffusion and more than 50% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin G, with multi-resistance profiles (13.6%) also being observed. Most strains (65.9%) formed biofilms when cultivated in BHI supplemented with 1% glucose. Most strains (72.7%) carried the intercellular adhesion gene (icaA), while less than half (36.3%) carried the biofilm-associated protein gene (bap). Concentrations of up to 10xMIC of erythromycin and tetracycline were not sufficient to suppress cell viability in preformed biofilms. Our results revealed that a genetically diverse group of biofilm-forming Staphylococcus species can be involved in subclinical mastitis. Since high antimicrobial concentrations cannot eradicate biofilm cells in vitro, their use in dairy animals may be ineffective in controlling infections, while supporting selection of resistant microorganisms. These data reinforce the need for alternative therapies aiming at disrupting biofilms for effective disease control.
Estuaries in Brazil are highly threatened environments and habitat loss is the main influential factor for the increase in the number of strandings of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves in the north-eastern region of the country. The aim of the present study was to analyse and quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of mangroves in the state of Paraíba and the association with manatee calf stranding events. The study area encompassed 10 remaining mangroves along the coast of the state, four of which were located within protected areas. Information on the mangrove forests was obtained from satellite images from the last four decades. Data on stranded Antillean manatee calves were obtained from a databank with records from 1980 to 2019. The data were analysed using geoprocessing techniques and statistical analyses. The results demonstrated changes in the mangrove forest over time, with larger areas existing during the 1980s, reductions in the following periods but a slight increase in the last decade. The number of stranded Antillean manatee calves increased over the years, with stranding events concentrated mainly on the northern coast of the state. The smallest number of stranding events occurred in the 1980s, when the mangrove forests were larger. Our findings confirm that the integrity of mangroves is of extreme importance to the maintenance and sustainability of Antillean manatee populations.
This study evaluated the effects of leptin on primordial follicle survival and activation after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue and if leptin acts through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway. Ovarian fragments were fixed for histology (fresh control) or cultured for 7 days in control medium (α-MEM+) alone or supplemented with leptin (1, 5, 10, 25 or 50 ng/ml). Follicle morphology, activation and apoptosis were analyzed. Next, the fragments were cultured in the medium that showed the best results in the absence or the presence of the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), and immunohistostaining of p-Akt protein was assessed. After culture, the percentage of normal follicles decreased (P < 0.05) in all treatments compared with the fresh control. Moreover, control medium and 1 ng/ml leptin had similar (P > 0.05) percentages of normal follicles, which were significantly higher than those in other treatments. However, culture with 1 ng/ml leptin maintained apoptosis similarly (P > 0.05) to that of the fresh control and lower (P < 0.05) than that in α-MEM+. Leptin did not influence follicle activation (P > 0.05) compared with the control medium (α-MEM+). Culture in 1 ng/ml leptin with LY294002 decreased the normal follicles and increased apoptosis, inhibited follicle activation (P < 0.05), and reduced p-Akt immunostaining, compared with the medium containing 1 ng/ml leptin without PI3K inhibitor. In conclusion, leptin at 1 ng/ml reduces apoptosis and promotes the activation of primordial follicles compared with the fresh control after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue possibly through the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Cannabis consumption is a modifiable risk factor associated with psychosis, but not all cannabis users develop psychosis. Animal studies suggest that an antecedent active immune system interacts with subsequent cannabis exposure and moderates the cannabis–psychosis association, supporting the two-hit hypothesis. The clinical investigations are few, and it is unclear if the immune system is a biological candidate moderating the cannabis–psychosis association or whether cannabis increases inflammation, which in turn, augments psychosis likelihood.
We explored the mediating and moderating role of blood inflammation using PROCESS macro. We used data from a cross-sectional study, including 153 first-episode psychosis patients and 256 community-based controls. Participants answered the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire (cannabis frequency, age of onset, and duration), and plasma cytokines were measured [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β); multiplex]. We computed an inflammatory composite score (ICS) to represent the systemic inflammatory state. Confounders included sex, age, ethnicity, educational level, body mass index, tobacco smoking, lifetime use of other drugs, and antipsychotic treatment.
Mediation: Cannabis consumption was not associated with increased inflammation, thus not supporting a mediating effect of inflammation. Moderation: Daily use and age of onset <17 interacted significantly with the ICS to increase the odds of psychosis beyond their individual effects and were only associated with psychosis among those scoring medium–high in the ICS.
Immune dysregulation might be part of the pathophysiology of psychosis, not explained by cannabis use or other confounders. We provide the first and initial evidence that immune dysregulation modifies the cannabis–psychosis association, in line with a two-hit hypothesis.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
Psychosis rates are higher among some migrant groups. We hypothesized that psychosis in migrants is associated with cumulative social disadvantage during different phases of migration.
We used data from the EUropean Network of National Schizophrenia Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) case–control study. We defined a set of three indicators of social disadvantage for each phase: pre-migration, migration and post-migration. We examined whether social disadvantage in the pre- and post-migration phases, migration adversities, and mismatch between achievements and expectations differed between first-generation migrants with first-episode psychosis and healthy first-generation migrants, and tested whether this accounted for differences in odds of psychosis in multivariable logistic regression models.
In total, 249 cases and 219 controls were assessed. Pre-migration (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06–2.44, p = 0.027) and post-migration social disadvantages (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.02–3.51, p = 0.044), along with expectations/achievements mismatch (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.26, p = 0.014) were all significantly associated with psychosis. Migration adversities (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.672–2.06, p = 0.568) were not significantly related to the outcome. Finally, we found a dose–response effect between the number of adversities across all phases and odds of psychosis (⩾6: OR 14.09, 95% CI 2.06–96.47, p = 0.007).
The cumulative effect of social disadvantages before, during and after migration was associated with increased odds of psychosis in migrants, independently of ethnicity or length of stay in the country of arrival. Public health initiatives that address the social disadvantages that many migrants face during the whole migration process and post-migration psychological support may reduce the excess of psychosis in migrants.
The aim of the current study is to assess the validity and reproducibility of a FFQ focused on pregnant women living in Northeastern Brazil.
Three 24-hour-dietary recalls (24 hR) and two FFQ were applied at 15-d intervals between research stages in order to confirm the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ. Validity assessment was based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC) or Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC) between FFQ and the mean of three 24 hR (the 24 hR was used as reference standard), whereas reproducibility assessment was based on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) among FFQ, and P < 0·05 was set as significance level.
Public health network of a capital city in Northeastern Brazil.
Overall, 100 pregnant women were included in the study.
The PCC or SCC adopted in the validity analysis recorded the recommended values (from 0·4 and 0·7) for energy (0·44; P < 0·001), carbohydrate (0·40; P < 0·001), vitamins B2 (0·40; P < 0·001), B5 (0·40; P < 0·001), E (0·47; P < 0·001), B12 (0·48; P < 0·001), phosphorus (0·92; P < 0·001), Mg (0·81; P < 0·001), Se (0·70; P < 0·001), cholesterol (0·64; P < 0·001), saturated (0·76; P < 0·001), polyunsaturated (0·73; P < 0·001) and monounsaturated fats (0·87; P < 0·001) and fibres (0·77; P < 0·001). Mg (0·72; P < 0·001), Fe (0·65; P < 0·001), lipid (0·56; P < 0·001) and energy (0·55; P < 0·001) presented ICC within the recommended reproducibility values.
The FFQ developed in the current study is a useful tool to assess the usual food intake of pregnant women.
We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight.
Birth cohort study.
Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula.
In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages.
Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association.
Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.
Population studies have suggested that most adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) did not have the disorder in childhood, challenging the neurodevelopmental conceptualisation of ADHD. Arbitrary definitions of age at onset and lack of defined trajectories were accounted for the findings.
The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of individuals presenting with either a neurodevelopmental trajectory or late-onset disorder, and to assess risk factors associated with them.
Data of 4676 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort at 11, 15, 18 and 22 years of age were used. Polythetic and latent class mixed model analyses were performed to define ADHD trajectories from childhood to adulthood, and characterise the neurodevelopmental or late-onset courses. Regression models were applied to assess factors associated with different trajectories.
Classical polythetic analyses showed that 67% of those with ADHD at 22 years of age had a neurodevelopmental course of the disorder. Latent class mixed model analysis indicated that 78% of adults with ADHD had a trajectory of persistent symptoms, more common in males. The remaining adults with ADHD had an ascending symptom trajectory that occurred after puberty, with late-onset ADHD associated with female gender and higher IQ.
Both polythetic and latent trajectories analyses provided empirical evidence supporting that the large majority of adults with ADHD had a neurodevelopmental disorder.
This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of flint maize processing methods on the estimation of the readily soluble fraction (a), the potentially degradable fraction (b) and the rate of degradation of b (c) for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and starch in the rumen; and (2) verify whether two different applications of in situ technique can be used to estimate in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. Five ruminally cannulated Nellore bulls (265 ± 18.2 kg; 8 ± 1.0 mo) were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Three experimental diets were composed of 0.30 whole-plant maize silage, 0.10 supplement and 0.60 of one of the following processing methods: dry ground maize grain (DMG); high-moisture maize (HMM); reconstituted maize grain silage (RMG). Two additional diets were composed of 0.10 supplement, 0.80 snaplage and 0.10 stalklage (SNAP-80); or 0.10 supplement and 0.90 snaplage (SNAP-90). Digestibilities were estimated using in vivo procedure or predicted from in situ technique using a single 24 h incubation point or an equation proposed in previous literature. Diets based on ensiled grains presented greater (P < 0.05) fraction a and c and lower (P < 0.05) fraction b of DM, OM and starch compared to DMG. Both alternative use of in situ technique accurately estimated (P > 0.05) in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. The results suggest that ensilage process may increase the availability of nutrients. The two different applications of in situ technique showed precision and accuracy to estimate in vivo digestibility.