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This systematic review aims to discuss the extent to which the measures undertaken to control the COVID-19 pandemic in several countries have affected those with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The coronavirus pandemic is still raging on in many countries and its effects will still be felt years from now and previous studies have shown that it has impacted other mental illnesses. AN cases are on the rise and the nature of the illness has deadly consequences, therefore it is paramount to discuss the relationship between the COVID-19 measures and symptomatology of AN to ensure appropriate services are in place to deal with potential outcomes.
Systematic search of the PubMed database gave thirty-three total results with seven of these used in this review. These studies met the inclusion criteria; examples include primary studies and use of the English Language. The exclusion criteria involved literature reviews, studies with less than ten participants and studies not separating AN from other eating disorders.
Many studies were cross sectional in nature except two longitudinal studies. Anorexic symptomology increased in the majority of papers in this review. Specifically restricting intake has increased compared to before lockdown measures. Physical activity has varied on an individual level in most studies potentially due to compensatory behaviours. Co-morbid psychopathologies were also noted during these studies. There are many factors behind these changes such as food insecurity, the effect of media and social media, uncertainty and the lack of social interaction. A number of participants across the studies were dissatisfied with treatment services during lockdowns. Variability in study results may be due to the differences in measures between countries and the use of self-reported cases compared to those contacted through care services. Limitations of this review are largely due to the how current the topic is and recommendations for the future include reviewing new studies that are published and to review the situation once the full impact of COVID-19 is known.
Patients with AN have struggled more due to the COVID-19 measures and the true effect of the pandemic is yet to be felt. Further studies and reviews should be conducted. The appropriate services should be put into place to ensure patients are supported effectively.
We report experimental investigations on the mixing of a ferrofluid droplet with a non-magnetic miscible fluid in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic field on an open surface microfluidic platform. The bright-field visualization technique, in combination with micro-particle image velocimetry analysis, is carried out to explore the internal hydrodynamics of the ferrofluid droplet. Also, using the laser-induced fluorescence technique, we quantify the mass transfer occurring between the two droplets, which in effect, determines the underlying mixing performance under the modulation of the frequency of the applied magnetic field. We show that the magnetic nanoparticles exhibit complex spatio-temporal movements inside the ferrofluid droplet domain in a transient magnetic forcing environment, which, in turn, promotes the mixing efficiency in the convective mixing regime. Our analysis establishes that the movement of magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of the time-periodic field strengthens the flow instability, which initiates an augmented mixing in the present scenario. By performing numerical simulations, we also review the onset of instability phenomena, mainly stemming from the susceptibility mismatch between the magnetic and non-magnetic fluids. Inferences of the present analysis, which focuses on the simple, wireless, robust and low-cost open surface micromixing mechanism, will provide a potential solution for rapid droplet mixing without requiring a pH level or ion concentration dependency of the fluids.
Soil and nutrients losses due to soil erosion are detrimental to crop production, especially in the hilly terrains. An experiment was carried out in three consecutive cropping seasons (2012–2015) with four treatments: sole maize; sole maize with plastic mulch; maize and cowpea under plastic mulching; and maize and soybean under plastic mulching in randomized block design (RBD) to assess their impact on productivity, profitability, and resource (rainwater, soil, and NPK nutrients) conservation in the Indian sub-Himalayan region. The plot size was 9 × 8.1 m with 2% slope, and runoff and soil loss were measured using a multi-slot devisor. The results showed that mean runoff decreased from 356 mm in sole maize with plastic mulch plots to 229 mm in maize + cowpea intercropping with plastic mulch, representing a reduction of 36% and corresponding soil loss reduction was 41% (from 9.4 to 5.5 t ha−1). The eroded soil exported a considerable amount of nitrogen (N) (13.2–31.4 kg ha−1), phosphorous (P) (0.5–1.7 kg ha−1), and potassium (K) (9.9–15.6 kg ha−1) and was consistently lower in maize + cowpea intercropping. The maize equivalent yield (MEY) was significantly higher in maize + cowpea with plastic mulch intercropping than the other treatments. These results justify the need to adopt maize with alternate legume intercrops and plastic mulch. This strategy must be done in a way guaranteeing high yield stability to the smallholder farmers of the Indian sub-Himalayan region.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work seeks to improve the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infection among hospitalized older adults and mitigate antibiotic overuse in this population. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Primary objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum procalcitonin (PCT) for the diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) in hospitalized older adults. Secondary objectives: (1) To develop a predictive model for the diagnosis of UTI; (2) To determine the ability of PCT in discriminating between lower and upper UTI. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 228 participants from a single institution. The study population included older adults (age 65 or older) who were hospitalized on the general medicine wards with a possible or suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). Upon obtaining informed consent, serum procalcitonin (PCT) was processed on remnant blood samples collected from the emergency department. We performed additional data collection through the electronic health record to obtain demographic information, clinical characteristics, and other laboratory and imaging results. Clinicians were surveyed for the diagnosis of UTI and charts were adjudicated by independent reviews of the medical record by infectious diseases experts to determine the primary endpoint of symptomatic UTI. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that serum procalcitonin predicts the presence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) by demonstrating an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of at least 0.85. A predictive model developed in our cohort for the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI will be improved by the addition of serum PCT to the prediction model. Finally, we anticipate the serum PCT will accurately discriminate between upper and lower UTI. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Diagnosis of symptomatic UTI in hospitalized older adults is challenging and may lead to overuse of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance in this vulnerable patient population. Serum procalcitonin offers a novel diagnostic strategy in the diagnosis of symptomatic UTI to enable more appropriate antibiotic therapy.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are studying how samples might be brought back to Earth from Mars safely. Backward planetary protection is key in this complex endeavour, as it is required to prevent potential adverse effects from returning materials to Earth's biosphere. As the question of whether or not life exists on Mars today or whether it ever did in the past is still unanswered, the effort to return samples from Mars is expected to be categorized as a ‘Restricted Earth Return’ mission, for which NASA policy requires the containment of any unsterilized material returned to Earth. NASA is investigating several solutions to contain Mars samples and sterilize any uncontained Martian particles. This effort has significant implications for both NASA's scientific mission, and the Earth's environment; and so special care and vigilance are needed in planning and execution in order to assure acceptance of safety to Earth's biosphere. To generate a technically acceptable sterilization process across a wide array of scientific and other stakeholders, on 30–31 January 2019, 10–11 June 2019 and 19–20 February 2020, NASA informally convened a Sterilization Working Group (SWG) composed of experts from industry, academia and government to assess methods for sterilization and inactivation, to identify future work needed to verify these methods against biological challenges, and to determine their feasibility for implementation on robotic spacecraft in deep space. The goals of the SWG were:
(1) Understand what it means to sterilize and/or inactivate Martian materials and how that understanding can be applied to the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission.
(2) Assess methods for sterilization and inactivation, and identify future work needed to verify these methods.
(3) Provide an effective plan for communicating with other agencies and the public.
This paper provides a summary of the discussions and conclusions of the SWG over these three workshops. It reflects a consensus position based on qualitative discussion of how agencies might approach the problem of sterilization of Mars material. The SWG reached a consensus that sterilization options can be considered on the basis of biology as we know it, and that sterilization modalities that are effective on terrestrial materials and organisms should be part of the MSR planetary protection strategy. Conclusions pointed to several industry standards for sterilization to include heat, chemical, UV radiation and low-heat plasma. Technical trade-offs for each sterilization modality were discussed while simultaneously considering the engineering challenges and limitations for spaceflight. Future work includes more in-depth discussions on technical trade-offs of sterilization modalities, identifying and testing Earth analogue challenge organisms and proteinaceous molecules against chosen modalities, and executing collaborative agreements between NASA and external working group partners to help close data gaps, and to establish strong, scientifically grounded sterilization and inactivation standards for MSR.
Predicting and preventing relapse presents a crucial opportunity and first step to improve outcomes and reduce the care gap for persons living with schizophrenia. Using commercially available smartphones and smartwatches, technology now affords opportunities to capture real-time and longitudinal profiles of patients’ symptoms, cognition, physiology and social patterns. This novel data makes it possible to explore relationships between behaviours, physiology and symptoms, which may yield personalised relapse signals.
Smartphone Health Assessment for Relapse Prevention (SHARP), an international mental health research study supported by the Wellcome Trust, will inform the development of a scalable and sharable digital health solution to monitor personal risk of relapse. The resulting technology will be studied toward predicting and preventing relapse among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness.
SHARP is a two-phase study with research sites in Boston, Massachusetts, and Bangalore and Bhopal, India. During phase 1, focus groups will be conducted at each study site to collect feedback on the design and features available on mindLAMP, a digital health platform. Individuals with serious mental illness will use mindLAMP for the duration of a year during phase 2.
The results of the research outlined in this protocol will guide the development of technology and digital tools to help address pervasive challenges in global mental health.
The digital tools developed as a result of this study, and participants’ experiences using them, may offer insight into opportunities to expand digital mental health resources and optimize their utilisation around the world.
Adequate dietary intake is critical to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. India has a high burden of maternal and child morbidity and mortality, but there is a lack of adequate tools to assess dietary intake. We validate an FFQ, New Interactive Nutrition Assistant - Diet in India Study of Health (NINA-DISH), among pregnant women living with and without HIV in Pune, India. Women were selected from a cohort study investigating immune responses to HIV and latent tuberculosis during pregnancy. The FFQ was administered during the third trimester and validated against multiple 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) collected in second and third trimesters. Data for analysis were available from fifty-eight women out of seventy enrolled into this sub-study, after excluding those with incomplete data or implausible energy intake. The median (Q1, Q3) age of study participants was 23 (20, 25) years. Median (Q1, Q3) daily energy intakes were 10 552 (8000, 11 958) and 10 673 (8510, 13 962) kJ by 24-HDR and FFQ, respectively, with FFQ overestimating nutrient intake. Pearson correlations between log-transformed estimates from FFQ and 24-HDR for energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, Fe and Zn were 0·47, 0·48, 0·45, 0·33, 0·4 and 0·54, respectively. Energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0·41 (saturated fat) to 0·73 (Na). The highest misclassification into extreme tertiles was observed for fat (22 %), saturated fat (21 %) and Na (21 %). Bias existed at higher intake levels as observed by Bland–Altman plots. In conclusion, NINA-DISH is a valid and feasible tool for estimating dietary intakes among urban pregnant women in Western India.
To improve the accessibility of robotics, we propose a design and fabrication strategy to build low-cost electromechanical systems for robotic devices. Our method, based on origami-inspired cut-and-fold and E-textiles techniques, aims at minimizing the resources for robot creation. Specifically, we explore techniques to create robots with the resources restricted to single-layer sheets (e.g., polyester film) and conductive sewing threads. To demonstrate our strategy’s feasibility, these techniques are successfully integrated into an electromechanical oscillator (about 0.40 USD), which can generate electrical oscillation under constant-current power and potentially be used as a simple robot controller in lieu of additional external electronics.
The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) horizon scanning system is an early warning system for healthcare interventions in development that could disrupt standard care. We report preliminary findings from the patient engagement process.
The system involves broadly scanning many resources to identify and monitor interventions up to 3 years before anticipated entry into U.S. health care. Topic profiles are written on included interventions with late-phase trial data and circulated with a structured review form for stakeholder comment to determine disruption potential. Stakeholders include patients and caregivers recruited from credible community sources. They view an orientation video, comment on topic profiles, and take a survey about their experience.
As of March 2020, 312 monitored topics (some of which were archived) were derived from 3,500 information leads; 121 met the criteria for topic profile development and stakeholder comment. We invited fifty-four patients and caregivers to participate; thirty-nine reviewed at least one report. Their perspectives informed analyst nominations for fourteen topics in two 2019 High Potential Disruption Reports. Thirty-four patient stakeholders completed the user-experience survey. Most agreed (68 percent) or somewhat agreed (26 percent) that they were confident they could provide useful comments. Ninety-four percent would recommend others to participate.
The system has successfully engaged patients and caregivers, who contributed unique and important perspectives that informed the selection of topics deemed to have high potential to disrupt clinical care. Most participants would recommend others to participate in this process. More research is needed to inform optimal patient and caregiver stakeholder recruitment and engagement methods and reduce barriers to participation.
Globally, the availability and formulations for the administration of cannabis are changing with decriminalization or legalization of recreational use in some jurisdictions, and the prescription of cannabis also occurring. These changes are likely to affect the prevalence of use, including by women of childbearing age. The effects of in utero and infant alcohol and tobacco exposure are well-documented, but the outcomes of cannabis exposure are less certain. The content of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis has progressively increased over several decades. This review explores the limited knowledge surrounding the epidemiology of gestational and postnatal cannabis exposure and implications for the mother–placenta–fetus/neonate triad. We examine cannabis’ effects from antenatal and lactation exposure on (a) pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, (b) placental health, and (c) longer term cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental risks and outcomes. Though definitive outcomes are lacking, gestational cannabis has been associated with increased risk of other substance use during pregnancy; impaired placental blood flow; increased risk of small for gestational age births; and associated complications. Childhood and adolescent outcomes are sparsely assessed, with suggested outcomes including increased risk of depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cardiometabolic implications of gestational cannabis use may include maternal fatty liver, obesity, insulin resistance, and increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), with potential consequences for the fetus. Clinical implications for pediatric practice were explored in a bid to understand any potential risk or impact on child health and development.
To assess the role of right ventricular outflow tract stenting as the primary intervention in Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries.
The management of a subset of infants with Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries requires a staged approach including rehabilitation of diminutive native pulmonary arteries, conventionally using an aortopulmonary shunt. We share our experience of pulmonary artery rehabilitation with right ventricular outflow tract stenting.
Retrospective review of all patients with Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis who underwent right ventricular outflow tract stenting as primary intervention over an 8-year period.
Ten patients underwent right ventricular outflow tract stent insertion at a median age of 61 days (interquartile range (IQR) 8.3–155 days). Median weight at stent deployment was 4.2 kg (IQR 3.2–5.7 kg). Oxygen saturations improved from a median of 79% (IQR 76–80%) to 92% (IQR 90–95%), p = 0.012. The median right and left pulmonary artery z score increased from −3.51 (IQR −4.59 to −2.80) and −2.07 (IQR −3.72 to 0.15) to a median of −1.17 (IQR −2.26 to 0.16) p < 0.05, and 0.24 (IQR −1.09 to 1.84) p < 0.05, respectively, at subsequent angiogram. Nine patients underwent further catheterisation. Four patients underwent complete anatomical repair. Only one patient required unifocalisation, as most patients had a native supply to all-important lung segments.
Right ventricular outflow tract stenting is a useful procedure in the subset of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, where native pulmonary arterial growth is required to facilitate repair.
The Zero Suicide framework is a system-wide approach to prevent suicides in health services. It has been implemented worldwide but has a poor evidence-base of effectiveness.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Zero Suicide framework, implemented in a clinical suicide prevention pathway (SPP) by a large public mental health service in Australia, in reducing repeated suicide attempts after an index attempt.
A total of 604 persons with 737 suicide attempt presentations were identified between 1 July and 31 December 2017. Relative risk for a subsequent suicide attempt within various time periods was calculated using cross-sectional analysis. Subsequently, a 10-year suicide attempt history (2009–2018) for the cohort was used in time-to-recurrent-event analyses.
Placement on the SPP reduced risk for a repeated suicide attempt within 7 days (RR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.11–0.75), 14 days (RR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.18–0.78), 30 days (RR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.33–0.94) and 90 days (RR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.41–0.95). Time-to-recurrent event analysis showed that SPP placement extended time to re-presentation (HR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.57–0.67). A diagnosis of personality disorder (HR = 2.70; 95% CI 2.03–3.58), previous suicide attempt (HR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.46–2.17) and Indigenous status (HR = 1.46; 95% CI 0.98–2.25) increased the hazard for re-presentation, whereas older age decreased it (HR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98). The effect of the SPP was similar across all groups, reducing the risk of re-presentation to about 65% of that seen in those not placed on the SPP.
This paper demonstrates a reduction in repeated suicide attempts after an index attempt and a longer time to a subsequent attempt for those receiving multilevel care based on the Zero Suicide framework.
Much remains unknown about how the 2008 Great Recession, coupled with the ageing baby-boomer cohort, have shaped retirement expectations and realised retirement timing across diverse groups of older Americans. Using the Health and Retirement Study (1992–2016), we compared expectations about full-time work at age 62 (reported at ages 51–61) with realised labour force status at age 62. Of the 12,049 respondents, 34 per cent reported no chance of working full time at 62 (zero probability) and 21 per cent reported it was very likely (90–100 probability). Among those reporting no chance of working, there was a 0.111 probability of unmet expectations; among those with high expectations of working, there was a 0.430 probability of unmet expectations. Black and Hispanic Americans were more likely than white Americans to have unmet expectations of both types. Educational attainment was associated with higher probability of unexpectedly working and lower probability of unexpectedly not working. Baby-boomers experienced fewer unmet expectations than prior cohorts but more uncertainty about work status at 62. Our findings highlight the unpredictability of retirement timing for significant segments of the US population and the role of the Great Recession in contributing to uncertainty. Given the individual and societal benefits of long work lives, special attention should be paid to the high rates of unexpectedly not working at age 62.
Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) accounts for >500,000 community-, nursing-, and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), as well as 15,000–30,000 deaths, and =$4.8 billion in the United States annually. C. difficile toxin B gene nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) cannot distinguish between active CDI and colonization, particularly in the setting of laxative use or enteral feeding. Lack of judicious testing can result in the incorrect diagnosis of CDI, unnecessary CDI treatment, increased costs, and falsely augmented HAI rates. Like many healthcare facilities, the VA San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS) solely utilizes C. difficile NAAT for CDI diagnosis. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate a facility-wide initiative at the VASDHS to reduce healthcare onset, healthcare facility associated CDI (HO-HCFA CDI), including the use of a test ordering algorithm. Methods: From fiscal year (FY) 2015–2018, various measures were implemented including a hand hygiene initiative, reduction in fluoroquinolone usage, prompt isolation of patients with CDI, thorough terminal cleaning of rooms, and, lastly, a test-ordering algorithm starting FY2018. A retrospective study was performed to assess VASDHS HO-HCFA CDI case incidence, risk factors for infection, laxative or enteral feeding use at the time of testing, and CDI treatment. Results: Patient demographic data, medical history, CDI history, laxative use, treatment, and cost of CDI treatment were reviewed. From 2015 to 2018, 127 cases of HO-HCFA CDI were identified. The total number of HO-HCFA CDI cases and medication cost for CDI treatment were dramatically reduced from 2017 to 2018 following implementation of the test-ordering algorithm (Table 1, Fig. 1). This trend corresponded to a significant reduction in median HO-HCFA CDI cases per month (P = .02), medication cost of CDI treatment (P = .02), and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use at the time of testing (P = .01). The number of positive HO-HCFA CDI cases associated with laxative use or escalation at the time of CDI testing (accounting for those on chronic laxatives) also decreased across the study period—most dramatically from 2015 vs 2016 (20 vs 14) and 2017 vs 2018 (11 vs 4) (Table 1). Conclusions: At the VASDHS, diagnostic stewardship of C. difficile NAAT with the use of a test-ordering algorithm significantly reduced HO-HCFA CDI incidence and treatment cost. This trend also corresponded with significantly less PPI use at the time of testing and reduced detection of colonization among patients with laxative-induced diarrhea. Diagnostic stewardship may serve as an effective tool to correctly diagnose and treat HO-HCFA CDI, while significantly reducing treatment costs.
Background: Hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB) may be a preventable hospital-acquired condition and a potential healthcare quality measure. We developed and evaluated a tool to assess the preventability of HOB and compared it to a more traditional consensus panel approach. Methods: A 10-member healthcare epidemiology expert panel independently rated the preventability of 82 hypothetical HOB case scenarios using a 6-point Likert scale (range, 1= “Definitively or Almost Certainly Preventable” to 6= “Definitely or Almost Certainly Not Preventable”). Ratings on the 6-point scale were collapsed into 3 categories: Preventable (1–2), Uncertain (3–4), or Not preventable (5–6). Consensus was defined as concurrence on the same category among ≥70% expert raters. Cases without consensus were deliberated via teleconference, web-based discussion, and a second round of rating. The proportion meeting consensus, overall and by predefined HOB source attribution, was calculated. A structured HOB preventability rating tool was developed to explicitly account for patient intrinsic and extrinsic healthcare-related risks (Fig. 1). Two additional physician reviewers independently applied this tool to adjudicate the same 82 case scenarios. The tool was iteratively revised based on reviewer feedback followed by repeat independent tool-based adjudication. Interrater reliability was evaluated using the Kappa statistic. Proportion of cases where tool-based preventability category matched expert consensus was calculated. Results: After expert panel round 1, consensus criteria were met for 29 cases (35%), which increased to 52 (63%) after round 2. Expert consensus was achieved more frequently for respiratory or surgical site infections than urinary tract and central-line–associated bloodstream infections (Fig. 2a). Most likely to be rated preventable were vascular catheter infections (64%) and contaminants (100%). For tool-based adjudication, following 2 rounds of rating with interim tool revisions, agreement between the 2 reviewers was 84% for cases overall (κ, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64–0.88]), and 87% for the 52 cases with expert consensus (κ, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.94). Among cases with expert consensus, tool-based rating matched expert consensus in 40 of 52 (77%) and 39 of 52 (75%) cases for reviewer 1 and reviewer 2, respectively. The proportion of cases rated “uncertain“ was lower among tool-based adjudicated cases with reviewer agreement (15 of 69) than among cases with expert consensus (23 of 52) (Fig. 2b). Conclusions: Healthcare epidemiology experts hold varying perspectives on HOB preventability. Structured tool-based preventability rating had high interreviewer reliability, matched expert consensus in most cases, and rated fewer cases with uncertain preventability compared to expert consensus. This tool is a step toward standardized assessment of preventability in future HOB evaluations.
This study aimed to describe the microscopic over-under cartilage tympanoplasty technique, provide hearing results and detail clinically significant complications.
This was a retrospective case series chart review study of over-under cartilage tympanoplasty procedures performed by the senior author between January 2015 and January 2019 at three tertiary care centres. Cases were excluded for previous or intra-operative cholesteatoma, if a mastoidectomy was performed during the procedure or if ossiculoplasty was performed. Hearing results and complications were obtained.
Sixty-eight tympanoplasty procedures met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 13 years (range, 3–71 years). The mean improvement in pure tone average was 6 dB (95 per cent confidence interval 4–9 dB; p < 0.0001). The overall perforation closure rate was 97 per cent (n = 66). Revision surgery was recommended for a total of 6 cases (9 per cent) including 2 post-operative perforations, 1 case of middle-ear cholesteatoma and 3 cases of external auditory canal scarring.
Over-under cartilage tympanoplasty is effective at improving clinically meaningful hearing with a low rate of post-operative complications.
Background: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is an evidence-proven strategy for reducing procedure-related infections; however, measuring this key quality metric typically requires manual review, due to the way antimicrobial prophylaxis is documented in the electronic medical record (EMR). Our objective was to combine structured and unstructured data from the Veterans’ Health Administration (VA) EMR to create an electronic tool for measuring preincisional antimicrobial prophylaxis. We assessed this methodology in cardiac device implantation procedures. Methods: With clinician input and review of clinical guidelines, we developed a list of antimicrobial names recommended for the prevention of cardiac device infection. Next, we iteratively combined positive flags for an antimicrobial order or drug fill from structured data fields in the EMR and hits on text string searches of antimicrobial names documented in electronic clinical notes to optimize an algorithm to flag preincisional antimicrobial use with high sensitivity and specificity. We trained the algorithm using existing fiscal year (FY) 2008-15 data from the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking-Electrophysiology (CART-EP), which contains manually determined information about antimicrobial prophylaxis. We then validated the performance of the final version of the algorithm using a national cohort of VA patients who underwent cardiac device procedures in FY 2016 or 2017. Discordant cases underwent expert manual review to identify reasons for algorithm misclassification and to identify potential future implementation barriers. Results: The CART-EP dataset included 2,102 procedures at 38 VA facilities with manually identified antimicrobial prophylaxis in 2,056 cases (97.8%). The final algorithm combining structured EMR fields and text-note search results flagged 2,048 of the CART-EP cases (97.4%). Algorithm validation identified antimicrobial prophylaxis in 16,334 of 19,212 cardiac device procedures (87.9%). Misclassifications occurred due to EMR documentation issues. Conclusions: We developed a methodology with high accuracy to measure guideline-concordant use of antimicrobial prophylaxis before cardiac device procedures using data fields present in modern EMRs that does not rely on manual review. In addition to broad applicability in the VA and other healthcare systems with EMRs, this method could be adapted for other procedural areas in which antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended but comprehensive measurement has been limited to resource-intense manual review.