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ABSTRACT. This chapter will analyse the legal support granted to the task of stevedoring, the organisation of port spaces (loading and unloading areas), and the workforce (men and women), by establishing a hierarchy in these orders. These activities were firmly controlled by confraternities, guilds and consulates, both in ports of origin and in ports of destination. Accordingly, and given the importance of loading and unloading tasks, I shall also present a comparative analysis with other primary Atlantic spaces, with a particular focus on technical and logistical transferences, the evolution and strategies of ‘mutualisation’ processes in port labour and the settlement of conflicts generated by a trade that required precision and legal protection, practised as it was on the maritime frontier, a sphere of intersections or a living membrane leading to both positive and negative manifestations. And this, with an emphasis on the correlations between the different realities involved.
From the thirteenth century, maritime commerce crossed borders and inaugurated a network of routes, from Scandinavian port towns to Castile and Mediterranean markets; a network of seaways giving rise to the consolidation of an increasingly prosperous and fluent mercantile traffic. Medieval maritime commerce was governed by consuetudinary uses and customs of mariners, transporters and carriers; it later became necessary to commit these norms to writing as a means of facilitating their dissemination and enforcement, providing security to mercantile traffic, offering assurance for merchants and seamen and expediting the resolution of conflicts.
Thus, a set of legal corpora – ius privatista – was developed and disseminated along the Atlantic waterfront, systematising maritime transport services, with the main aim of preserving the cargo, since ‘the ship is its cargo’. Areas covered include the loading, type and form of stowage, protection during the voyage and the unloading, storage and, if necessary, the transhipment of merchandise.
A task as complex as that of cargo handling drove the adaptation of port compounds through the building of infrastructures to facilitate tasks and incorporate specialised technology for the handling of cargo that on occasions was weighty and voluminous. Hence, a long chain of players participated in maritime transport, men of the sea and men of the land, the latter being the final actors in the loading and unloading of merchandise.
The last decade has witnessed the growth in number, quality and scope of Maritime History studies centred on historical dynamics of port spaces from Antiquity to current times. This has occurred to such a degree that case studies and general studies on the economic, social, political and cultural aspects of port spaces have granted the discipline a separate identity. There are several excellent overviews of the subject, such as the publications of the GIS d’Histoire Maritime which provide an account of the current historiography on medieval maritime studies; or the work coordinated by Amélia Polónia and myself, centred on longue durée case studies; or the recent publications of Michel Balard and Christian Buchet, or that of Wim Blockmans, Mikhail Krom and Justina Wubs-Mrozewicz, who explore port realities and ‘their circumstances’, in the words of José Ortega y Gasset. This is what a port and its connections with the city and mercantile dynamics represent. Within this context, Atlantic History emerged as a subdiscipline which, albeit centred mainly on the modern age, delves into the exploration of the port realities of medieval times.
Thus, Maritime History, Atlantic History, and Port History gravitate towards the analysis of large port spaces associated with the new worlds. This leaves a narrow margin for the treatment of minor and/or peripheral ports. However, a growing interest in the smaller enclaves is surfacing. Those enclaves Michael N. Pearson defines as central to or protagonists of any analysis of the maritime landscape, being the point of contact between the land and the sea; Alain Cabantous, Maryanne Kowaleski, Gérard Le Bouëdec or Frédérique Laget identify them as originators of civilisation on the waterfront; André Vigarie, Amélia Aguiar Andrade, Michel Bochaca, or Jesús Solórzano Telechea define them as a koiné between the salty sea and the port town, the interface between the foreland and the hinterland. Here the territorialisation of port activities evolved hand in hand with local communities to create a form of coastline civilisation as well as a maritime boundary. The koiné is also identified and described in work by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Josef Konvitz, Jan de Vries, Peter Rieterbergen and Michael N. Pearson as breathing life into Coastal History, which deals with the maritime dimension and the littoral society.
Presents a wealth of original research findings on how medieval ports actually worked, providing new insights on shipping, trade, port society and culture, and systems of regional and international integration.
Video games often incorporate a wide variety of sounds while presenting interactive virtual environments to players. Music is one critical element of video game audio – to which the bulk of the current volume attests – but it is not alone: sound effects (e.g., ambient sounds, interface sounds and sounds tied to gameworld actions) and dialogue (speaking voices) are also common and important elements of interactive video game soundscapes. Often, music, sound effects and dialogue together accompany and impact a player’s experience playing a video game, and as Karen Collins points out, ‘theorizing about a single auditory aspect without including the others would be to miss out on an important element of this experience, particularly since there is often considerable overlap between them’.1 A broad approach that considers all components of video game soundscapes – and that acknowledges relationships and potentially blurred boundaries between these components – opens the way for a greater understanding not only of video game music but also of game audio more broadly and its effects for players.
Se presentan los resultados del recorrido de superficie realizado en la comunidad de Santo Domingo Tonaltepec en la Mixteca Alta de Oaxaca, en el que se identificaron y registraron 43 nuevos sitios arqueológicos datados a las fases Ramos (alrededor de los 300 aC hasta los 250 dC), Las Flores (aproximadamente 250-900 dC) y Natividad (aproximadamente 900-1521 dC). Estos nuevos sitios se contextualizan en el ámbito regional al relacionarlos con los sitios urbanos identificados para cada una de estas fases en los valles adyacentes de Coixtlahuaca, Nochixtlán, Tamazulapan y Teposcolula. Basados en estos datos, consideramos que Tonaltepec se encontró relativamente aislado y fuera del control de los sitios urbanos tempranos durante Ramos; que se transformó en un asentamiento fronterizo entre las entidades políticas durante la fase Las Flores; y que aprovechó los beneficios de localizarse sobre la ruta de comunicación entre importantes reinos mixtecos durante Natividad. La localización de Tonaltepec, relativamente lejos de los principales valles, pero a la vez entre ellos, le otorgó ventajas que supo aprovechar a través de la historia de desarrollo político de la región.
Survivors of pediatric sarcomas often experience greater psychological and psychosocial difficulties than their non-afflicted peers. We consider findings related to poorer outcomes from a developmental cascade perspective. Specifically, we discuss how physical, neurocognitive, psychological, and psychosocial costs associated with pediatric sarcomas and their treatment function transactionally to degrade well-being in long-term pediatric sarcoma survivors. We situate the sarcoma experience as a broad developmental threat – one stemming from both the presence and treatment of a life-imperiling disease, and the absence of typical childhood experiences. Ways in which degradation in one developmental domain spills over and effects other domains are highlighted. We argue that the aggregate effect of these cascades is two-fold: first, it adds to the typical stress involved in meeting developmental milestones and navigating developmental transitions; and second, it deprives survivors of crucial coping strategies that mitigate these stressors. This position suggests specific moments of intervention and raises specific hypotheses for investigators to explore.
To assess the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in adult medical–surgical intensive care units (MS-ICUs) in Latin America.
Quasi-experimental prospective with continuous time series.
The study included 77 MS-ICUs in 9 Latin American countries.
Adult patients admitted to an MS-ICU for at least 24 hours were included in the study.
This multicenter study was conducted over 12 months. To evaluate the ASPs, representatives from all MS-ICUs performed a self-assessment survey (0–100 scale) at the beginning and end of the study. The impact of each ASP was evaluated monthly using the following measures: antimicrobial consumption, appropriateness of antimicrobial treatments, crude mortality, and multidrug-resistant microorganisms in healthcare-associated infections (MDRO-HAIs). Using final stewardship program quality self-assessment scores, MS-ICUs were stratified and compared among 3 groups: ≤25th percentile, >25th to <75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile.
In total, 77 MS-ICU from 9 Latin American countries completed the study. Twenty MS-ICUs reached at least the 75th percentile at the end of the study in comparison with the same number who remain within the 25th percentile (score, 76.1 ± 7.5 vs 28.0 ± 7.3; P < .0001). Several indicators performed better in the MS-ICUs in the 75th versus 25th percentiles: antimicrobial consumption (143.4 vs 159.4 DDD per 100 patient days; P < .0001), adherence to clinical guidelines (92.5% vs 59.3%; P < .0001), validation of prescription by pharmacist (72.0% vs 58.0%; P < .0001), crude mortality (15.9% vs 17.7%; P < .0001), and MDRO-HAIs (9.45 vs 10.96 cases per 1,000 patient days; P = .004).
MS-ICUs with more comprehensive ASPs showed significant improvement in antimicrobial utilization.
Providing alcohol screening and brief advice (SBA) in primary health care (PHC) can be an effective measure to reduce alcohol consumption. To aid successful implementation in an upper middle-income country context, this study investigates the perceived appropriateness of the programme and the perceived barriers to its implementation in PHC settings in three Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico and Peru, as part of larger implementation study (SCALA).
An online survey based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) implementation framework was disseminated in the three countries to key stakeholders with experience in the topic and/or setting (both health professionals and other roles, for example regional health administrators and national experts). In total, 55 respondents participated (66% response rate). For responses to both appropriateness and barriers questions, frequencies were computed, and country comparisons were made using Chi square and Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric tests.
Alcohol SBA was seen as an appropriate programme to reduce heavy alcohol use in PHC and a range of providers were considered suitable for its delivery, such as general practitioners, nurses, psychologists and social workers. Contextual factors such as patients’ normalised perception of their heavy drinking, lack of on-going support for providers, difficulty of accessing referral services and lenient alcohol control laws were the highest rated barriers. Country differences were found for two barriers: Peruvian respondents rated SBA guidelines as less clear than Mexican (Mann–Whitney U = −18.10, P = 0.001), and more strongly indicated lack of available screening instruments than Colombian (Mann–Whitney U = −12.82, P = 0.035) and Mexican respondents (Mann–Whitney U = −13.56, P = 0.018).
The study shows the need to address contextual factors for successful implementation of SBA in practice. General congruence between the countries suggests that similar approaches can be used to encourage widespread implementation of SBA in all three studied countries, with minor tailoring based on the few country-specific barriers.
The efficacy is measured for a public health intervention related to community-based planning for population protection measures (PPMs; ie, shelter-in-place and evacuation).
This is a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) prospective study of intervention efficacy, measured in terms of usability related to effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and degree of community engagement.
Two municipalities in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are included.
Community members consisting of individuals; traditional leaders; federal, territorial, and municipal emergency managers; municipal mayors; National Guard; territorial departments of education, health, housing, public works, and transportation; health care; police; Emergency Medical Services; faith-based organizations; nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); and the private sector.
The intervention included four community convenings: one for risk communication; two for plan-writing; and one tabletop exercise (TTX). This study analyzed data collected from the project work plan; participant rosters; participant surveys; workshop outputs; and focus group interviews.
Main Outcome Measures:
Efficacy was measured in terms of ISO 9241-11, an international standard for usability that includes effectiveness, efficiency, user satisfaction, and “freedom from risk” among users. Degree of engagement was considered an indicator of “freedom from risk,” measurable through workshop attendance.
Two separate communities drafted and exercised ~60-page-long population protection plans, each within 14.5 hours. Plan-writing workshops completed 100% of plan objectives and activities. Efficiency rates were nearly the same in both communities. Interviews and surveys indicated high degrees of community satisfaction. Engagement was consistent among community members and variable among governmental officials.
Frontline communities have successfully demonstrated the ability to understand the environmental health hazards in their own community; rapidly write consensus-based plans for PPMs; participate in an objective-based TTX; and perform these activities in a bi-lingual setting. This intervention appears to be efficacious for public use in the rapid development of community-based PPMs.
Demographic trends and the globalization of neuropsychology have led to a push toward inclusivity and diversity in neuropsychological research in order to maintain relevance in the healthcare marketplace. However, in a review of neuropsychological journals, O’Bryant et al. found systematic under-reporting of sample characteristics vital for understanding the generalizability of research findings. We sought to update and expand the findings reported by O’Bryant et al.
We evaluated 1648 journal articles published between 2016 and 2019 from 7 neuropsychological journals. Of these, 1277 were original research or secondary analyses and were examined further. Articles were coded for reporting of age, sex/gender, years of education, ethnicity/race, socioeconomic status (SES), language, and acculturation. Additionally, we recorded information related to sample size, country, and whether the article focused on a pediatric or adult sample.
Key variables such as age and sex/gender (both over 95%) as well as education (71%) were frequently reported. Language (20%) and race/ethnicity (36%) were modestly reported, and SES (13%), and acculturation (<1%) were more rarely reported. SES was more commonly reported in pediatric than adult samples, and the opposite was true for education. There were differences between the present results and those of O’Bryant et al., though the same general trends remained.
Reporting of demographic data in neuropsychological research appears to be slowly changing toward greater comprehensiveness, though clearly more work is needed. Greater systematic reporting of such data is likely to be beneficial for the generalizability and contextualization of neurocognitive function.
A versatile architecture is presented to implement autonomous vehicles. The focus idea consists of a set of standalone modules, called wireless robotic components wireless robotic components (WRCs). Each component performs a particular function by means of a radio modem interface, a processing unit, and a sensor/actuator. The components interact through a coordinator that redirects asynchronous requests to the appropriate WRCs, configuring a built-in network. The WRC architecture has been tested in marine and terrestrial platforms to perform tasks of waypoint and wall following. Results show that the tested system complies with adaptability and portability that allow conforming a variety of autonomous vehicles.
Adipocytokines, which are secreted during fetal development by both mothers and fetuses, may influence fetal lung development, but little human data are available. We used data from the HOME Study to investigate the associations of cord blood adipocytokine concentrations with children’s lung forced expiratory volume (FEV1; N = 160) and their risk of wheeze (N = 281). We measured umbilical cord serum adipocytokine concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and FEV1 using a portable spirometer at ages 4 and 5 to calculate the percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1). Parents completed standardized questionnaires of their child’s wheeze symptoms every 6 months from birth to age 5, then again at ages 6 and 8. We used multivariable linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to estimate associations of adipocytokine concentrations (log2-transformed) with children’s %FEV1 and the risk of wheeze, respectively, adjusting for sociodemographic, perinatal, and child factors. Cord serum leptin was not associated with children’s %FEV1. Higher cord serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with higher %FEV1 in girls (β = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.6), but not in boys (β = −1.3, 95% CI: −5.9, 3.3) (sex × adiponectin p-value = 0.05). Higher leptin was associated with lower risk of wheeze in girls (RR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.84), but not boys (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.11) (sex × leptin p-value = 0.01). In contrast, higher adiponectin concentrations were associated with lower risk of wheeze (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96) in both boys and girls. These data suggest that fetal adipocytokines may impact lung development and function in early childhood. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore the mechanisms underlying these associations.