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Why do people fear air travel, but text while driving? How were the travesties at the Abu Ghraib prison like a nuclear meltdown? What is the best way to throw a rocket at a robot? These are just a few questions addressed by the field of human factors psychology. These scientists use knowledge of how people think and why they act to improve the design of our world. In All Too Human, Dr. Anne McLaughlin introduces the field with vivid and topical stories that hinge on cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and decision-making. From the COVID-19 pandemic, to abandoned SCUBA divers, conspiracy theories, and the travails of online dating, McLaughlin draws on a century of research into the human mind to explain our past and predict our future.
There is constant pressure on governments and policy makers to raise the standard of education, and to develop appropriate curriculum and pedagogies for students. It is no easy task. This book presents eight specific case studies of education reform implementation which capture how the design and implementation choices of policy makers are shaped by national and historical contexts. They offer real examples of the choices and constraints faced by policymakers and practitioners. The cases are a mix of nationally and locally mandated reforms with five examples from nations where the state initiated and guided reforms. The concluding synthesis chapter highlights commonalities and differences across the cases and disparate responses to shared concerns. Providing a breadth of real-world research, it will assist policy makers, practitioners and other stakeholders interested in system change.
Vitamin D, Ca and dairy products are negatively associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but little is known of their influence on CRC survival. To investigate prediagnostic intakes of vitamin D, Ca and dairy products for their relevance to CRC prognosis, we analysed 504 CRC patients enrolled in the Newfoundland Colorectal Cancer Registry Cohort Study who were diagnosed for the first time with CRC between 1999 and 2003. Follow-up for mortality and cancer recurrence was through April 2010. Data on diet and lifestyle factors were gathered via a validated, semi-quantitative FFQ and a Personal History Questionnaire. Multivariate Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the relationship of prediagnostic intakes of vitamin D, Ca and dairy products with all-cause mortality (overall survival, OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) among CRC patients. We found that prediagnostic Ca intake from foods, but not total Ca intake, was negatively associated with all-cause mortality (HR for Q2 v. Q1, 0·44; 95 % CI, 0·26, 0·75). An inverse relationship was also seen in a dose–response fashion for prediagnostic cheese intake (HR for Q4 v. Q1, 0·57, 95 % CI, 0·34, 0·95, Ptrend = 0·029). No evidence for modification by sex, physical activity, alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking was observed. In summary, high prediagnostic intakes of cheese and Ca from foods may be associated with increased survival among CRC patients. By manipulating diet, this study may contribute to the development of novel therapies that add to the armamentarium against CRC. Replication studies are required before any nutritional interventions are made available.
Child abuse is associated with elevated risk for psychopathology. The current study examined the role of automatic emotion regulation as a potential mechanism linking child abuse with internalizing psychopathology. A sample of 237 youth aged 8–16 years and their caregivers participated. Child abuse severity was assessed by self-report questionnaires, and automatic emotion regulation was assessed using an emotional Stroop task designed to measure adaptation to emotional conflict. A similar task without emotional stimuli was also administered to evaluate whether abuse was uniquely associated with emotion regulation, but not cognitive control applied in a nonemotional context. Internalizing psychopathology was assessed concurrently and at a 2-year longitudinal follow-up. Child abuse severity was associated with lower emotional conflict adaptation but was unrelated to cognitive control. Specifically, the severity of emotional and physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, were associated with lower emotional conflict adaptation. Emotional conflict adaptation was not associated with internalizing psychopathology prospectively. These findings suggest that childhood emotional and physical abuse, in particular, may influence automatic forms of emotion regulation. Future work exploring the socioemotional consequences of altered automatic emotion regulation among youth exposed to child abuse is clearly needed.
The turbulent 1830s saw a sequence of great political and social reforms in the United Kingdom. One such reform was the introduction of a locally funded Poor Law in Ireland. The development of a nascent welfare system in 1838 coincided with a boom in the formation of microfinance institutions in Ireland. The focus of this study is the expansion of a hybrid organizational form, Loan Fund Societies (LFSs), in the ten years prior to the Great Irish Famine of 1845–1849. LFSs were legally established with a conflictual structure: acting as commercially viable charitable institutions required to provide credit to the deserving poor (to enable them to be self-sufficient) while dedicating their “profits” to supporting the indigent poor. This study uses an analytical framework drawing inspiration from institutional logics to explore and better understand Irish microfinance in the early nineteenth century, a period of profound socioeconomic and socioreligious changes. It seeks to explain the factors that motivated the establishment and de-establishment of microfinance institutions amid this tumult. Legislative changes in LFS business parameters in 1843 made the tensions between being charitable and commercially sustainable salient; and, for some, it made continued existence untenable.
We sought to determine the incidence of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate associated predictors and outcomes.
In this multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2020 across 38 Michigan hospitals, we assessed prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfections. In-hospital and 60-day mortality, readmission, discharge to long-term care facility (LTCF), and mechanical ventilation duration were assessed for patients with versus without coinfection.
Of 2,205 patients with COVID-19, 141 (6.4%) had a coinfection: 3.0% community onset and 3.4% hospital acquired. Of patients without coinfection, 64.9% received antibiotics. Community-onset coinfection predictors included admission from an LTCF (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 2.34–6.76; P < .001) and admission to intensive care (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.87–6.55; P < .001). Hospital-acquired coinfection predictors included fever (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.15–5.27; P = .02) and advanced respiratory support (OR, 40.72; 95% CI, 13.49–122.93; P < .001). Patients with (vs without) community-onset coinfection had longer mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.67–6.56; P = .001) and higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06–3.40; P = .03) and 60-day mortality (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.05–3.29; P = .03). Patients with (vs without) hospital-acquired coinfection had higher discharge to LTCF (OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 3.30–21.76; P < .001), in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 2.37–7.33; P ≤ .001), and 60-day mortality (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.11–6.33; P ≤ .001).
Despite community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection being uncommon, most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 received antibiotics. Admission from LTCF and to ICU were associated with increased risk of community-onset coinfection. Future studies should prospectively validate predictors of COVID-19 coinfection to facilitate the reduction of antibiotic use.
Patient-therapist alliance is a critical factor in psychotherapy treatment outcomes. This pilot will identify language concepts in psychotherapy transcripts correlating with the valence of treatment alliance using natural language processing tools. Specifically, high-order linguistic features will be extracted through exploratory analysis of texts and interpreted for their power to discriminate alliance rated by patients.
Adult patients and therapists in outpatient clinic at various stages of relationship building and treatment goals consented to participate in the cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Board Review. Psychotherapy sessions were recorded using wireless microphones and transcribed by two research assistants. After the recording, each patient completed Working Alliance Inventory– Short Form, to generate clinical scores of alliance. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) tool to map words to psycholinguistic categories, and generated novel linguistic parameters describing the individual language for each speaker role. Canonical-correlational analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the two datasets.
Patients (N = 12, 83% female, mean age = 40) were primarily diagnosed with personality disorders (67%) working on real-life interpersonal issues (median treatment duration 18.5 weeks, 50% psychodynamic, 32% cognitive-behavioral, 16% supportive modality). In this heterogenous sample, patients who used the “achieve” (e.g. trying, better, success, failure) and “swear” psycholinguistic categories of words rated the treatment alliance lower (r=−0.70, p = 0.01; r=−0.65, p = 0.02). Patients rated alliance lower with therapists, who used more “I” pronoun (r=−0.58, p < 0.05) and higher with therapists using more “risk” (difficult, safe, crisis) and “power” (important, strong, inferior, passive) categories (r = 0.66, p = 0.02, r = 0.58, p < 0.05), which commonly appeared in psychoeducation and conceptual framing of problems. Interestingly, there was no correlation with “affiliation” category (p = 0.9). Linear regression modeling from “achieve,” “swear” variables and “I,” “risk” variables with duration of treatment as covariate predicted the patient's rating of alliance (Adjusted R2 = 0.66, p = 0.03).
Our data collection and sub-sample analysis are ongoing. Preliminary results are showing speaker-specific language patterns in cognitive-emotional domain, e.g. self-expressivity, and in clinician's therapy style, covarying with the patient's perceived closeness in the heterogenous treatment dyads. Novel application of natural language processing to characterize alliance using the data-driven approach is an unbiased method that can provide feedback to clinicians and patients. This characterization can also potentially provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic process and help develop psycholinguistic markers for this critical clinical phenomena.
To critically examine the development of L&D services in England and Wales and critically appraise their evidence base.
High levels of morbidity across the criminal justice pathway are well established. Although the strongest evidence has emerged from prison studies, the court literature also confirms these high levels. In acknowledgment of this, there have been a range of initiatives to improve access to services for mentally ill individuals involved with the criminal justice system. Once such initiative has been the development of court liaison and diversion services (L&D).
Relevant literature was identified through a search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Data were appraised and synthesised to provide a comprehensive overview of the development of L&D services and their evidence base.
The provision of L&D services has increased substantially since their first introduction in England and Wales in 1989. Early L&D services were largely small-scale, unfunded local schemes, and were dependent upon the energy and interest of clinicians who chose to lead in this area. This led to geographical variations in provision and variations in L&D model delivery. The Bradley Report (2009) recommended that a national L&D model be created. The roll-out of a national L&D model meant that half the population of England was covered by 2015, with funding assured for a final wave of L&D services to provide for total population coverage.
Where implemented, L&D services have been shown to lead to increased numbers of local team referrals. They may reduce court adjournments and the overall amount of time spent attending court. There is also some evidence of an association with improved mental health among both adults and young people, with reductions in re-conviction rates amongst the later. There remain deficiencies in the evidence base with regards to the economic impact of L&D services. The majority of economic assessments of L&D services have been performed in the United States with fewer studies in the UK.
Although there is evidence that liaison and diversion can produce benefits, there is a general recognition that a higher standard of evidence is required, including experimental work and assessment of economic impact. L&D services carry a financial burden, but this may be offset by incorporating the value of the health improvements that may be brought in those who might otherwise not have received treatment.
Emerging research suggests that aberrant reward processing may underpin much of the social dysfunction we see in psychiatric disorders. Two conditions associated with marked social dysfunction are Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Psychopathy. However, no review to date has directly contrasted reward processing in both conditions and incorporated literature on social and non-social rewards. This systematic review aims to: (i) identify and compare reward processing abnormalities in ASD and Psychopathy as demonstrated in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies; and (ii) identify correlations between fMRI reward processing abnormalities and manifested symptoms, with a focus on those giving rise to social dysfunction.
The electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched to identify studies satisfying the following criteria: (i) a validated measure was used to assess ASD or Psychopathy; (ii) the study was published in an English language peer review journal; (iii) the age of participants was 18 years or older; (iv) individuals participated in a reward-based experimental paradigm; and (v) the response to the reward was measure using fMRI.
A total of 12 articles were identified that satisfied inclusion criteria. Six studies examined reward processing in ASD and six studies examined reward processing in Psychopathy. All studies in both conditions indicated some degree of abnormal reward-related neural response. The most replicated findings were aberrant responses in the Ventral Striatum (VS). Autism Spectrum Disorder was typified by VS hypoactivation to social and non-social reward, while Psychopathy was associated with VS hyperactivation in response to non-social reward anticipation. No studies were identified of social reward in Psychopathy.
The reported fMRI findings correlate with clinical observations in both conditions. Reduced reward response in ASD to a range of social and non-social stimuli would provide a parsimonious account of the social and non-social deficits that characterise the condition. Enhanced responses to the anticipation of reward in Psychopathy provides an account of the ruthless and destructive pursuit of reward-driven behaviours not inhibited by immoral or aversive signals. If, as the literature suggests, reward circuitry dysfunction plays a role in the development and manifestation of symptoms in both conditions, reward processing and its underlying neural circuitry may represent important targets for the development of novel treatment strategies.
To critically examine the factors that drive an increased risk of violence in the schizophrenic population, with emphasis on the role played by reality distorted symptoms.
A multitude of studies have reported a positive association between schizophrenia and violence. Many of the risk factors for violence among the non-mentally disordered population, such as substance use, childhood conduct problems and victimisation, are the same as for persons with schizophrenia. There remains controversy however as to whether reality distorted symptoms themselves contribute to the increased risk of violence.
Relevant literature was identified through a search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Data were appraised and synthesised to provide a comprehensive overview of the current evidence base for the role of reality distorted symptoms in violence in schizophrenia.
Studies ascertaining the contribution of reality distorted symptoms in violent behaviour have produced contradictory results. At a population level, several epidemiological surveys have found little or no contribution for reality distorted symptoms. Such studies frequently show that violence can be accounted for almost entirely by other factors such as substance use and victimisation. However studies investigating relationships between clinical diagnoses and population-wide violence may be unable to detect association at the symptom level. A number of studies have found strong associations between schizophrenia and violence which was not explained by comorbid substance use and have shown strong associations between specific reality distorted symptoms (in particular persecutory delusions accompanied by anger) and violent behaviour.
There is heterogeneity in the relationship between schizophrenia and violence. Factors that are associated with increased risk of violence among the schizophrenic population are also pertinent to those without mental disorders. With regards to the pathways to violence in schizophrenia the following conclusions may be drawn: there is an well-established increased risk of violence associated with schizophrenia which has been replicated in many studies; this risk is driven largely by substance use but other factors such as victimisation are also important; there is evidence that reality distorted symptoms, particularly persecutory symptoms, play a role in violent behaviour in some patients, particularly when co-occurring with anger; finally, there may be shared aetiological links between schizophrenia and antisocial behaviour.
Based on a comprehensive empirical analysis of maritime disputes during the twentieth century, this Article argues that international courts cast a shadow that markedly changes bargaining by potential litigating states. In particular, the filing of optional declarations under Article 287 of UNCLOS increases states’ use of non-binding methods of dispute settlement, and the Article theorizes that this occurs because the declarations credibly threaten court involvement and provide more information about likely litigation outcomes. The Article's central finding is that states that file Article 287 declarations have fewer maritime claims, more peaceful negotiations, and less need for judicial dispute settlement.
Exposure to childhood adversity is a powerful risk factor for psychopathology. Despite extensive efforts, we have not yet identified effective or scalable interventions that prevent the emergence of mental health problems in children who have experienced adversity. In this modified Delphi study, we identified intervention strategies for effectively targeting both the neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity and psychopathology – including heightened emotional reactivity, difficulties with emotion regulation, blunted reward processing, and social information processing biases, as well as a range of psychopathology symptoms. We iteratively synthesized information from experts in the field and relevant meta-analyses through three surveys, first with experts in intervention development, prevention, and childhood adversity (n = 32), and then within our study team (n = 8). The results produced increasing stability and good consensus on intervention strategy recommendations for specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms and symptom presentations and on strength of evidence ratings of intervention strategies targeting youth and parents. More broadly, our findings highlight how intervention decision making can be informed by meta-analyses, enhanced by aggregate group feedback, saturated before consensus, and persistently subjective or even contradictory. Ultimately, the results converged on several promising intervention strategies for prevention programming with adversity-exposed youth, which will be tested in an upcoming clinical trial.
Depression and overweight are each associated with abnormal immune system activation. We sought to disentangle the extent to which depressive symptoms and overweight status contributed to increased inflammation and abnormal cortisol levels.
Participants were recruited through the Wellcome Trust NIMA Consortium. The sample of 216 participants consisted of 69 overweight patients with depression; 35 overweight controls; 55 normal-weight patients with depression and 57 normal-weight controls. Peripheral inflammation was measured as high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) in serum. Salivary cortisol was collected at multiple points throughout the day to measure cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol levels.
Overweight patients with depression had significantly higher hsCRP compared with overweight controls (p = 0.042), normal-weight depressed patients (p < 0.001) and normal-weight controls (p < 0.001), after controlling for age and gender. Multivariable logistic regression showed that comorbid depression and overweight significantly increased the risk of clinically elevated hsCRP levels ⩾3 mg/L (OR 2.44, 1.28–3.94). In a separate multivariable logistic regression model, overweight status contributed most to the risk of having hsCRP levels ⩾3 mg/L (OR 1.52, 0.7–2.41), while depression also contributed a significant risk (OR 1.09, 0.27–2). There were no significant differences between groups in cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol levels.
Comorbid depression and overweight status are associated with increased hsCRP, and the coexistence of these conditions amplified the risk of clinically elevated hsCRP levels. Overweight status contributed most to the risk of clinically elevated hsCRP levels, but depression also contributed to a significant risk. We observed no differences in cortisol levels between groups.
This chapter reads the late nineteenth-century genres of American naturalism and regionalism through the prism of climate, and finds that their authors depict characters whose characteristics are shaped by their responses to their ambient environments, including climate, and by the inherited effects of their ancestors’ adaptations to theirs. It argues that their thinking about climate was informed by the popular Lamarckian science of their post-Darwinian evolutionary era, by the climate theory of the historian Hippolyte Taine, and by turn-of-the-century geography. In the decades during which Frank Norris, Charles Chesnutt, Edith Wharton, and Hamlin Garland were at work on questions of determinism and/or a “determined indeterminacy,” climatic, genetic, medico-psychiatric, and sociological models of identity vied for authority. The writers drew their representations of the making of Americans from these competing claims.
Identifying the potential pathways linking childhood abuse to depression and suicidal ideation is critical for developing effective interventions. This study investigated implicit self-esteem—unconscious valenced self-evaluation—as a potential pathway linking childhood abuse with depression and suicidal ideation. A sample of youth aged 8–16 years (N = 240) completed a self-esteem Implicit Association Test (IAT) and assessments of abuse exposure, and psychopathology symptoms, including depression, suicidal ideation, anxiety, and externalizing symptoms. Psychopathology symptoms were re-assessed 1–3 years later. Childhood abuse was positively associated with baseline and follow-up depression symptoms and suicidal ideation severity, and negatively associated with implicit self-esteem. Lower implicit self-esteem was associated with both depression and suicidal ideation assessed concurrently and predicted significant increases in depression and suicidal ideation over the longitudinal follow-up period. Lower implicit self-esteem was also associated with baseline anxiety, externalizing symptoms, and a general psychopathology factor (i.e. p-factor). We found an indirect effect of childhood abuse on baseline and follow-up depression symptoms and baseline suicidal ideation through implicit self-esteem. These findings point to implicit self-esteem as a potential mechanism linking childhood abuse to depression and suicidal ideation.
Archaeological studies of belief, ideology and commemorative strategies in Ireland, and elsewhere in Europe, neglect the continuation of cremation far beyond the supposed fifth-century AD threshold for the shift to inhumation under the influence of Christianity. A database of radiocarbon dates from first-millennium AD Ireland permits the identification of new patterns in early medieval (AD 400–1100) mortuary practices, including a new phase of cremation. The authors discuss archaeological and historical implications to demonstrate how data-driven approaches can enhance and challenge established metanarratives. They also highlight serious methodological and interpretative issues that these data pose for current narrative frameworks, and their influence on post-excavation strategies.
Anthropogenic activities can lead to several devastating effects on the environment. The pollutants, which include the discharge of effluents, runoffs in the form of different lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants, can harm exposed fauna and flora. The aquatic environment is the ultimate destination for many pollutants which negatively affect aquatic biodiversity and even can cause a species to become extinct. A pollutant can directly affect the behavior of an animal, disrupt cellular systems, and impair the immune system. This harm can be reduced and even mitigated by adopting proper approaches for the conservation of the target biota. Among aquatic organisms, cetaceans, such as the Yangtze finless porpoise, Irrawaddy dolphin, Ganges River dolphin, Amazon River dolphin, and Indus River dolphin, are at a higher risk of extinction because of lack of knowledge and research, and thus insufficient information with respect to their conservation status, management, and policies. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mass mortalities of cetaceans. This article reviews the limited research reported on stress and pneumonia induced by pollution, stress-induced pneumonia and immunosuppression, pneumonia-caused mass mortalities of aquatic mammals, and vaccination in wildlife with a specific focus on aquatic mammals, the role of genomics in vaccine development and vaccination, and the major challenges in vaccine development for biodiversity conservation.