To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Introduction: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) are questionnaires that can be used to elicit care outcome information from patients. We sought to develop and validate the first PROM for adult patients without a primary mental health or addictions presentation receiving emergency department (ED) care and who were not hospitalized. Methods: PROM development used a multi-phase process based on national and international guidance (FDA, NQF, ISPOR). Phase 1: ED outcome conceptual framework qualitative interviews with ED patients post-discharge informed four core domains (previously published). Phase 2: Item generation scoping review of the literature and existing instruments identified candidate questions relevant for each domain for inclusion in tool. Phase 3: Cognitive debriefing existing and newly written questions were tested with ED patients post-discharge for comprehension and wording preference. Phase 4: Field and validity testing revised tool pilot tested on a national online survey panel and then again at 2 weeks (test-retest). Phase 5: Final item reduction using a Delphi process involving ED clinicians, researchers, patients and system administrators. Phase 6: Validation - psychometric testing of PROM-ED 1.0. Results: Four core outcome domains were defined in Phase 1: (1) understanding; (2) symptom relief; (3) reassurance and (4) having a plan. The domains informed a review of existing relevant questionnaires and instruments and the writing of additional questions creating an initial long-form questionnaire. Eight patients participated in cognitive debriefing of the long-form questionnaire. Expert clinicians, researchers and patient partners provided input on item refinement and reduction. Four hundred forty-four patients completed a second version of the long-form questionnaire (add in retest numbers) which informed the final item reduction process by a modified Delphi method involving 21 diverse contributors. The questionnaire was validated and underwent final revisions to create the 21 questions that constitute PROM-ED 1.0. Conclusion: Using accepted PROM instrument development methodology, we developed the first outcome questionnaire for use with adult ED patients who are not hospitalized. This questionnaire can be used to systematically gather patient-reported outcome information that could support and inform improvement work in ED care.
Live insects have been shipped from the Belleville laboratory for many years by rail in wooden chests insulated with cork, lined with metal and cooled with natural ice. These chests were cumbersome and had to be re-iced en route or heavy mortality resulted. In 1959, a more reliable method was developed for shipping adult Aphidoletes thompsoni Moehn (Diptera: Cecidomyjidae), a predator of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) by air express. It incorporates the use of a lightweight container and a patented coolant in cans. Although it was developed specifically for A. thompsoni it was also used successfully for shipping other species.
Observations on predation of eggs of Hylemya brassicae (Bouché) were made from the Belleville laboratory from 1953 to 1955 as part of a general study of the biotic agents that act against the maggots that attack cruciferous crops. In biological control programs more attention has been given to parasites than to predators. Predation is more difficult to observe and to evaluate and, unlike parasitization, cannot be even roughly appraised by the collection and examination of hosts. As a group, predators are less specific in their food requirements and less regular in their habits than parasites and consequently do not lend themselves so readily to manipulation for biological control purposes. Predators used with success in biological control have had a high degree of specificity to their prey. Non-specific predators may, however, in the presence of large numbers of suitable hosts on which to feed, be important factors in reducing populations of noxious
insects. Predation on eggs of H. brassicae is an example.
Cocoons of winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.), reared from larvae collected in Europe, were imported to obtain insect parasites for release in Canada. Normally the sequence of handling the host cocoons consisted of: summer storage (July to October); autumn storage (October to December) during which host emergence occurred; winter storage (January to May); and, finally, a period of incubation (May to June) to obtain in time for release against the larval stage of the host.
In this review, I try to sketch out and evaluate briefly Anderson's new theory of value. I then focus on the social and dialogical account of rationality tied to her value theory and argue that it will be unable to rule out racism as neatly as Anderson sometimes implies. Still, this failure allows her theory to account for the complexity of racism, and points us in promising directions.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.