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How did the cities of Ionia construct and express a distinct sense of Ionian identity under Roman rule? With the creation of the Roman province of Asia and the ever-growing incorporation of the Greeks into the Roman Empire, issues of identity gained new relevance and urgency for the Greek provincials. The Ionian cities are a special case as they, unlike many other cities in Asia Minor, were all old Greek poleis and could look back on a glorious tradition of great antiquity. Martin Hallmannsecker provides answers to this question using studies of the extant literary sources complemented with analyses of the rich epigraphic and numismatic material from the cities of Ionia. In doing so, he draws a more holistic and nuanced picture of the region and furthers understanding of Greek culture under the Roman Empire.
Learn to assess electromigration reliability and design more resilient chips in this comprehensive and practical resource. Beginning with fundamental physics and building to advanced methodologies, this book enables the reader to develop highly reliable on-chip wiring stacks and power grids. Through a detailed review on the role of microstructure, interfaces and processing on electromigration reliability, as well as characterisation, testing and analysis, the book follows the development of on-chip interconnects from microscale to nanoscale. Practical modeling methodologies for statistical analysis, from simple 1D approximation to complex 3D description, can be used for step-by-step development of reliable on-chip wiring stacks and industrial-grade power/ground grids. This is an ideal resource for materials scientists and reliability and chip design engineers.
The Romance languages and dialects constitute a treasure trove of linguistic data of profound interest and significance. Data from the Romance languages have contributed extensively to our current empirical and theoretical understanding of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, and historical linguistics. Written by a team of world-renowned scholars, this Handbook explores what we can learn about linguistics from the study of Romance languages, and how the body of comparative and historical data taken from them can be applied to linguistic study. It also offers insights into the diatopic and diachronic variation exhibited by the Romance family of languages, of a kind unparalleled for any other Western languages. By asking what Romance languages can do for linguistics, this Handbook is essential reading for all linguists interested in the insights that a knowledge of the Romance evidence can provide for general issues in linguistic theory.
Quasi-interpolation is one of the most useful and often applied methods for the approximation of functions and data in mathematics and applications. Its advantages are manifold: quasi-interpolants are able to approximate in any number of dimensions, they are efficient and relatively easy to formulate for scattered and meshed nodes and for any number of data. This book provides an introduction into the field for graduate students and researchers, outlining all the mathematical background and methods of implementation. The mathematical analysis of quasi-interpolation is given in three directions, namely on the basis (spline spaces, radial basis functions) from which the approximation is taken, on the form and computation of the quasi-interpolants (point evaluations, averages, least squares), and on the mathematical properties (existence, locality, convergence questions, precision). Learn which type of quasi-interpolation to use in different contexts and how to optimise its features to suit applications in physics and engineering.
This book argues that core concepts in EU citizenship law are riddled with latent fissures traceable back to the earliest case law on free movement of persons, and that later developments simply compounded such defects. By looking at these defects, not only could Brexit have been predicted, but it could also have been foreseen that unchecked problems with EU citizenship would potentially lead to its eventual dismantling during an era of widespread populism and considerable challenges to further integration. Using a critical constructivist approach, the author painstakingly outlines the 'temple' of citizenship from its foundations upwards, and offers a deconstruction of concepts such as 'worker', the role of non-economic actors, the principle of equal treatment, and utterances of citizenship. In identifying inherent fissures in the concept of solidarity and post national identification, this book poses critical questions and argues that we need to reconstruct EU citizenship from the bottom up.
During the interwar period, J.P. Morgan was the most important bank in the world and at the crossroads of US politics, international relations and finance. In J.P. Morgan & Co. and the Crisis of Capitalism, Martin Horn brings us the first in-depth history of how J.P. Morgan responded to the greatest crisis in the history of financial capitalism, shedding new light on the Great Depression, the New Deal, and the coming of World War II. Horn shows how J.P. Morgan & Co as a business responded to the 1929 Crash and the Depression, including its part in the New York Stock Exchange Crash, arguing that the Morgan partners misread the seriousness of the crash. He also offers new insights into the interactions of politics and finance, exploring J.P. Morgan's relationship with the Hoover administration and the bank's clash with Roosevelt over New Deal legislation.
This Element takes on the assumption that for Kant, rationalizing only pertains to self-deception about one's motives and specific maxims. By drawing on the full breadth of examples of rationalizing Kant discusses, the author will show how rationalizing can also extend to general features of morality and corrupt rational agents thoroughly. Furthermore, they explain the often-overlooked roles common human reason, empirical practical reason and even pure practical reason play for rationalizing. Kant is aware that rationality is a double-edged sword: Reason is the source of morality and of our dignity, but it also enables us to seemingly justify moral transgressions to ourselves, and it creates an interest in this justification in the first place. Finally, the author discusses whether Kant is in a position to charge his philosophical opponents with presenting corrupting transformations of morality based on rationalizing, and whether, in turn, Kant can escape this charge if it is levelled against himself.
Functional analysis deals with infinite-dimensional spaces. Its results are among the greatest achievements of modern mathematics and it has wide-reaching applications to probability theory, statistics, economics, classical and quantum physics, chemistry, engineering, and pure mathematics. This book deals with measure theory and discrete aspects of functional analysis, including Fourier series, sequence spaces, matrix maps, and summability. Based on the author's extensive teaching experience, the text is accessible to advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. It can be used as a basis for a one-term course or for a one-year sequence, and is suitable for self-study for readers with an undergraduate-level understanding of real analysis and linear algebra. 760 exercises are included to help the reader test their understanding and key background material is summarized in the Preliminaries.
In many economic sectors – the digital industries being first and foremost – the market power of dominant firms have been steadily increasing and are rarely challenged by competitors. Existing competition laws and regulations have been unable to make markets more contestable. The first edition of this book provided a groundbreaking systematic treatment of the economics of competition policy in a global context. Now in its second edition, this book argues that a new competition tool is needed: market investigations. This tool allows authorities to intervene in markets which do not function as they should, due to market features such as network effects, scale economies, switching costs, and behavioural biases. This book explains the role of market investigations, assesses their use in the few jurisdictions where they exist, and discusses how they should be designed. In so doing, it provides an invaluable and timely instrument to both practitioners and academics.
This wide-ranging, detailed and engaging study of Brecht's complex relationship with Greek tragedy and tragic tradition argues that this is fundamental for understanding his radicalism. Featuring an extensive discussion of The Antigone of Sophocles (1948) and further related works (the Antigone model book and the Small Organon for the Theatre), this monograph includes the first-ever publication of the complete set of colour photographs taken by Ruth Berlau. This is complemented by comparatist explorations of many of Brecht's own plays as his experiments with tragedy conceptualized as the 'big form'. The significance for Brecht of the Greek tragic tradition is positioned in relation to other formative influences on his work (Asian theatre, Naturalism, comedy, Schiller and Shakespeare). Brecht emerges as a theatre artist of enormous range and creativity, who has succeeded in re-shaping and re-energizing tragedy and has carved paths for its continued artistic and political relevance.
Based on course-tested material, this rigorous yet accessible graduate textbook covers both fundamental and advanced optimization theory and algorithms. It covers a wide range of numerical methods and topics, including both gradient-based and gradient-free algorithms, multidisciplinary design optimization, and uncertainty, with instruction on how to determine which algorithm should be used for a given application. It also provides an overview of models and how to prepare them for use with numerical optimization, including derivative computation. Over 400 high-quality visualizations and numerous examples facilitate understanding of the theory, and practical tips address common issues encountered in practical engineering design optimization and how to address them. Numerous end-of-chapter homework problems, progressing in difficulty, help put knowledge into practice. Accompanied online by a solutions manual for instructors and source code for problems, this is ideal for a one- or two-semester graduate course on optimization in aerospace, civil, mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineering departments.
In this chapter, we analyze various forms of network effects. As a network effect is an external effect, it is important to identify the economic agent who generates it (the “originator”) and the one who is affected (the “receiver”). If originator and receiver are seen to belong to a common group of agents, one talks of a “within- group” network effect; otherwise, if they are seen to belong to different groups, one talks of a “cross-group” network effect. In both cases, it is also crucial to determine whether network effects are positive or negative. Crossing the two dimensions (within- vs. cross-group and positive vs. negative), we obtain a number of typical situations, which we describe in Sections 1.1 and 1.2. We then confront these typical situations to the reality and, on this basis, we propose a definition of platforms and ways to categorize them in Section 1.3.
In this chapter, we seek to understand key economic consequences of network effects. First, in Section 3.1, we analyze the impacts that network effects have on the demand for participation on a platform. The main lesson we draw is that the interdependence between individual demands leads to unconventional aggregate demands; in particular, we show that a given price for accessing the platform may be compatible with several levels of participation. Next, in Section 3.2, we explore the pricing of access to a platform, which is made complex by the presence of network effects. Finally, in Section 3.3, we discuss other strategic decisions that platforms need to combine with pricing to manage network effects; in particular, a platform has to decide the extent to which its services are compatible with alternative services.
In this epilogue, we give a preview of the topics that we will develop in our next book on platform competition and platform regulation; we also summarize what this book has already taught us about these topics.
In this chapter, we take a closer look at how the strategies of a profit-maximizing two-sided platform affect user participation and usage in a buyer-seller context. First, in Section 6.1, we introduce competition between sellers on the platform and analyze how this affects platform pricing and design; we also assess the impacts of the platform’s decisions on product variety. Next, in Section 6.2, we examine two specific design decisions that affect cross-group network effects: First, we revisit the issue of product variety, which a platform can also manage through its design of rating, reviews, and recommender systems; second, we examine the extent to which an intermediary wants to increase price transparency on the platform. Finally, in Section 6.3, we turn to design decisions that a platform can use to govern the sellers’ pricing strategies; the question here is whether platforms can increase their profit by letting sellers choose from a richer set of pricing strategies – for instance, by providing sellers with buyers’ personal data so as to facilitate differential pricing.