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This chapter reconsiders the significance of The Beautiful and Damned (1922) to F. Scott Fitzgerald’s development as a writer and his place in American modernist literature. This second novel occupies a minor position in the Fitzgerald canon and is often regarded as a move away from his experimentations with romanticism, aestheticism, and decadence to naturalism. By contrast, this chapter argues that the novel remains committed to fin-de-siècle theories of aesthetic hedonism propounded by Walter Pater and Oscar Wilde in formal, thematic, and intellectual terms and brings them into productive tension with naturalism. The Beautiful and Damned is informed by Paterean theories of perception and hedonism in its preoccupation with the brevity of life, the fragility of beauty, and the necessity of cultivating a heightened mode of perception and consciousness. Naturalism, meanwhile, is deployed strategically as in the narrative to expose the naïve and illusory nature of the aesthetic hedonism of its protagonists. This chapter further argues that Fitzgerald’s reliance on fin-de-siècle tropes should not be understood as anomalous or derivative but, rather, that it situates The Beautiful and Damned in a broader “new decadent” literary movement within American modernism.
Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a widely used modality for safe and effective treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, and FMT is being explored for the treatment of additional indications including gastrointestinal diseases and neurological disorders. Although microbiota-based therapies like FMT utilize rigorous donor screening procedures, these procedures are limited in resolution and scope, and there remains a risk of transmission of FMT-associated infectious agents from donor stool to a FMT recipient. Critically, these health concerns led the FDA to issue a 2019 safety alert for the transmission risks associated with FMT and to update its guidelines for screening and reporting. In a suspected transmission event, there is uncertainty around the source of infection; thus, methods are needed to rapidly determine whether a patient’s infection is linked to the donor stool product. Methods: Here, we developed a laboratory service sequencing and bioinformatics pipeline within our CLIA-certified laboratory for investigating suspected FMT infection transmission by measuring genomic relatedness. Our pipeline performs deep sequencing of a metagenomic sample, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of an isolate derived from the implicated patient infection and determines the genomic relatedness between the 2 using a SNP-based analysis. The workflow was validated in silico with synthetic metagenomic samples spiked-in with WGS of clinically relevant isolate strains at varying abundance. Results: The sample and sequencing library preparation workflow was optimized across a panel of metagenomic and mock fecal microbiome samples demonstrating reproducible and reduced-bias sequencing of metagenomic samples. Our pipeline demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for clonality calls when a spiked in isolate genome achieves 5× depth for >50% of the genome. We also demonstrated an interplay between abundance rate and sequencing depth for determining a clonality limit of detection. Conclusions: Taken together, our pipeline represents a new method that can support the clinical efforts of FMT and other microbiota-based therapies. References: US Food and Drug Administration. Important safety alert regarding use of fecal microbiota for transplantation and risk of serious adverse reactions due to transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration, 2019. DeFilipp Z, Bloom PP, Torres Soto M, et al. Drug-resistant E. coli bacteremia transmitted by fecal microbiota transplant. N Engl J Med 2019;381:2043–2050.
Financial support: This study was funded by Day Zero Diagnostics.
This participatory action research (PAR) aimed to understand the health implications of guidelines impacting social isolation among frail community-dwelling older adults and their family and formal caregivers during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Reflexive thematic analysis (RTA) of data collected from 10 policy/procedural documents revealed four themes: valuing principles, identifying problem(s), setting priorities, and making recommendations. Interviews with 31 participants from Peterborough, Ontario, also revealed four themes: sacrificing social health, diminishing physical health, draining mental health, and defining supports. Recommendations to decision makers were finalized at a knowledge exchange event involving participants and members of Age-friendly Peterborough. Key findings demonstrate the need for Canadian governments and health and social service agencies to enhance access to technology-based interventions, and educational and financial resources for caregivers. Meaningful communication and collaboration between older adults, caregivers, and decision makers are also needed to reduce the gap between policy and practice when addressing social isolation.
Current understanding of word-finding (WF) difficulties in children and their underlying language processing deficit is poor. Authors have proposed that different underlying deficits may result in different profiles. The current study aimed to better understand WF difficulties by identifying difficult tasks for children with WF difficulties and by focusing on semantic vs. phonological profiles. Twenty-four French-speaking children with WF difficulties and 22 children without WF difficulties, all aged 7- to 12-years-old, participated. They were compared on a range of measures to cover the overall mechanism of WF and the quality of semantic and phonological representations. The largest differences were found on a parent questionnaire and a word definition task. Cluster analyses revealed “high performance” and “low performance” clusters, with intermediary groups. These clusters did not match the expected semantic vs. phonological profiles derived from models of lexical access, suggesting that WF difficulties may be linked to both semantic and phonological deficits.
Advocating a gender-inclusive approach to the history of work, this book both counts and accounts for women's as well as men's economic activity. Showcasing novel conceptual, methodological and empirical perspectives, it highlights the transformative potential of including women's work in wider assessments of continuity and change in economic performance. Focusing on the period of European history (1500-1800) that generated unprecedented growth in the northwest – which, in turn, was linked to the global redistribution of resources and upon which industrialisation depended – the book spans key arenas in which women produced change: households, care, agriculture, rural manufacture, urban markets, migration, and war. The analysis refutes the stubborn contention of mainstream economic history that we can generalise about economic performance by focusing solely on the work of adult men and demonstrates that women were active agents in the early modern economy rather than passively affected by changes wrought upon them.
This chapter reviews contemporary discussions in political philosophy and educational theory about the character of children’s rights and their importance to debates about the character of democratic education. It focuses on five areas in which there is contestation about the interpretation and implications of children’s rights: (i) issues about the appropriate content of democratic education; (ii) issues about children’s rights of access to education and the degree to which educational inequalities are acceptable; (ii) issues about the kind of control parents should exercise over the kind of education children receive; (iv) issues about the degree to which schools are themselves sites of democratic activity; and (v) issues about how educational institutions should be designed or reformed in order respect the educational rights of children.
White monolingual Anglo-American values permeate language acquisition research, which extends into public health and educational policies. “Quality of language” in parent-child interactions is often called upon to explain weaknesses in the language development of children who are racialized, experiencing poverty, or bilingual. Indeed, many early intervention approaches build on this premise by aiming to improve the “quality of language” used by parents. We aimed to understand the conceptualizations of “quality of language” in studies of parent-child interaction through the critical lens of Community Cultural Wealth Theory and perspectives from development research across cultures. We completed a Systematic Concept Analysis of articles published from 2010 to 2022 and focused on parent-child interactions in the home environment. Our search identified 972 articles and 78 met the inclusion criteria, but only 45 papers provided a definition. These definitions covered eight conceptualizations but only three were previously described. We also found inequity in the use of this terminology, which focused on children who were bilingual, had disability, or experiencing poverty. Informed by a critical lens, we recommend the use of four new terms to encompass “quality of language.” We also recommend refraining from using this term as it is value-laden, poorly defined, and diminishes culturally sustaining language transmission practices.
John Kennedy did not initially play much of a role in the wider affairs of the Free Church. Although ordained early in 1844 and attending the General Assembly as a commissioner about once every three years, he took no prominent role in Assembly proceedings until the 1870s. He did not deliver his maiden speech to the Assembly until 1872, when he was fifty-two. As one of his biographers wrote:
On the public questions of the day he had held his peace for years, and did not seem to care for platform speaking. It was only when forced in the interests of the truth he held so dear that he reluctantly entered the turbulent arena of controversy.
In the latter years of his ministry, he began to contribute significantly to the internal debates of the Free Church, first by the publication of a substantial theological work, relevant to broader contemporary discussions, in 1869, and thereafter through a steady flow of controversial pamphlets from 1870 onwards, through addressing public meetings, and increasingly through contributions in church courts, including the Assembly.
By these means, he helped to mobilise the majority of Highland evangelical opinion on his own side in the central controversy of the nineteenth-century Free Church, which concerned the constitution of the Free Church of Scotland, and its consequent relation to the other major Presbyterian denominations in Scotland – the Established Church and the United Presbyterian Church. This controversy commenced in the mid-1860s over proposals for a full incorporating union with the United Presbyterian Church, which were successfully resisted by a minority within the Free Church, Kennedy included, on the grounds of theological divergence between the churches over the doctrine of the atonement and especially over the Establishment Principle. For taking this ground the minority became known as the constitutionalist party. Following this setback, the controversy continued in a new form, as the majority party sought to vitiate the latter ground of separation by challenging the privileged position of the Established Church in Scotland, leading eventually to the controversial majority decision of the Free Church General Assembly to call for full disestablishment in Scotland. This call was strenuously resisted and opposed by a minority within the Free Church, located chiefly in the Highlands, and led by Kennedy and his friend, James Begg.