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Geomathematics provides a comprehensive summary of the mathematical principles behind key topics in geophysics and geodesy, covering the foundations of gravimetry, geomagnetics and seismology. Theorems and their proofs explain why physical realities in geoscience are the logical mathematical consequences of basic laws. The book also derives and analyzes the theory and numerical aspects of established systems of basis functions; and presents an algorithm for combining different types of trial functions. Topics cover inverse problems and their regularization, the Laplace/Poisson equation, boundary-value problems, foundations of potential theory, the Poisson integral formula, spherical harmonics, Legendre polynomials and functions, radial basis functions, the Biot-Savart law, decomposition theorems (orthogonal, Helmholtz, and Mie), basics of continuum mechanics, conservation laws, modelling of seismic waves, the Cauchy-Navier equation, seismic rays, and travel-time tomography. Each chapter ends with review questions, with solutions for instructors available online, providing a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers.
During the decades separating the two world wars, Americans often defined themselves politically in reference to the Soviet Union. For most individuals, this meant eyeing Moscow with suspicion or hostility. A significant number of reformers and radicals, however, drew inspiration from the October Revolution. They viewed the Soviet Union as a vast, daring experiment that wedded scientific planning with ideals of equality in all areas of human endeavor: economics, statecraft, nation-building, gender relations, and so on. The most devoted enthusiasts joined the American Communist Party (CP), which, since its founding in 1919, committed itself to establishing a Soviet-style “dictatorship of the proletariat” in the United States. Hundreds of thousands of individuals belonged to the party, affiliated “front-groups,” and allied organizations, for greater or lesser periods of time, between the 1920s and 1940s. Always plagued by high turnover within its ranks, the CP never came close to achieving its ultimate goal. Still, it exerted a profound influence on the American left by transmitting ideas and policies formulated in Moscow to the United States.
Quantum field theory (QFT) is one of the great achievements of physics, of profound interest to mathematicians. Most pedagogical texts on QFT are geared toward budding professional physicists, however, whereas mathematical accounts are abstract and difficult to relate to the physics. This book bridges the gap. While the treatment is rigorous whenever possible, the accent is not on formality but on explaining what the physicists do and why, using precise mathematical language. In particular, it covers in detail the mysterious procedure of renormalization. Written for readers with a mathematical background but no previous knowledge of physics and largely self-contained, it presents both basic physical ideas from special relativity and quantum mechanics and advanced mathematical concepts in complete detail. It will be of interest to mathematicians wanting to learn about QFT and, with nearly 300 exercises, also to physics students seeking greater rigor than they typically find in their courses.
There has been growing awareness that refugees profit from being involved in meaningful activities soon after arriving in their new country of residence. Learning the language of the host country seems to be a priority of many initiatives. Yet, in countries like the Netherlands, highly educated refugees might benefit more from initially improving their academic English, as this provides access to higher education and allows them to (re)enter professional life. Drawing on a small-scale needs analysis, this case study showcases the design and implementation of pedagogic tasks that intend to support refugees learning English in the Netherlands for academic or professional purposes.
Research has shown that animated graphics are not the educational magic bullet that many expected them to be. They are neither necessarily superior to static graphics nor intrinsically effective in their own right. The Animation Composition Principle characterizes learning from animation as a hierarchical relation-building process by which mental models of the depicted subject matter are progressively and cumulatively constructed from discrete information primitives. It helps explain the limited success of previous attempts to improve animation’s effectiveness that took no account of their fundamental design. By giving due consideration to both perceptual and cognitive aspects of animation processing, the Animation Processing Model that embodies this Principle opens the door to novel, more effective compositional design options. These compositional animations significantly improve learning outcomes.
Although the research surrounding PRR parties has increased over the years, health policies, an important part of the welfare system, have generally been neglected. Using an in-depth case-study approach, this article analyses the health policy consequences of PRR parties in Austrian and Italian subnational governments over time, thereby expanding the units of analysis while also looking at an understudied level of government. The findings indicate a propensity towards neoliberalism, combined with accents of welfare chauvinism in Austria and a strategy of shutting down the Freedom Party of Austria. In the case of Italy, both regional cases mark a desire for welfare chauvinism but an inability to restrict healthcare access directly. In all four cases (except Burgenland), the PRR parties are consistently chauvinistic (despite seeming to prefer welfare to liberal chauvinism, they typically implement the latter for health policies) and any factor of generosity comes from a social democratic coalition partner or not at all.
We performed viral culture of nasopharyngeal specimens in individuals aged 79 and older, infected with SARS-CoV-2, 10 days after symptom onset. A positive viral culture was seen in 10/22 participants (45%), including 4/12 (33%) individuals with improving symptoms. This small study suggests that infectivity may be prolonged among older individuals.
In this article we explore the potential of the capability approach as a normative basis for eco-social policies. While the capability approach is often interpreted as a productivist or maximalist perspective, assuming the desirability of economic growth, we suggest another understanding, which explicitly problematises the suitability of economic growth and productive employment as means for enhancing capabilities. We argue that the capability approach allows rejecting the identification of social progress with economic growth and that it calls for democratically debating the meaning of wellbeing and quality of life. We analyse the implications of this conceptualisation for the design of welfare states.
A 26-year-old nulligravid woman presents with concerns of heavy menses and pelvic pain. Her last menstrual period was one week ago. She describes a long history of cyclic heavy menses which were initially improved on combination oral contraceptive pills but have worsened in the last two years. On her heaviest days, she soaks through a tampon in 1 hour and has soiled her clothes. She notes worsening pelvic pain which was previously limited to her menses but now feels like a constant fullness in her lower abdomen. She reports urinary frequency and denies dysuria or malodorous urine. She is not sexually active and denies a history of pelvic infections. She had a negative Pap test last year. She has a history of anemia, but no other medical problems. She has never had surgery. She desires future childbearing. She takes no medications other than her contraceptive pills.
There is evidence that a significant proportion of pregnancies are unintended at conception. Pregnancy planning allows for optimization of a woman’s health prior to conception and is associated with improved outcomes for both mother and baby. Certain periods during the female life course are associated with an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, such as adolescence, or where the risk of pregnancy is under-recognized, such as post-pregnancy and the perimenopause. Interactions with obstetricians and gynaecologists may provide opportunities for prevention through education and enhanced contraceptive provision.
A 30-year-old female, gravida1, para 0, presents to the office for a suction dilation and curettage (D&C) for management of a six-week missed abortion. Transvaginal ultrasound diagnosed the missed abortion one week ago and it was reconfirmed three days ago. She is taking ibuprofen 400 mg PO q 4 hours PRN and took diazepam 5 mg PO × 1 before arriving. She has no past medical or surgical history and no known drug allergies. On bimanual examination, a small, retroflexed uterus is noted. The cervix is stenotic, but dilation was able to be performed. Near the end of the procedure, the suction cannula passes without resistance deeper than expected. The patient describes a sudden increase in her pain. The procedure is stopped.
Understanding the size of oil droplets released from a jet in crossflow is crucial for estimating the trajectory of hydrocarbons and the rates of oil biodegradation/dissolution in the water column. We present experimental results of an oil jet with a jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 9.3. The oil was released from a vertical pipe 25 mm in diameter with a Reynolds number of 25 000. We measured the size of oil droplets near the top and bottom boundaries of the plume using shadowgraph cameras and we also filmed the whole plume. In parallel, we developed a multifluid large eddy simulation model to simulate the plume and coupled it with our VDROP population balance model to compute the local droplet size. We accounted for the slip velocity of oil droplets in the momentum equation and in the volume fraction equation of oil through the local, mass-weighted average droplet rise velocity. The top and bottom boundaries of the plume were captured well in the simulation. Larger droplets shaped the upper boundary of the plume, and the mean droplet size increased with elevation across the plume, most likely due to the individual rise velocity of droplets. At the same elevation across the plume, the droplet size was smaller at the centre axis as compared with the side boundaries of the plume due to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair, which induced upward velocity at the centre axis and downward velocity near the sides of the plume.
Supporting Antarctic scientific investigation is the job of the national Antarctic programmes, the government entities charged with delivering their countries’ Antarctic research strategies. This requires sustained investment in people, innovative technologies, Antarctic infrastructures, and vessels with icebreaking capabilities. The recent endorsement of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Polar Code (2015) means that countries must address challenges related to an ageing icebreaking vessel fleet. Many countries have recently invested in and begun, or completed, builds on new icebreaking Polar research vessels. These vessels incorporate innovative technologies to increase fuel efficiency, to reduce noise output, and to address ways to protect the Antarctic environment in their design. This paper is a result of a Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP) project on new vessel builds which began in 2018. It considers the recent vessel builds of Australia’s RSV Nuyina, China’s MV Xue Long 2, France’s L’Astrolabe, Norway’s RV Kronprins Haakon, Peru’s BAP Carrasco, and the United Kingdom’s RRS Sir David Attenborough. The paper provides examples of purposeful consideration of science support requirements and environmental sustainability in vessel designs and operations.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of many digital technologies currently under development.1 In recent years, it is having increasing repercussions in the field of law. These repercussions go beyond the traditional effect of an economic and industrial evolution. Indeed, the epochal industrial transformations and paradigmatic shifts it generates in many sectors have, from a legal perspective, a structural impact on legal rules and on legal practice. Moreover, the speed of these transformations also impacts on the regulatory response that a legislator is able to provide. In point of fact, rather than running the risk of new legislation rapidly becoming obsolete, regulators around the world have preferred so far to take their time to observe the changes unfolding in current technologies, and to assess their impacts from the legal point of view, before proposing any specific courses of action. Although legal experts, contrary to ethicists, have traditionally shown little interest in AI, algorithms, machine learning and so forth, it is now virtually impossible for them to ignore the impact of AI on the law, and more specifically, the question of whether actual legal rules and regulations can cope with the changes taking place in the economy and in the society, on one hand, and whether the use of AI tools in legal practice is compatible with the founding principles of our legal orders, on the other hand. If new rules are needed, lawyers will have to define their content and how to make sure they are suitable for the long term, in a context of rapidly changing technologies.
Mental disorders in comorbidity with chronic skin diseases may worsen disease outcome and patients’ quality of life. We hypothesized the comorbidity of depression, anxiety syndromes, or symptoms as attributable to biological mechanisms that the combined diseases share.
We conducted a systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement searching into PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus databases. We examined the literature regarding the comorbidity of psoriasis (Ps), atopic dermatitis (AD), or hidradenitis suppurativa with depression and/or anxiety in adults ≥18 years and the hypothetical shared underlying biological mechanisms.
Sixteen studies were analyzed, mostly regarding Ps and AD. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways arose as shared mechanisms in Ps animal models with depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors. Activated microglia and neuroinflammatory responses emerged in AD depressive models. As to genetic studies, atopic-dermatitis patients with comorbid anxiety traits carried the short variant of serotonin transporter and a polymorphism of the human translocator protein gene. A GA genotype of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene was instead associated with Ps. Reduced natural killer cell activity, IL-4, serotonin serum levels, and increased plasma cortisol and IgE levels were hypothesized in comorbid depressive AD patients. In Ps patients with comorbid depression, high serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-18, as well as IL-17A, were presumed to act as shared inflammatory mechanisms.
Further studies should investigate mental disorders and chronic skin diseases concurrently across patients’ life course and identify their temporal relation and biological correlates. Future research should also identify biological characteristics of individuals at high risk of the comorbid disorders and associated complications.
Where is the Pacific in colonial American literary studies? Nowhere, according to our anthologies, literary histories, syllabi, and scholarship, which all seem to agree that the Pacific enters American literary studies only well after the colonial period. This chapter provides an overview of scholarship on the colonial Pacific to suggest what it looks like, why it is important, and how we might begin to incorporate it into our literary histories. It insists on the inclusion of Indigenous literary and political histories from the Pacific and on recognizing the long and complicated intersection of these with Chinese and other Asian trade histories as well as with European empire and commerce. These contexts are crucial for shaping the recovery, integration, and understanding of Pacific texts into a global American literary history. Our literary anthologies and histories – and the narratives they implicitly or explicitly tell – need to reach into Indigenous, international, and multilingual colonial pasts. The story of America we currently tell and teach is a very different one than it would be if we included the colonial Pacific; this chapter provides some initial building blocks from which to construct a new, critical, transoceanic narrative for early American literary studies.