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Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with acute suicidal ideation or behavior (MDSI) require immediate intervention. Though oral antidepressants can be effective at reducing depressive symptoms, they can take 4–6 weeks to reach full effect.
This study aimed to identify unmet needs in the treatment of patients with MDSI, specifically exploring the potential clinical benefits of rapid reduction of depressive symptoms.
A Delphi panel consisting of practicing psychiatrists (n=12) from the US, Canada and EU was conducted between December 2020–June 2021. Panelists were screened to ensure they had sufficient experience with managing patients with MDD and MDSI. Panelists completed two survey rounds, and a virtual consensus meeting.
This research confirmed current unmet needs in the treatment of patients with MDSI.
Hopelessness, functional impairment, worsening of MDD symptoms, recurrent hospitalization and higher risk of suicide attempt were considered as key consequences of the slow onset of action of oral antidepressants.
Treatment with rapid acting antidepressant was anticipated by panelists to provide short-term benefit such as rapid reduction of core MDD symptoms which may contribute to shorter hospital stays and improved patient engagement/compliance, allowing for earlier interventions and improved patient outcomes. For long-term benefits, panelists agreed that improved daily functioning and increased trust/confidence in treatment options, constitute key benefits of rapid-acting treatments
There is need for rapid-acting treatments which may help address key unmet needs and provide clinically meaningful benefits driven by the rapid relief of depressive symptoms particularly in patients with MDSI.
SB, ED, KJ, MO’H, QZ, MM, MH, SR, JA and DZ are employees of Janssen and hold stock in Johnson & Johnson Inc. AN is currently employed by Neurocrine Biosciences Inc. RP is an employee of Adelphi Values PROVE hired by Janssen.
Policies that promote conversion of antibiotics from intravenous to oral route administration are considered “low hanging fruit” for hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs. We developed a simple metric based on digestive days of therapy divided by total days of therapy for targeted agents and a method for hospital comparisons. External comparisons may help identify opportunities for improving prospective implementation.
The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
University and college students are vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. People in low-income countries are disproportionately impacted by mental health problems, yet few studies examine routes to accessing clinical services. Examining motivation and barriers toward seeking clinical mental health services in university students in Bangladesh is important.
Using a cross-sectional survey (n = 350), we assess the relationship between the constructs of autonomy, relatedness, and competency toward using clinical mental health practices (i.e. using professional resources, taking medication) with (1) positive views, (2) perceived need, and (3) use of clinical mental health services among Bangladeshi university students.
Results showed that the perceived need for mental health support was the predictor of the largest magnitude (aOR = 4.99, p = 0.005) for using clinical services. Having a positive view of clinical services was predictive of clinical service use (aOR = 2.87, p = 0.033); however, that association became insignificant (p = 0.054) when adjusting for the perceived need for mental health care. Of the SDT constructs, social influences were predictive of perceiving a need for mental health support, and mental health knowledge was predictive (aOR = 1.10, p = 0.001) of having a positive view of clinical mental health care.
Our findings show that knowledge of mental health is associated with positive views of mental health services, and that higher levels of stress and the presence of people with mental health problems are associated with the perception of a need for mental health care, which is ultimately responsible for using the services.
Using nested case–control data from the Lifelines COVID-19 cohort, we undertook a validation study of a clinical and genetic model to predict the risk of severe COVID-19 in people with confirmed COVID-19 and in people with confirmed or self-reported COVID-19. The model performed well in terms of discrimination of cases and controls for all ages (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.680 for confirmed COVID-19 and AUC = 0.689 for confirmed and self-reported COVID-19) and in the age group in which the model was developed (50 years and older; AUC = 0.658 for confirmed COVID-19 and AUC = 0.651 for confirmed and self-reported COVID-19). There was no evidence of over- or under-dispersion of risk scores but there was evidence of overall over-estimation of risk in all analyses (all P < 0.0001). In the light of large numbers of people worldwide remaining unvaccinated and continuing uncertainty regarding vaccine efficacy over time and against variants of concern, identification of people at high risk of severe COVID-19 may encourage the uptake of vaccinations (including boosters) and the use of non-pharmaceutical inventions.
Optimizing needleless connector hub disinfection practice is a key strategy in central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention. In this mixed-methods evaluation, 3 products with varying scrub times were tested for experimental disinfection followed by a qualitative nursing assessment of each.
Needleless connectors were inoculated with varying concentrations of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus followed by disinfection with a 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) wipe (a 15-second scrub time and a 15-second dry time), a 70% IPA cap (a 10-second scrub time and a 5-second dry time), or a 3.15% chlorhexidine gluconate with 70% IPA (CHG/IPA) wipe (a 5-second scrub time and a 5-second dry time). Cultures of needleless connectors were obtained after disinfection to quantify bacterial reduction. This was followed by surveying a convenience sample of nursing staff with intensive care unit assignments at an academic tertiary hospital on use of each product.
All products reduced overall bacterial burden when compared to sterile water controls, however the IPA and CHG/IPA wipes were superior to the IPA caps when product efficacy was compared. Nursing staff noted improved compliance with CHG/IPA wipes compared with the IPA wipes and the IPA caps, with many preferring the lesser scrub and dry times required for disinfection.
Achieving adequate bacterial disinfection of needleless connectors while maximizing healthcare staff compliance with scrub and dry times may be best achieved with a combination CHG/IPA wipe.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: #NAME? METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Cell culture & protein identification: human T cells were purified from healthy blood, then activated & cultured for 5d. CAR-T cells were collected from infusion bags of cancer patients undergoing CAR-T. Silver staining of naive & activated healthy T-cell lysates was compared; B-II spectrin was upregulated and confirmed by Western blot. Migration assays: naive & activated T-cells were imaged during migration on ICAM-1 and ICAM-1 + CXCL12 coated plates. T-cells were transfected with BII-spectrin cDNA & the chemokine dependence of migration was compared with controls. In-vivo studies: in a melanoma mouse model, BII-spectrin transfected or control T-cells were injected; tumors were followed with serial imaging. Human patient records were examined to correlate endogenous BII-spectrin levels and CAR-T response. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Activated T-cells downregulate the cytoskeletal protein B-II spectrin compared to naive cells, leading to chemokine-independent migration in in vitro assays and off-target trafficking when CAR-T cells are given in vivo. Restoration of B-II spectrin levels via transfection restores chemokine-dependence of activated T-cells. In a mouse melanoma model, control mice injected with standard activated T-cells showed fewer cells in the tumor site and more cells in the off-target organs (spleen, lungs) when compared to mice injected with B-II spectrin transfected cells. Furthermore, among 3 human patients undergoing CAR-T therapy, those with higher endogenous B-II spectrin levels experienced fewer side-effects, measured by the neurotoxicity and cytokine release syndrome grades. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A major hurdle to widespread CAR-T therapy for cancer is significant, often fatal side-effects. Our work shows that the protein B-II spectrin is downregulated during CAR-T production, and that restoring B-II spectrin levels decreases side-effects while increasing tumor clearance--hopefully translating to better CAR-T regimens for the future.
There is evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected mental health, but most studies have been conducted in the general population.
To identify factors associated with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals with pre-existing mental illness.
Participants (N = 2869, 78% women, ages 18–94 years) from a UK cohort (the National Centre for Mental Health) with a history of mental illness completed a cross-sectional online survey in June to August 2020. Mental health assessments were the GAD-7 (anxiety), PHQ-9 (depression) and WHO-5 (well-being) questionnaires, and a self-report question on whether their mental health had changed during the pandemic. Regressions examined associations between mental health outcomes and hypothesised risk factors. Secondary analyses examined associations between specific mental health diagnoses and mental health.
A total of 60% of participants reported that mental health had worsened during the pandemic. Younger age, difficulty accessing mental health services, low income, income affected by COVID-19, worry about COVID-19, reduced sleep and increased alcohol/drug use were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and reduced well-being. Feeling socially supported by friends/family/services was associated with better mental health and well-being. Participants with a history of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder or eating disorder were more likely to report that mental health had worsened during the pandemic than individuals without a history of these diagnoses.
We identified factors associated with worse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals with pre-existing mental illness, in addition to specific groups potentially at elevated risk of poor mental health during the pandemic.
Evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) are underused in health care settings. Aligning implementation of EBPs with the needs of health care leaders (i.e., operational stakeholders) can potentially accelerate their uptake into routine practice. Operational stakeholders (such as hospital leaders, clinical directors, and national program officers) can influence development and oversight of clinical programs as well as policy directives at local, regional, and national levels. Thus, engaging these stakeholders during the implementation and dissemination of EBPs is critical when targeting wider use in health care settings. This article describes how research–operations partnerships were leveraged to increase implementation of an empirically supported psychotherapy – brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (brief CBT) – in Veterans Health Administration (VA) primary care settings. The partnered implementation and dissemination efforts were informed by the empirically derived World Health Organization’s ExpandNet framework. A steering committee was formed and included several VA operational stakeholders who helped align the brief CBT program with the implementation needs of VA primary care settings. During the first 18 months of the project, partnerships facilitated rapid implementation of brief CBT at eight VA facilities, including training of 12 providers who saw 120 patients, in addition to expanded program elements to better support sustainability (e.g., train-the-trainer procedures).
Gene x environment (G×E) interactions, i.e. genetic modulation of the sensitivity to environmental factors and/or environmental control of the gene expression, have not been reliably established regarding aetiology of psychotic disorders. Moreover, recent studies have shown associations between the polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (PRS-SZ) and some risk factors of psychotic disorders, challenging the traditional gene v. environment dichotomy. In the present article, we studied the role of GxE interaction between psychosocial stressors (childhood trauma, stressful life-events, self-reported discrimination experiences and low social capital) and the PRS-SZ on subclinical psychosis in a population-based sample.
Data were drawn from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study, in which subjects without psychotic disorders were included in six countries. The sample was restricted to European descendant subjects (n = 706). Subclinical dimensions of psychosis (positive, negative, and depressive) were measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale. Associations between the PRS-SZ and the psychosocial stressors were tested. For each dimension, the interactions between genes and environment were assessed using linear models and comparing explained variances of ‘Genetic’ models (solely fitted with PRS-SZ), ‘Environmental’ models (solely fitted with each environmental stressor), ‘Independent’ models (with PRS-SZ and each environmental factor), and ‘Interaction’ models (Independent models plus an interaction term between the PRS-SZ and each environmental factor). Likelihood ration tests (LRT) compared the fit of the different models.
There were no genes-environment associations. PRS-SZ was associated with positive dimensions (β = 0.092, R2 = 7.50%), and most psychosocial stressors were associated with all three subclinical psychotic dimensions (except social capital and positive dimension). Concerning the positive dimension, Independent models fitted better than Environmental and Genetic models. No significant GxE interaction was observed for any dimension.
This study in subjects without psychotic disorders suggests that (i) the aetiological continuum hypothesis could concern particularly the positive dimension of subclinical psychosis, (ii) genetic and environmental factors have independent effects on the level of this positive dimension, (iii) and that interactions between genetic and individual environmental factors could not be identified in this sample.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Pompe disease results from lysosomal acid α-glucosidase deficiency, which leads to cardiomyopathy in all infantile-onset and occasional late-onset patients. Cardiac assessment is important for its diagnosis and management. This article presents unpublished cardiac findings, concomitant medications, and cardiac efficacy and safety outcomes from the ADVANCE study; trajectories of patients with abnormal left ventricular mass z score at enrolment; and post hoc analyses of on-treatment left ventricular mass and systolic blood pressure z scores by disease phenotype, GAA genotype, and “fraction of life” (defined as the fraction of life on pre-study 160 L production-scale alglucosidase alfa). ADVANCE evaluated 52 weeks’ treatment with 4000 L production-scale alglucosidase alfa in ≥1-year-old United States of America patients with Pompe disease previously receiving 160 L production-scale alglucosidase alfa. M-mode echocardiography and 12-lead electrocardiography were performed at enrolment and Week 52. Sixty-seven patients had complete left ventricular mass z scores, decreasing at Week 52 (infantile-onset patients, change −0.8 ± 1.83; 95% confidence interval −1.3 to −0.2; all patients, change −0.5 ± 1.71; 95% confidence interval −1.0 to −0.1). Patients with “fraction of life” <0.79 had left ventricular mass z score decreasing (enrolment: +0.1 ± 3.0; Week 52: −1.1 ± 2.0); those with “fraction of life” ≥0.79 remained stable (enrolment: −0.9 ± 1.5; Week 52: −0.9 ± 1.4). Systolic blood pressure z scores were stable from enrolment to Week 52, and no cohort developed systemic hypertension. Eight patients had Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. Cardiac hypertrophy and dysrhythmia in ADVANCE patients at or before enrolment were typical of Pompe disease. Four-thousand L alglucosidase alfa therapy maintained fractional shortening, left ventricular posterior and septal end-diastolic thicknesses, and improved left ventricular mass z score.
Social Media Statement: Post hoc analyses of the ADVANCE study cohort of 113 children support ongoing cardiac monitoring and concomitant management of children with Pompe disease on long-term alglucosidase alfa to functionally improve cardiomyopathy and/or dysrhythmia.
This study aimed to assess olfactory dysfunction in patients at six months after confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 infection.
Coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients were assessed six months following diagnosis. Patient data were recoded as part of the adapted International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium Protocol. Olfactory dysfunction was assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.
Fifty-six patients were included. At six months after coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis, 64.3 per cent of patients (n = 36) were normosmic, 28.6 per cent (n = 16) had mild to moderate microsmia and 7 per cent (n = 4) had severe microsmia or anosmia. There was a statistically significant association between older age and olfactory dysfunction. Hospital or intensive care unit admission did not lead to worse olfactory outcomes compared to those managed in the out-patient setting.
At six months after coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis, approximately two-thirds of patients will be normosmic. This study is the first to describe six-month outcomes for post-coronavirus disease 2019 patients in terms of olfactory dysfunction.
Clinical and genetic risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are often considered independently and without knowledge of the magnitudes of their effects on risk. Using severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive participants from the UK Biobank, we developed and validated a clinical and genetic model to predict risk of severe COVID-19. We used multivariable logistic regression on a 70% training dataset and used the remaining 30% for validation. We also validated a previously published prototype model. In the validation dataset, our new model was associated with severe COVID-19 (odds ratio per quintile of risk = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64–1.90) and had acceptable discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.732, 95% CI 0.708–0.756). We assessed calibration using logistic regression of the log odds of the risk score, and the new model showed no evidence of over- or under-estimation of risk (α = −0.08; 95% CI −0.21−0.05) and no evidence or over-or under-dispersion of risk (β = 0.90, 95% CI 0.80–1.00). Accurate prediction of individual risk is possible and will be important in regions where vaccines are not widely available or where people refuse or are disqualified from vaccination, especially given uncertainty about the extent of infection transmission among vaccinated people and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.
Longitudinal evaluation of allograft diastolic function in paediatric heart transplant recipients is important for early detection of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and graft dysfunction. Mean diastolic right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures obtained at catheterisation are the reference standards for assessment. Echocardiography is non-invasive and more suitable for serial surveillance, but individual parameters have lacked accuracy. This study aimed to identify covariates of post-transplant mean right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, including B-type natriuretic peptide and certain echocardiographic parameters.
A retrospective review of 143 scheduled cardiac catheterisations and echocardiograms from 56 paediatric recipients transplanted from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Samples with rejection were excluded. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models using backward selection were applied to a database consisting of B-type natriuretic peptide, haemodynamic, and echocardiographic data.
Ln B-type natriuretic peptide, heart rate z-score, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-score, mitral E/e’, and percent interventricular septal thickening in systole were independently associated with mean right atrial pressure. Ln B-type natriuretic peptide, heart rate z-score, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-score, left ventricular mass (observed/predicted), and mitral E/e’ were independently associated with mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Covariates of B-type natriuretic peptide included mean pulmonary artery and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, height, haemoglobin, fractional shortening, percent interventricular septal thickening in systole, and pulmonary vascular resistance index.
B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiographic indices of diastolic function were independently related to post-transplant mean right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures in paediatric heart transplant recipients without rejection.
To describe a pilot project infection prevention and control (IPC) assessment conducted in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in New York State (NYS) during a pivotal 2-week period when the region became the nation’s epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A telephone and video assessment of IPC measures in SNFs at high risk or experiencing COVID-19 activity.
SNFs in 14 New York counties, including New York City.
A 3-component remote IPC assessment: (1) screening tool; (2) telephone IPC checklist; and (3) COVID-19 video IPC assessment (ie, “COVIDeo”).
In total, 92 SNFs completed the IPC screening tool and checklist: 52 (57%) were conducted as part COVID-19 investigations, and 40 (43%) were proactive prevention-based assessments. Among the 40 proactive assessments, 14 (35%) identified suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVIDeo was performed in 26 (28%) of 92 assessments and provided observations that other tools would have missed: personal protective equipment (PPE) that was not easily accessible, redundant, or improperly donned, doffed, or stored and specific challenges implementing IPC in specialty populations. The IPC assessments took ∼1 hour each and reached an estimated 4 times as many SNFs as on-site visits in a similar time frame.
Remote IPC assessments by telephone and video were timely and feasible methods of assessing the extent to which IPC interventions had been implemented in a vulnerable setting and to disseminate real-time recommendations. Remote assessments are now being implemented across New York State and in various healthcare facility types. Similar methods have been adapted nationally by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Kinetoplastid parasites are responsible for both human and animal diseases across the globe where they have a great impact on health and economic well-being. Many species and life cycle stages are difficult to study due to limitations in isolation and culture, as well as to their existence as heterogeneous populations in hosts and vectors. Single-cell transcriptomics (scRNA-seq) has the capacity to overcome many of these difficulties, and can be leveraged to disentangle heterogeneous populations, highlight genes crucial for propagation through the life cycle, and enable detailed analysis of host–parasite interactions. Here, we provide a review of studies that have applied scRNA-seq to protozoan parasites so far. In addition, we provide an overview of sample preparation and technology choice considerations when planning scRNA-seq experiments, as well as challenges faced when analysing the large amounts of data generated. Finally, we highlight areas of kinetoplastid research that could benefit from scRNA-seq technologies.