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There are no conclusive findings about the possible protective role of religion on students’ mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, more research is needed.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of emotional distress and religiosity among students from 7 different countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data were collected by an online cross-sectional survey that was distributed amongst Polish (N = 1196), Bengali (N = 1537), Indian (N = 483), Mexican (N = 231), Egyptian (N = 565), Philippine (N = 2062), and Pakistani (N = 506) students (N = 6642) from 12th April to 1st June 2021. The respondents were asked several questions regarding their religiosity which was measured by The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL), the emotional distress was measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21).
Egypt with Islam as the dominant religion showed the greatest temple attendance (organizational religious activity: M=5.27±1.36) and spirituality (intrinsic religiosity: M=5.27±1.36), p<0.0001. On another hand, Egyptian students had the lowest emotional distress measured in all categories DASS-21 (depression: M=4.87±10.17, anxiety: M=4.78±10.13, stress: M=20.76±11.46). Two countries with the dominant Christian religion achieved the highest score for private religious activities (non-organizational religious activity; Mexico: M=3.94±0.94, Poland: M=3.63±1.20; p<0.0001) and experienced a moderate level of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Students from Mexico presented the lowest attendance to church (M=2.46±1,39) and spirituality (M=6.68± 3.41) and had the second highest level of depressive symptoms (M=19.13±13.03) and stress (M=20.27±1.98). Philippines students had the highest DASS-21 score (depression: M=22.77±12.58, anxiety: M=16.07±10.77, stress: M=4.87±10.08) and their level of religiosity reached average values in the whole group. The performed regression analysis confirmed the importance of the 3 dimensions (organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, intrinsic religiosity) of religiosity for the well-being of students, except for the relationship between anxiety and private religious activities. The result was as presented for depression: R2=0.0398, F(3.664)=91.764, p<0.0001, SE of E: 12.88; anxiety: R2=0.0124, F(3.664)=27.683, p<0.0001, SE of E: 10,62; stress: R2= 0.0350, F(3.664)=80.363, p<0.0001, SE of E: 12.30.
The higher commitment to organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, and intrinsic religiositywas correlated with the lower level of depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety among students during the COVID-19 pandemic, but taking into account factors related to religiosity explains the level of emotional well-being to a small extent.
TDuring COVID-19 pandemic, it was noticed that it was students who were mostly affected by the changes that aroused because of the pandemic. The interesting part is whether students’ well-being could be associated with their fields of study as well as coping strategies.
In this study, we aimed to assess 1) the mental health of students from nine countries with a particular focus on depression, anxiety, and stress levels and their fields of study, 2) the major coping strategies of students after one year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We conducted an anonymous online cross-sectional survey on 12th April – 1st June 2021 that was distributed among the students from Poland, Mexico, Egypt, India, Pakistan, China, Vietnam, Philippines, and Bangladesh. To measure the emotional distress, we used the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and to identify the major coping strategies of students - the Brief-COPE.
We gathered 7219 responses from students studying five major studies: medical studies (N=2821), social sciences (N=1471), technical sciences (N=891), artistic/humanistic studies (N=1094), sciences (N=942). The greatest intensity of depression (M=18.29±13.83; moderate intensity), anxiety (M=13.13±11.37; moderate intensity ), and stress (M=17.86±12.94; mild intensity) was observed among sciences students. Medical students presented the lowest intensity of all three components - depression (M=13.31±12.45; mild intensity), anxiety (M=10.37±10.57; moderate intensity), and stress (M=13.65±11.94; mild intensity). Students of all fields primarily used acceptance and self-distraction as their coping mechanisms, while the least commonly used were self-blame, denial, and substance use. The group of coping mechanisms the most frequently used was ‘emotional focus’. Medical students statistically less often used avoidant coping strategies compared to other fields of study. Substance use was only one coping mechanism that did not statistically differ between students of different fields of study. Behavioral disengagement presented the highest correlation with depression (r=0.54), anxiety (r=0.48), and stress (r=0.47) while religion presented the lowest positive correlation with depression (r=0.07), anxiety (r=0.14), and stress (r=0.11).
1) The greatest intensity of depression, anxiety, and stress was observed among sciences students, while the lowest intensity of those components was found among students studying medicine.
2) Not using avoidant coping strategies might be associated with lower intensity of all DASS components among students.
3) Behavioral disengagement might be strongly associated with greater intensity of depression, anxiety, and stress among students.
4) There was no coping mechanism that provided the alleviation of emotional distress in all the fields of studies of students.
Grupo Herdez is a leading producer of shelf-stable foods in Mexico and a leader in the Mexican food market of the United States. The company has more than 9,000 employees and its 40 product categories include sauces, canned food, dairy items, and organic products. Grupo Herdez has ambitious goals for its sustainability strategy, built around two major initiatives: (1) reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at its facilities through wind power, and (2) agricultural development with the brand Aires de Campo, which provides training and certification for organic products and fair trade practices. As the company's sales of organic products grew, it found its energy footprint increasing. In response, Grupo Herdez has dedicated itself to clean energy— renewable energy sources are now being used at nearly half of the company's production facilities— and GHG emissions have been halved. This case study analyzes these initiatives in the context of Mexican energy reform, as well as the nation's nutrition and obesity crisis.
Compañia Comercial Herdez was established in 1914 in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Ignacio Hernandez del Castillo started as sales director in 1929 and went on to purchase the company in 1941. He and his sons have built the company from a distributor of toiletries and personal hygiene products to a large multinational provider of shelf-stable foods (foods that can be safely stored in a sealed container at room temperature). This case study focuses on two of the company's sustainability initiatives: its wind power generation project and its efforts to build an organic food market in Mexico. The chapter also provides an overview of the Mexican food sector as context for Grupo Herdez's sustainability strategy.
Today, Grupo Herdez is a multinational company with more than 1,500 products in more than 40 different categories sold in 17 countries. The company grew substantially starting in the 1940s by diversifying its initial products and creating strategic alliances. In the process, Grupo Herdez became one of Mexico's leading distributors of local and international food brands as well as of its own products, which include vegetables, sauces, mole (a spicy Mexican sauce made from chili and chocolate), mayonnaise, mustard, and jams.
People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer lives and like many other patients, need a health system better adapted for the management of complex chronic conditions. A key element of system transformation is measuring and reporting on system performance indicators relevant to the different stakeholders. Our objective was to produce a performance measurement framework for assessing the quality of comprehensive community-based primary healthcare for people with HIV.
Semi-structured interviews were performed with HIV providers, advocates, and policy-makers to obtain input on a draft performance framework, constructed using existing HIV-specific indicators, as well as the use of performance data in improving care for people with HIV.
Stakeholders were overwhelmingly supportive of the framework’s comprehensiveness. Many noted the absence of indicators addressing social determinants of health and had mixed opinions on the importance of indicators addressing access to after-hours care and the frequency of routine screening for behavioural risk factors. The draft framework was modified to reflect stakeholder input, triangulated against expert opinion and recently released HIV care guidelines, and finalized at 79 indicators. The resources and infrastructure to collect and use performance data will have to be improved for performance measurement to contribute to improving care for people with HIV.
This framework presents a comprehensive though not exhaustive tool to support performance measurement and improvement in the care for people with HIV. However, advances in data collection and use across the system will be needed to support performance measurement driving quality improvement.
Mobile olfactory robots can be used in a number of relevant application areas where a better understanding of a gas distribution is needed, such as environmental monitoring and safety and security related fields. In this paper, we present a method to integrate the classification of odours together with gas distribution mapping. The resulting odour map is then correlated with the spatial information collected from a laser range scanner to form a combined map. Experiments are performed using a mobile robot in large and unmodified indoor and outdoor environments. Multiple odour sources are used and are identified using only transient information from the gas sensor response. The resulting multi-level map can be used as a representation of the collected odour data.
Gases evolved on heat-treatment of intact fullerite C60, single-walled (SW) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) and chemically modified carbon nanomaterials (deuterofullerites C60Dx, hydrogenated SWNTs and fluorinated MWNTs) are studied by mass spectrometry.
The advent of nanocarbons, from single- and multiple-walled nanotubes to nanohorns, avails model studies of confined molecules on the nanoscale. Water encapsulated inside the quasi-one-dimensional channels of these materials is expected to exhibit anomalous behavior due to the unique geometry of nanotubes and the weak interaction between the water molecules and the carbon atoms. We have employed neutron small-to-wide angle diffraction, quasielastic and inelastic scattering in conjunction with molecular-dynamics simulations to characterize the structures and dynamics of water adsorbed in open-ended single- and double-walled nanotubes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. We find that a square-ice sheet wrapped next to the inner nanotube wall and a water chain in the interior are the key structural elements of nanotube-confined water/ice. This configuration results in a hydrogen-bond connectivity that markedly differs from that in bulk water. This significantly softened hydrogen-bond network manifests in strong energy shifts of the observed and simulated inter- and intra-molecular vibrations. The very large mean-square displacement of hydrogen atoms observed experimentally and the strong anharmonicity inferred from simulations explain the fluid-like behavior at temperatures far below the freezing point of normal water.
Vibrational spectra for single wall carbon nanotubes, double wall carbon nanotubes, single wall carbon nanohorns and C60-peapods have been measured with inelastic neutron scattering in a wide range of energy transfer, 5–220 meV. A decrease in intensity around 75–100 meV and the appearance of two peaks around 120–125 meV and 150 meV in the double wall nanotubes and C60-peapods spectra compared to single wall carbon nanotubes and nanohorns were observed. These findings indicate the possibility of strong interaction between the walls of the double wall carbon nanotube, and between C60 molecules and carbon nanotube of the peapod. Alternatively, a possible contamination of the samples by hydrogen (even in microscopic quantities) covalently bonded to the carbon also can account for the observed phenomena.
High thermal conductivity heat sinks for thermal management in electronic packaging is enabling to a variety of advanced electronic applications. Heat sinks in industrial semiconductor application have thermal conductivities generally less than 180 W/mK, and frequently have large expansion mismatch with chips such as silicon and gallium arsenide. A unique technology of producing graphite fiber reinforced copper (Cf/Cu) composite has been developed that produced thermal conductivities up to 454 W/mK utilizing a K=640 W/mK fiber reinforcement (with a potential for 800 W/mK when utilizing a K = 1100 W/mK P130 fiber) and thermal expansion that can be matched to chip materials. The process consists of utilizing a hollow cathode sputtering process to deposit a bonding layer followed by copper on spread graphite fibers, which are then consolidated into composites with architectures to achieve desired thermal conductivity and thermal expansion. The copper thickness determines graphite fiber loading up to 80 %. In heat sink applications, where the electrical conductivity of the graphite fiber reinforced copper composite is a problem, processing has been developed for applying electrically insulating diamond film, which has high thermal conductivity and acts as a heat spreader.