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One of the consequences of cancer therapies, including radiation and chemotherapy, is gonadotoxicity. As effective treatments have rendered a number of malignancies curable, or have delivered long-term survival, post-treatment fertility has emerged as an important consideration for patients and their healthcare providers. Unfortunately, there are currently no definitive ways to limit the injurious effects of these treatments on gonadal function, other than shielding the gonads from direct exposure to ionizing radiation. Suppression of gonadotropin secretion may have a protective effect in some populations and with certain treatment regimens (e.g., alkylating agents), but the general efficacy of this intervention for preserving fertility remains uncertain.
In the U.S., there is no requirement for research sponsors to compensate human research subjects who experience injuries as a result of their participation. In this article, we review the moral justifications that compel the establishment of a better research-related injury compensation system. We explore how other countries and certain institutions within the U.S. have adopted various systems of compensation. The existence of these systems demonstrates both that the U.S. lags behind other nations in its protection of human research subjects and that the establishment of a compensation system is both practical and feasible. We then examine factors which have prevented the U.S. from establishing its own compensation system. We consider possible alternatives for the U.S. by examining the advantages and disadvantages of both established and proposed systems. We offer a new proposal that addresses the justice concerns which compel the establishment of a national compensation system, distributes the burdens of such a system on multiple stakeholders that benefit from research, and has the additional advantage of minimizing the administrative and logistical challenges associated with initiating such a system.
Facial transplantation is emerging as a therapeutic option for self-inflicted gunshot wounds. The self-inflicted nature of this injury raises questions about the appropriate role of self-harm in determining patient eligibility. Potential candidates for facial transplantation undergo extensive psychosocial screening. The presence of a self-inflicted gunshot wound warrants special attention to ensure that a patient is prepared to undergo a demanding procedure that poses significant risk, as well as stringent lifelong management. Herein, we explore the ethics of considering mechanism of injury in the patient selection process, referring to the precedent set forth in solid organ transplantation. We also consider the available evidence regarding outcomes of individuals transplanted for self-inflicted mechanisms of injury in both solid organ and facial transplantation. We conclude that while the presence of a self-inflicted gunshot wound is significant in the overall evaluation of the candidate, it does not on its own warrant exclusion from consideration for a facial transplantation.
We observed the 2 July 2019 total solar eclipse with a variety of imaging and spectroscopic instruments recording from three sites in mainland Chile: on the centerline at La Higuera, from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and from La Serena, as well as from a chartered flight at peak totality in mid-Pacific. Our spectroscopy monitored Fe X, Fe XIV, and Ar X lines, and we imaged Ar X with a Lyot filter adjusted from its original H-alpha bandpass. Our composite imaging has been compared with predictions based on modeling using magnetic-field measurements from the pre-eclipse month. Our time-differenced sites will be used to measure motions in coronal streamers.
The moral status of the human embryo is particularly controversial in the United States, where one debate has centered on embryos created in excess at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Little has been known about the disposal of these embryos.
We mailed anonymous, self-administered questionnaires to directors of 341 American IVF clinics.
217 of 341 clinics (64 percent) responded. Nearly all (97 percent) were willing to create and cryopreserve extra embryos. Fewer, but still a majority (59 percent), were explicitly willing to avoid creating extras. When embryos did remain in excess, clinics offered various options: continual cryopreservation for a charge (96 percent) or for no charge (4 percent), donation for reproductive use by other couples (76 percent), disposal prior to (60 percent) or following (54 percent) cryopreservation, and donation for research (60 percent) or embryologist training (19 percent). Qualifications varied widely among those personnel responsible for securing couples' consent for disposal and for conducting disposal itself. Some clinics performed a religious or quasi-religious disposal ceremony. Some clinics required a couple's participation in disposal; some allowed but did not require it; some others discouraged or disallowed it.
The disposal of human embryos created in excess at American IVF clinics varies in ways suggesting both moral sensitivity and ethical divergence.
Consider this hypothetical scenario involving a choice not to vaccinate a child. Ms. S has a niece who is autistic. The girl's parents are suspicious that there is some relationship between her autism and her Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. They have shared their concerns with Ms. S. She then declines to have her own daughter, Jinny S., vaccinated with the MMR vaccine. To bypass the state's mandatory vaccination requirement, Ms. S claims a state-legislated philosophical exemption, whereby she simply attests to the fact that she is opposed to vaccinating her daughter due to a conscientiously held belief. At the age of four, Jinny goes on a trip by airplane to Germany with her mother. After returning to the United States, she attends daycare despite having some mild cold symptoms. Subsequently, she develops a classic measles rash, at which point her mother brings her to a pediatrician and keeps her home from daycare.
Fertility preservation is aimed at preserving the potential for genetic parenthood in adults or children at risk of sterility before undergoing anti-cancer treatments. The key reason for pursuing fertility protection is to restore personal autonomy to those who are unable to conceive. Impaired future fertility is another possible consequence of exposure to cancer therapies even for children. For boys who cannot produce mature sperm, harvesting and cryopreservation of testicular stem cells with the hope of future autologous transplantation or in vitro maturation represents potential methods of fertility preservation. Cancer survivors who did not preserve fertility and became sterile after chemo- or radiotherapy may agree to the use of donor gametes. Cancer survivors that have failed to preserve their gametes prior to sterilizing treatment might benefit in future of a type of stem cell research aimed at the creation in vitro of gametes derived from embryonic stem cells.
This document serves as an update and companion piece to the 2005 Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Position Paper entitled “Influenza Vaccination of Healthcare Workers and Vaccine Allocation for Healthcare Workers During Vaccine Shortages.” In large part, the discussion about the rationale for influenza vaccination of healthcare personnel (HCP), the strategies designed to improve influenza vaccination rates in this population, and the recommendations made in the 2005 paper still stand. This position paper notes new evidence released since publication of the 2005 paper and strengthens SHEA's position on the importance of influenza vaccination of HCP. This document does not discuss vaccine allocation during times of vaccine shortage, because the 2005 SHEA Position Paper still serves as the Society's official statement on that issue.
Total joint replacement has restored function and provided comfort to many patients who would otherwise have suffered. However, success and widespread diffusion of this procedure pose a number of important questions. The patient's and the doctor's criteria of success may not be the same: Which are to be used? Health resources are becoming limited: Should money be spent to restore function and for pain relief to those late in life or past their work life? Who makes this choice? A medical technology is tested in the best of settings but routinely practiced in many: How should society and health care professionals monitor the results of surgery? Who should do surgery and where should it be done?
Two experiments were conducted with the purpose of investigating possible age effects on the abilities of older and younger adults to use contextual information to resolve ambiguous pronouns. In both experiments, subjects were presented with pairs of sentences (a leading sentence followed by a pronominal sentence) and were required to indicate the referent of the ambiguous pronoun. In both experiments, the older adults responded more slowly and were less accurate than the younger adults. However, both groups of subjects were equally influenced by the contextual information available, which was located in the leading sentence to aid in the resolution of the pronouns. Older adults did not demonstrate a specific impairment in the ability to use contextual information to resolve ambiguous pronouns. Nevertheless, agerelated difficulties in resolving pronouns may emerge, possibly as a function of an underspecified discourse model.
We show how the expansion of classical Galactic Hii regions can trigger massive-star formation via the collect & collapse process. We give examples of this process at work. We suggest that it also works in a turbulent medium.
An increasingly long line of high-profile scientific misconduct cases raises the question of whether regulatory policy ought to incorporate more rigorous sanctions for investigators and their institutions. Broad and Wade graphically describe these cases through the early 1980s. They continue to recent times with the cases of Evan Dreyer, Kimon Angelides and Robert Liburdy, Justin Radolf, and others. In addition, recent Congressional investigation into conflict of interest concerns surrounding consulting by National Institutes of Health scientists has raised further questions about ethical standards. The record of continuing scandal suggests that current policy may not be optimal for controlling scientific misconduct. Would an alternative policy better minimize its incidence and associated costs?
What should we expect of public policy governing misconduct by American scientists? Surely the public has a right to presume that its tax money is being spent wisely and that any economic rewards from taxpayer funded research are used prudently and in the public interest.