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Old age constitutes a vulnerable stage for developing gambling-related problems. The aims of the study were to identify patterns of gambling habits in elderly participants from the general population, and to assess socio-demographic and clinical variables related to the severity of the gambling behaviours. The sample included N = 361 participants aged in the 50–90 years range. A broad assessment included socio-demographic variables, gambling profile and psychopathological state. The percentage of participants who reported an absence of gambling activities was 35.5 per cent, while 46.0 per cent reported only non-strategic gambling, 2.2 per cent only strategic gambling and 16.3 per cent both non-strategic plus strategic gambling. Gambling form with highest prevalence was lotteries (60.4%), followed by pools (13.9%) and bingo (11.9%). The prevalence of gambling disorder was 1.4 per cent, and 8.0 per cent of participants were at a problematic gambling level. Onset of gambling activities was younger for men, and male participants also reached a higher mean for the bets per gambling-episode and the number of total gambling activities. Risk factors for gambling severity in the sample were not being born in Spain and a higher number of cumulative lifetime life events, and gambling severity was associated with a higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol abuse and with worse psychopathological state. Results are particularly useful for the development of reliable screening tools and for the design of effective prevention programmes.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
This paper presents a novel method for modeling a 3-degree of freedom open kinematic chain using quaternions algebra and neural network to solve the inverse kinematic problem. The structure of the network was composed of 3 hidden layers with 25 neurons per layer and 1 output layer. The network was trained using the Bayesian regularization backpropagation. The inverse kinematic problem was modeled as a system of six nonlinear equations and six unknowns. Finally, both models were tested using a straight path to compare the results between the Newton–Raphson method and the network training.
To assess infectious and thrombotic complications of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in adults.
A 5-year prospective cohort study.
Tertiary-care teaching hospital in Seville, Spain.
Adult patients undergoing PICC insertion.
Catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI) including catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), primary bacteremia (PB), and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) were recorded. Independent predictors of complications were assessed by multivariate analysis.
In total, 1,142 PICCs were inserted, with 153,191 catheter days (median, 79). Complications included 66 cases of CABSI (5.78%; 0.43‰ catheter days), 38 cases of CRBSI (3.33%; 0.25‰ catheter days), 28 cases of PB (2.45%; 0.18‰ catheter days), and 23 cases of UEDVT (2.01%; 0.15‰ catheter days). The median times to infection were 24, 41, and 60 days for CRBSI, PB, and UEDVT, respectively. Parenteral nutrition (odds ratio [OR], 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–6.52) and admission to the hematology ward (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 2.25–10.71) were independently associated with CRBSI and PB, respectively. Admission to the hematology ward (OR, 12.46; 95% CI, 2.49–62.50) or to the oncology ward (OR, 7.89; 95% CI, 1.77–35.16) was independently associated with UEDVT. The crude mortality rate was 24.8%. Only 2 patients died of complications.
PICCs showed a low rate of thrombotic and infectious complications. Compared to PB, CRBSI showed significantly different risk factors, a higher incidence density per catheter days, and a shorter median time to infection. Separate analyses of CRBSI and PB are more specific and clinically useful when analyzing infectious complications.
Older subjects are susceptible to develop gambling problems, and researchers have attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the gambling profile in later life. The objective of this study was to identify the main stressful life events (SLE) across the lifespan which have discriminative capacity for detecting the presence of gambling disorder (GD) in older adults. Data from two independent samples of individuals aged 50+ were analysed: N = 47 patients seeking treatment at a Pathological Gambling Outpatient Unit and N = 361 participants recruited from the general population. Sexual problems (p < 0.001), exposure to domestic violent behaviour (p < 0.001), severe financial problems (p = 0.002), alcohol or drug-related problems (p = 0.004) and extramarital sex (p < 0.001) were related to a higher risk of GD, while getting married (p = 0.005), moving to a new home (p = 0.003) and moving to a new city (p = 0.006) decreased the likelihood of disordered gambling. The accumulated number of SLE was not a predictor of the presence of GD (p = 0.732), but patients who met clinical criteria for GD reported higher concurrence of SLE in time than control individuals (p < 0.001). Empirical research highlights the need to include older age groups in evidence-based policies for gambling prevention, because these individuals are at high risk of onset and/or progression of behavioural addiction-related problems such as GD. The results of this study may be useful for developing reliable screening/diagnostic tools and for planning effective early intervention programmes aimed to reduce the harm related to the onset and evolution of problem gambling in older adults.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
The purpose of this study is to investigate if the MDA plasma concentrations are correlated to negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenic inpatients.
The sample was comprised by 38 patients who were admitted in the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canaries. Thirty eight patients were male and 9 were female with medium average age of 37.41±11.23. Exclusion criteria were psychoactive substance use, presence of acute or chronic organic pathology, treatment with immunosuppressive medication, pregnancy and mental retardation or severe cognitive impairment. There were performed two blood extractions following the circadian rhythm, at 12:00 and at 24:00 hours. One hour before night blood collection, each patient was placed in a reclined position in bed, with the eyes closed, in complete darkness and with eyes covered with a mask. Blood was centrifuged at 3.000 rpm for 10 minutes. Specific biological and psychopathological determinations were performed at admission and at discharge. Psychopathology was assessed with PANSS and by the same psychiatrist. Statistical analyses were carried out with the Social Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). MDA was determined spectrophotometrically.
MDA level at night was 1.94±1.54 while MDA level at midday was 2.23±1.36.Mean PANSS negative score was 15.73±6.31.Serum MDA level correlated positively with PANSS negative scores, both at midday and night (midday r=0.39, p< 0.01, midnight r=0.41, p< 0.01).
The total negative subscale score correlated positively with day and night time levels of MDA, therefore we can conclude that MDA may be used as a marker of negative psychopathology.
Impulsivity has been considered as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. Recent research is focusing on paradigms of the startle response (SR), specifically prepulse inhibition (PPI) and startle habituation (SH), as vulnerability markers for alcoholism. It has been demonstrated impairments in the PPI and the SH in offspring of alcoholics. It has also been shown, using personality questionnaires, that faster habituation may be associated with tendency toward impulsivity and behavioral disinhibition. Our goal is to study the correlation between impulsivity laboratory measures and the SR paradigms, in order to see if they could share a common base as endophenotypes for alcoholism.
The subjects were 40 abstinent alcoholic males, aged 18 to 65 years (mean age 44.73) and who had met DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence, being abstinent for more than a month at the moment they were tested. Participants underwent testing for PPI and habituation of the acoustic startle response. Impulsivity was assessed with three different laboratory measures: Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Stop-Signal Task and Differential Reinforcement for Low-Rate Responding (DRL6). Analyses were performed using SPSS v.10.0.
We found a significant positive correlation between CPT-tasks and SH (p< 0,01), and Stop-Signal Task-tasks and SH (p< 0,05), but not with DRL6-tasks. No significant correlation was demonstrated between impulsivity measures and PPI.
Our findings suggest the existence of a common base between impulsivity and SH as vulnerability markers for alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to assess if both could share a common genetic origin.
to examine short and middle-term effectiveness of a group cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) in pathological gambling (PG) and to analyze predictors of therapy outcome.
Two hundred and ninety PG patients consecutively admitted to our Unit participated in the current study. All participants were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-criteria. Manualized outpatient group CBT [16 weekly sessions] was given. Specific assessment before and after the therapy and at 1, 3 and 6 months follow-up was conducted. Logistic regression analyses and survival analysis were applied.
outpatient group CBT was effective with abstinence rates by the end of therapy of 76.1%, and 81.5% at 6 months follow-up. The dropout rate during treatment decreased significantly after the fifth treatment session. Psychopathological distress (p = 0.040) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were identified as factors predicting relapses and drop-outs respectively.
our findings suggest that group CBT is effective for treating PG individuals. Several psychopathological and personality traits were identified as outcome predictors.
Comorbidity has been defined as the coexistence of somatic and psychiatric diseases with diferent physiopatology in the same person, and it can appear simultaneously to the schizophrenia or during the patient's lifetime. There are two types of comorbidity: episodical or taking place during the lifetime of the patient. We can diffferenciate between comorbidity itself (in cluster, dependent or associated) to the so-called pseudo-comorbidity. Besides, comorbidity has been classified as a co-syndrome and it is considered a prognosis indicator of this disease, which can determine an increase in the rates related to relapses, worse response to treatment, less capacity to cope with social situations, and suicide in patients suffering from schizophrenia.
177 schizophrenic patients were assessed for affective symptoms and suicide behaviour. 24.3% were suffered for depression. 35% had a previous record of autolytic attempts. The rate of suicide history were higher among depressed schizophrenics (50%) than non-depressed schizophrenics (20%) (p<0,05).
We point out the clinic importance of suicide in schizophrenic patients suffering from depression. Moreover, the study shows the necessity to carry out longitudinal studies to recognize indicators of depression in advance and establish the diagnosis of depression, and, also, to acknowledge the importance of the gender factor in the depression of schizophrenic patients.
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In 2005, 793 people were hospitalized in Madrid due to suicide attempt. However, most of the attempts do not require hospitalization and patients are discharged after the intervention in the emergency units. With the aim to implement local policies to prevent suicide, it is important to know the whole spectrum of suicide attempts that contact emergency units in Madrid.
To explore the incidence of suicide attempts assisted in the public health system in Madrid and to analyze their characteristics and the response of the health system.
Clinical reports of all patients attempting suicide were analyzed during 4 months in 4 general public hospitals (covering 44.7% of the whole population) in the Community of Madrid.
1009 suicide attempts committed by 921 people (66.2% women) were collected, with an incidence of 34.3 people per 100.000 in 4 months. 57 people (6.2%) committed more than one attempt (range 2 to 10, mean=2.5 ± 1.3). After the emergency intervention 71.9% of the patients were discharged, 25.3% hospitalized, 2.6% fled, and 0.2% died. Regarding suicidal ideation, 7.5% presented very high levels during evaluation, while 13.1% had high levels, 20.3% moderate and 47.3% had no suicidal ideation.
Compared with other European countries, our findings show moderate incidence of suicide attempts, most of which were mild, treated in the emergency units and derived to outpatient psychiatric follow-up. These results suggest places to develop and implement prevention measures.
Alcohol and cocaine are frequently used together. Little is known about which factors are related with the development of either cocaine or alcohol dependence in dually users.
To determine variables associated with the risk fro the development of either cocaine or alcohol dependence in non-dependent drinkers with recreational cocaine use during a 4 year-follow-up period.
A prospective cohort study was performed to establish the risk factors associated with alcohol and cocaine dependence. Subjects recruited (N=336), from primary care centres. At baseline were classified as heavy drinkers and cocaine users (HD+Co, N=227) and alcohol abusers with cocaine use (AA+Co, N= 109).
At 4-year follow-up assessment, AA+Co subjects had higher rates of prevalence for cocaine (55% vs. 32%, p<0.001)) and alcohol dependence (97.5% vs. 58.2%, p<0.001) than HD+Co participants. Being alcohol abuser and single were eight and three times, respectively, more likely to develop cocaine dependence. When impulse control disorders or alcohol abuse occurred the odds ratio of developing alcohol dependence was 9 and 5.7 respectively. Also, alcohol abuse at baseline was associated with shortened time between onset of abuse and dependence for cocaine use disorders and for alcohol use disorders.
Alcohol abuse in heavy drinkers with recreational cocaine use predicted alcohol and cocaine dependence at follow-up. Our findings agree with previous findings supporting the relationship between impulsivity and risk for substance use disorders.
The Total Antioxidant State (TAS), expressed as equivalent to the total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma. It is the cumulative ability to trap molecules, as H2O2 and free radicals such as RO, ROO, and O2.
Our aim is to describe the TAS levels in schizophrenic patients and to analyze if this marker has got a circadian rhythm. The only study in humans on this subject has carried out by Benot et al (1999) in healthy subjects, which has reported that there was a circadian rhythm of TAS, with a peak night at 01:00, which correlated directly with melatonin (MLT).
The sample was comprised by 43 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients.Blood samples were extracted by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. TAS levels were measured three times: at admission, discharge and three months after discharge. Clinical state was assessed by means of the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). TAS serum levels were measured by ELISA techniques.
Our results show that there is statistical significance between 12:00 and 24:00 for the TAS at admission and three months control. This means that at both times, the income and control of the three months, the levels of midday TAS is significantly higher than the midnight TAS. However, these differences did not occur at discharge.Respect to CGI there are differences in clinical status, less high-control.
0,66 ± 0,1420,60 ± 0,158,p < 0,027.
0,64 ± 0,1530,63 ± 0,1350,740.
0,84 ± 0,100,0,76 ± 0,113p < 0,001.
4,37 ± 0,846,3,05 ± 0,754,3,37 ± 0,720.
3,70 ± 0,640,1,77 ± 0,895,2,23 ± 1,455.
Our results point to the fact that serum TAS may be considered as a possible marker of psychopathological descompensation worsening.
An expanding body of research suggests that childhood trauma and adverse experiences can lead to a variety of negative health outcomes, including substance abuse, depressive disorders, and attempted suicide among adolescents and adults. Alcoholism, depressed affect, and illicit drug use, which are strongly associated with such experiences, appear to partially mediate this relationship as observed in population studies.
We have tested the association between early trauma and suicide attempts in a sample of suicide attempters from the Eureca International Project and a matched healthy control sample.
We have studied the prevalence of childhood stressful events compared with healthy controls in a multicentre sample of 791 suicide attempters (SA) and 630 healthy controls (C), we have measured childhood parental neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Chi2 tests were performed using SPSS v15.0.
A significant increase in prevalence of childhood trauma was found in the suicide attempters sample for all types of trauma: childhood physical abuse: 25.3% (SA) vs. 11.1% (C) (Chi2 test: 120,108 P = 0.000); childhood sexual abuse: 18.2% (SA) vs. 2.4% (C) (Chi2 test: 88,212 P = 0.000); parental neglect 25.3% (SA) vs. 1.1% (C) (Chi2 test: 164,910 P = 0.000); childhood emotional abuse: 34.9% (SA) vs. 5.6% (C) (Chi2 test: 176,546 P = 0.000).
Suicide attempters were increasingly overrepresented compared with controls if experiencing more than 1 trauma: represented 77% of the sample who suffered 1 type of childhood trauma vs. more than 90% of the sample with 2 or more types of trauma.
A powerful graded relationship exists between adverse childhood experiences and risk of attempted suicide.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Medical record, general examination, laboratory findings, neuropsychological interview and multidisciplinary consideration are essential to establish differencial diagnosis and correct approach in amnesic episodes.
To describe differences between organic and psychogenic anterograde amnesia.
Single case report and literature review.
A 51-year-old man with only diagnosis of DM I, single, a good relationship with his family, without any personal or familiar psychiatric or neurological history, came to the hospital emergency department brought by his sisters referring disorientation, acute memory loss and mood changes, prevailing indifference to the situation for the last three days. After general exploration, including psychopatological examination and higher brain functions study, we arrived to the conclusion that the patient suffered from anterograde short-term severe amnesia as the only symptom, with evident conservation of autobiographic memory. The family referred as a possible stressor factor his mother's recent transfer to a different city, which had caused constant repeated questions about her location. Given the questionable presentation and trigger we shared the case with the neurologist, who ordered an array of tests to rule out any organic cause (LP, CT, MRI…), obtaining as a final result a diagnosis of limbic encephalitis, treated and effectively solved in two weeks with high-dose glucocorticoids.
Certain features of the symptoms exploration in amnesic episodes such as reiterative questioning about a specific topic, a non-modified autobiography or the absence of a clear traumatic precipitant factor, are essential for a correct approach and may lead the clinic to an organic evaluation.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Behavioral disturbances are common in psychiatric patients. This symptom may be caused by several disorders and clinical status.
We report the case of a 40 year-old male who was diagnosed of nonspecific psychotic disorder, alcohol dependence, cannabis abuse and intellectual disability. The patient was admitted into a long-stay psychiatric unit because of behavioral disturbances consisted in aggressive in the context of a chronic psychosis consisted in delusions of reference and auditory pseudohallucinations. During his admission the patient received the diagnosis of bipolar disorder type 1, presenting more severe behavioral disturbances during these mood episodes. It was necessary to make diverse pharmacological changes to stabilize the mood of the patient. Finally, the treatment was modified and it was prescribed clozapine (25 mg/24 h), clotiapine (40 mg/8 h), levomepromazine (200 mg/24 h), topiramate (125 mg/12 h), clomipramine (150 mg/24 h) and clorazepate dipotassium (50 mg/24 h). With this treatment, the patient showed a considerable improvement of symptoms, presenting euthymic and without behavioral disturbances.
In this case report, we present a patient with severe behavioral disturbances. The inclusion of bipolar disorder in the diagnosis of the patient was very important for the correct treatment and management, because of depressive and manic mood episodes the behavioral disturbances were exacerbated.
Patients with behavioral disturbances could present psychotic and affective symptoms as cause of them. It is necessary to explore these symptoms and try different treatments to improve them.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Schizophrenia could be presented with obsessive thoughts or an obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is known that some antipsychotics like clozapine could cause obsessive symptoms or worsen them.
We report the case of a 53-year-old male who was diagnosed of schizophrenia. The patient was admitted into a long-stay psychiatric unit due to the impossibility of outpatient treatment. He presented a chronic psychosis consisted in delusions of reference, grandiose religious delusions, and auditory pseudohallucinations. He often presented behavioral disturbances consisted in auto and heteroaggressive behavior, being needed the physical restraint. Various treatments were used, including clozapine, but obsessive and ruminative thoughts went worse. Because of that, clozapine dose was lowed, and it was prescribed sertraline and clomipramine. With this treatment the patient presented a considerable improvement of his symptoms, ceasing the auto and heteroaggressive behavior, presenting a better mood state, and being possible the coexistence with other patients. Psychotic symptoms did not disappeared, but the emotional and behavioral impact caused by them was lower.
This case report shows how a patient with schizophrenia could present severe behavioral disturbances due to obsessive symptoms. If obsessive symptoms are presented, clozapine must be at the minimum effective dose and antidepressants with a good antiobsessive profile.
Obsessive symptoms could be presented as a part of schizophrenia. Clozapine could worsen this symptoms and it is necessary to adjust its dose to the minimum effective dose.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.