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Penicillin (PCN) allergy is one of the most frequently reported medication allergies, with ~10% of the US population reporting a PCN allergy. However, studies have shown that only 1% of the US population have a true IgE-mediated reaction to PCN. Delabeling and appropriately updating patient allergy profiles could decrease the use of alternative broad-spectrum antibiotics, rates of infectious complications [C. difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)], antibiotic resistance, and overall healthcare cost. The emergency department (ED) is an important setting in which to assess PCN allergies and to delabel patients when appropriate because there are >130 million ED visits in the United States each year. We sought to determine the percentage of PCN allergy–labeled patients who could be delabeled through a PCN allergy assessment interview in an ED. Key secondary outcomes included the percentage of interviewed patients who could not be delabeled based on history alone but would be eligible for an amoxicillin oral challenge or a PCN skin test (PST). A prospective PCN allergy assessment pilot was performed for patients aged >18 years presenting to the UNC Medical Center ED between December 1 and December 17, 2020, with a documented PCN allergy. A pharmacist conducted penicillin allergy assessments on a convenience sample of patients presenting to the ED between 8 a.m. and 3 p.m. on weekdays. Based on patients’ reported and documented histories, charts were updated with the most accurate information and allergies were delabeled if appropriate. In total, 95 patients were assessed; 62 (65.3%) were interviewed and 15 (24.2%) were delabeled. In addition, 26 patients (41.9%) were deemed eligible for an oral amoxicillin challenge, 19 (30.6%) qualified for a PST, and 2 (3.2%) patients did not qualify for further assessment due to having a an IgE-mediated reaction in the past 5 years. Of the 15 patients who were delabeled, 6 (40.0%) received antibiotics during their admission: 4 (73.3%) of those patients received a penicillin and 2 (36.7%) received a cephalosporin, all without adverse reactions. Patient assessments took ~20 minutes to complete, including chart review, patient interview, and postinterview chart updating. The results from this pilot study demonstrate the impact of performing PCN allergy assessments in ED. Interdisciplinary opportunities should be explored to develop processes that will improve the efficiency and sustainability of PCN allergy assessments within the ED to allow this important stewardship intervention to continue.
As the point of entry into healthcare for many patients, the emergency department (ED) is an ideal setting in which to assess penicillin (PCN) allergies. An estimated 10% of the United States population has a reported PCN allergy; however, few studies have evaluated the prevalence and impact of PCN allergies on antibiotic selection within the ED. Patients with a documented PCN allergy are more likely to be exposed to costly alternative broad-spectrum antibiotics that have higher rates of adverse events, including C. difficile infections. We sought to determine the prevalence of PCN allergies within the UNC Medical Center ED. Key secondary outcomes included the percentage of patients with a documented PCN allergy who (1) received alternative antibiotics (carbapenems, aztreonam, fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, vancomycin), (2) received β-lactam antibiotics and experienced an allergic reaction during their ED visit, and/or (3) had received a β-lactam antibiotic during a past hospitalization or ED visit without their chart being appropriately updated. A retrospective evaluation included patients aged >18 years with a documented PCN allergy who were discharged from the ED between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019. Over the study period, there were 14,635 patient encounters with a documented PCN allergy that comprised 8,573 unique patients. The prevalence of PCN allergies was 14.3% for all ED encounters. PCN allergy–labeled patients received alternative antibiotics in 59.4% of ED encounters in which antibiotics were prescribed. Of the 454 β-lactam antibiotics (62 penicillins, 380 cephalosporins, 12 carbapenems) administered to PCN allergy-labeled patients within the ED, there were zero allergic reactions. Also, 18.6% of PCN allergy-labeled patients had received and tolerated a β-lactam antibiotic during prior hospitalizations or ED visits (1.7% penicillins, 14.4% cephalosporins, 2.6% carbapenems) without appropriate updated documentation to reflect β-lactam antibiotic tolerance. These findings confirm the utilization of non–β-lactam antibiotics in PCN allergy-labeled patients, highlighting the importance of accurate and updated allergy documentation in the electronic medical record. These findings also demonstrate the need for improved allergy documentation and protocols to proactively assess penicillin allergy labels while in the ED.
Policymakers have increasingly embraced social enterprises as a vehicle to create job opportunities for the disadvantaged. However, there is limited research on social enterprises in the context of disability in relation to labour market integration. Drawing on the perspectives of representatives of work integration social enterprises and people with disabilities employed in these enterprises (n=21), this study examines whether and how work integration social enterprises promote inclusion for people with disabilities, and also explores the role of WISEs in enabling people with disabilities to transition into open employment. Thematic analysis revealed three key emergent themes: Cocooned inclusion but not transition; Reinforced normative demarcation; and WISEs as a deflection from institutionalizing proactive disability policy measures. This article argues that, although WISEs were able to provide job opportunities for people with disabilities, their purported function in enabling disabled people to transition into open employment remains constrained by factors beyond their control including prevailing norms and the absence of proactive disability employment measures. This article cautions against the over-romanticisation of WISEs as the primary means to ensure the rights of people with disabilities to participate in the labour market. Implications on disability employment policies in relation to social enterprises are discussed.
We prove several different anti-concentration inequalities for functions of independent Bernoulli-distributed random variables. First, motivated by a conjecture of Alon, Hefetz, Krivelevich and Tyomkyn, we prove some “Poisson-type” anti-concentration theorems that give bounds of the form 1/e + o(1) for the point probabilities of certain polynomials. Second, we prove an anti-concentration inequality for polynomials with nonnegative coefficients which extends the classical Erdős–Littlewood–Offord theorem and improves a theorem of Meka, Nguyen and Vu for polynomials of this type. As an application, we prove some new anti-concentration bounds for subgraph counts in random graphs.
To present a case of a 79-year-old male with frontal lobe dementia (following a cerebral abscess) who was referred due to inappropriate sexualised behaviour (ISB) in a care home setting.
To discuss the evidence base for the management of ISB in frontotemporal dementia.
79-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with frontal lobe dementia, following a craniotomy to aspirate and evacuate a cerebral abscess which affected the left frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. He then started to exhibit sexualised behaviour; he was using sexualised language towards female residents and care workers in the residential home, and was inviting residents to his room and asking them to touch him. This behaviour was felt to be due to inappropriate sexual behaviour which forms part of the spectrum of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Non-pharmacological interventions were tried but failed to manage his symptoms. He was started on Paroxetine which treated the symptoms for approximately 12 months. The symptoms reocurred and he was switched to Amisulpride which had a positive effect on his symptoms.
ISB is a behavioural and psychological symptom of dementia and may be seen in 7% to 25% of patients with dementia. ISB is distressing for the caregivers and also presents considerable challenges for the treating clinician. ISB presents with behaviour such as sexual language, implied sexual acts, and overt sexual acts. A differentiation should be made between whether the act was one of intimacy-seeking or disinhibition. However, there is a need to intervene when there are risks to the wellbeing and safeguards of the patient and also caregivers and residents. ISB can be difficult to treat, and there is limited evidence on the subject. It is often better managed by non-pharmacological interventions if possible, due to patients often being less responsive to psychoactive therapies and the risks involved with using medication. Non-pharmacological interventions include environmental, behavioural and educational approaches, and examples of these are discussed. Pharmacological interventions are also discussed, but there is a lack of evidence in this area; currently the evidence is from case series and case reports. The variety of drug classes illustrate the non specific nature of drug therapy.
Managing and treating ISB is difficult and complex.
The evidence suggests using non-pharmacological approaches as first line before considering pharmacological interventions.
However, there is a need for further research to develop robust non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in the treatment of ISB.
Consider a random $n\times n$ zero-one matrix with ‘sparsity’ p, sampled according to one of the following two models: either every entry is independently taken to be one with probability p (the ‘Bernoulli’ model) or each row is independently uniformly sampled from the set of all length-n zero-one vectors with exactly pn ones (the ‘combinatorial’ model). We give simple proofs of the (essentially best-possible) fact that in both models, if $\min(p,1-p)\geq (1+\varepsilon)\log n/n$ for any constant $\varepsilon>0$, then our random matrix is nonsingular with probability $1-o(1)$. In the Bernoulli model, this fact was already well known, but in the combinatorial model this resolves a conjecture of Aigner-Horev and Person.
There is an association between anterior cerebral artery vessel asymmetry and anterior communicating artery aneurysm, presumably based on flow dynamics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between aortic arch branching patterns and incidence of intracranial aneurysm.
This study included patients scanned over 1 year at our tertiary care center who underwent high-resolution imaging (computed tomography angiography or digital subtracted angiogram) of the head and neck arteries, aortic arch, and superior mediastinum. Exclusion criteria included patients with suboptimal images. Patient age, gender, aortic arch branching pattern, and the presence, location, and number of aneurysms were documented.
Among the 1082 patients analyzed, 250 (23%) patients had a variant aortic arch branching pattern, 22 (8.8%) of whom had aneurysms. There were 104 patients with 126 aneurysms, with majority of patients with normal aortic arch branching pattern (n = 82, 79%). The most common variant was a common origin of the left common carotid artery and brachiocephalic trunk with or without direct origin of the left vertebral artery. Twenty-two patients with aneurysms had an aberrant aortic arch (21%), compared to 232 patients without an aneurysm (24%). Fischer exact test showed no statistically significant difference between the incidence of aneurysm with different aortic arch variant groups (two-tailed p-value = 0.715).
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association between aortic arch branching patterns and incidence of intracranial aneurysm. No significant association was found between aortic arch branching pattern and the incidence of intracranial aneurysm.
This article illustrates how the term “social innovation” is used in the public policy domain in Hong Kong in relation to the new public management (NPM) reform of the social service sector, which originated in the early 2000s. Through document reviews and interviews, the role that social innovation policy has played in instigating changes in the contemporary social service field in the post-NPM era is identified. This includes facilitating emergence of “new” forms of social entrepreneurial activities to fill unmet social needs, empowering new actors in entering the social service sector, and reinforcing the government’s position in the NPM reform. Adopting historical institutionalism as the analytical framework, multiple path-dependent characteristics arising from the historical legacies of the incumbent social service environment – such as the longstanding partnership between the state and non-profits – are highlighted. These historical factors have weakened the efficacy of the policy efforts aimed at enacting institutional change. Overall, this article demonstrates how historical context matters in the emergence and framing of social innovation policy. It contributes to the theorisation of the role of social innovation in social service sector development in East Asia.
Nosocomial outbreaks leading to healthcare worker (HCW) infection and death have been increasingly reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
We implemented a strategy to reduce nosocomial acquisition.
We summarized our experience in implementing a multipronged infection control strategy in the first 300 days (December 31, 2019, to October 25, 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic under the governance of Hospital Authority in Hong Kong.
Of 5,296 COVID-19 patients, 4,808 (90.8%) were diagnosed in the first pandemic wave (142 cases), second wave (896 cases), and third wave (3,770 cases) in Hong Kong. With the exception of 1 patient who died before admission, all COVID-19 patients were admitted to the public healthcare system for a total of 78,834 COVID-19 patient days. The median length of stay was 13 days (range, 1–128). Of 81,955 HCWs, 38 HCWs (0.05%; 2 doctors and 11 nurses and 25 nonprofessional staff) acquired COVID-19. With the exception of 5 of 38 HCWs (13.2%) infected by HCW-to-HCW transmission in the nonclinical settings, no HCW had documented transmission from COVID-19 patients in the hospitals. The incidence of COVID-19 among HCWs was significantly lower than that of our general population (0.46 per 1,000 HCWs vs 0.71 per 1,000 population; P = .008). The incidence of COVID-19 among professional staff was significantly lower than that of nonprofessional staff (0.30 vs 0.66 per 1,000 full-time equivalent; P = .022).
A hospital-based approach spared our healthcare service from being overloaded. With our multipronged infection control strategy, no nosocomial COVID-19 in was identified among HCWs in the first 300 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Advanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging techniques can help to protect cancer patients from cardiotoxicity from immunotherapy with a more sensitive assessment of cardiac function with strain imaging for detection of abnormal cardiac function in the setting of normal left ventricular ejection fraction. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are associated with fatal cardiotoxicity. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can assess ICI-associated cardiotoxicity, but the utility of CMR strain imaging is unknown. We present a study of patients with ICI-associated cardiotoxicity evaluated with fast strain-encoded (fast-SENC) CMR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This prospective study was approved by the institutional IRB and informed consent was obtained from 15 patients (5 patients with ICI-associated cardiotoxicity, 10 controls patients) between August 2018 and January 2020. All patients with ICI-associated cardiotoxicity had abnormal troponin values and evidence of cardiotoxicity on T2-weighted and/or delayed enhancement CMR images. All patients underwent standard CMR assessment with steady state free precession cine images, T2-weighted imaging, and delayed gadolinium enhancement imaging. Additionally, free-breathing SENC images were obtained and then processed by a team of blinded cardiovascular imaging specialists using Myostrain software (Morrisville, USA). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was normal in both groups (ï,³53%). Global longitudinal LV strain was significantly depressed in the ICI cardiotoxicity group versus controls (-12.8 ±3.2% vs. -16.6 ±1.9%, p=0.028). The average global circumferential LV strain was mildly abnormal (defined as strain > -17) in the ICI cardiotoxicity group and trended towards a higher value compared with controls (-16.0 ±2.6% vs -17.8 ±1.7%, p=0.103). The average number of dysfunctional segments (defined as strain > -10) was significantly higher in the ICI cardiotoxicity group (6.8 ±4.2 vs. 1.0 ±1.7, p=0.017). The proportion of abnormal myocardium was higher in the ICI cardiotoxicity group (66 ±21% vs. 45 ±18%, p=0.050), as well as the proportion of myocardium found to be dysfunctional (26 ±22% vs. 3.0 ±6.0%, p=0.041). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Despite having preserved LVEF, patients who met criteria for ICI-associated cardiotoxicity had both global and regional abnormal LV strain. Fast-SENC imaging may provide a sensitive tool for detection of early cardiotoxicity in this population. This study is limited by its small cohort and a larger prospective study would be of value.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study provides a framwork to inform and organize health equity efforts and initiatives at CTSA institutes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: to map the activities of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program hubs across the EQ-DI framework, to depict opportunities for interaction between health equity and dissemination & implementation (D&I) science. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The EQ-DI framework demonstrates the dynamic interaction between D&I science and health equity. Health equity could be a lens to sensitize and inform D&I planning (through goal-setting and team development), execution (through ‘adaptation’ and D&I strategies), and evaluation (through incorporating health equity in D&I outcome assessment). On the other hand, D&I models, methods, and study designs can operationalize dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions to improve equity. Stakeholder engagement is at the center of the framework to inform and direct the sensitization and operationalization cycles. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We reviewed the activities of Colorado Clinical & Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) and University of Rochester Clinical and Translational Science Institute (UR CTSI) to improve health equity and mapped them across the EQ-DI framework. The sensitizing activities included health equity training, eliciting community priorities, and inclusion of health equity as a critical axis in funding mechanisms. The operationalizing activities included D&I methodological training and consultation, collaborative team science, and funding mechanisms to support implementation of health equity EBIs. Community engagement through studios, community liaisons, and consults was a core priority guiding sensitizing and operationalizing activities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The CTSA Program has been a champion for community engagement and translational collaboration to improve individual and population health. CTSA hubs provide infrastructure and resources to facilitate equity-focused D&I.
To cope with the rising demand for psychological treatment, evidence-based low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (LiCBT) delivered by trained para-professionals was introduced internationally.
This pilot study aimed at examining the effectiveness of LiCBT in Hong Kong.
This study was of an uncontrolled pre- and post-treatment design, testing LiCBT at a local community mental health centre in Hong Kong. Two hundred and eighty-five Chinese adult help-seekers to the centre attended two or more sessions of LiCBT delivered by trained para-professionals. These participants also rated their depression and anxiety on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), respectively, at pre- and post-treatment.
Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores of 285 participants indicated significant improvements in depression and anxiety with large effect sizes (depression: d = 0.87; anxiety: d = 0.95). For those participants reaching the clinical level of either depression and/or anxiety at pre-treatment (n = 229, 80.4%), they reported even larger effect sizes (depression: d = 1.00; anxiety: d = 1.15). The recovery rate was 55.9% with a reliable improvement rate of 63.9%. An average of 5.6 sessions was offered to the participants with each session spanning a mean of 42 minutes. The baseline clinical conditions and participants’ educational level were predictive of post-treatment recovery.
The results supported the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of LiCBT for depression and anxiety at a Hong Kong community mental health centre. The effect sizes and the recovery and reliable improvement rates achieved were comparable to those reported from countries such as the UK and Australia.
Implementation science offers a compelling value proposition to translational science. As such, many translational science stakeholders are seeking to recruit, teach, and train an implementation science workforce. The type of workforce that will make implementation happen consists of both implementation researchers and practitioners, yet little guidance exists on how to train such a workforce. We—members of the Advancing Dissemination and Implementation Sciences in CTSAs Working Group—present the Teaching For Implementation Framework to address this gap. We describe the differences between implementation researchers and practitioners and demonstrate what and how to teach them individually and in co-learning opportunities. We briefly comment on educational infrastructures and resources that will be helpful in furthering this type of approach.
Understanding, categorizing, and using implementation science theories, models, and frameworks is a complex undertaking. The issues involved are even more challenging given the large number of frameworks and that some of them evolve significantly over time. As a consequence, researchers and practitioners may be unintentionally mischaracterizing frameworks or basing actions and conclusions on outdated versions of a framework.
This paper addresses how the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework has been described, summarizes how the model has evolved over time, and identifies and corrects several misconceptions.
We address 13 specific areas where misconceptions have been noted concerning the use of RE-AIM and summarize current guidance on these issues. We also discuss key changes to RE-AIM over the past 20 years, including the evolution to Pragmatic Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model, and provide resources for potential users to guide application of the framework.
RE-AIM and many other theories and frameworks have evolved, been misunderstood, and sometimes been misapplied. To some degree, this is inevitable, but we conclude by suggesting some actions that reviewers, framework developers, and those selecting or applying frameworks can do to prevent or alleviate these problems.
The COVID-19 pandemic has required many clinical and translational scientists and staff to work remotely to prevent the spread of the virus. To understand the impact on research programs, we assessed barriers to remote work and strategies implemented to support virtual engagement and productivity. A mixed-methods RedCap survey querying the remote work experience was emailed to Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) scientists and staff in April 2020. Descriptive analyses, Fisher’s Exact tests, and content analysis were conducted. Respondents (n = 322) were primarily female (n = 240; 75%), 21–73 years old (mean = 42 years) with a PhD (n = 139; 44%) or MD (n = 56; 55%). Prior to COVID-19, 77% (n = 246) never or rarely (0–1 day a week) worked remotely. Remote work somewhat or greatly interfered with 76% (n = 244) of researchers’ programs and 71% (n = 231) reported slowing or stopping their research. Common barriers included missing interactions with colleagues (n = 198; 62%) and the absence of routines (n = 137; 43%). Strategies included videoconferencing (n = 283; 88%), altering timelines and expectations (n = 180; 56%). Scientists and staff experienced interference with their research when they shifted to remote work, causing many to slow or stop research programs. Methods to enhance communication and relationships, support productivity, and collectively cope during remote work are available.
Extensive environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We report our experience with the practice of directly observed environmental disinfection (DOED) in a community isolation facility (CIF) and a community treatment facility (CTF) in Hong Kong.
The CIF, with 250 single-room bungalows in a holiday camp, opened on July 24, 2020, to receive step-down patients from hospitals. The CTF, with 500 beds in open cubicles inside a convention hall, was activated on August 1, 2020, to admit newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients from the community. Healthcare workers (HCWs) and cleaning staff received infection control training to reinforce donning and doffing of personal protective equipment and to understand the practice of DOED, in which the cleaning staff observed patient and staff activities and then performed environmental disinfection immediately thereafter. Supervisors also observed cleaning staff to ensure the quality of work. In the CTF, air and environmental samples were collected on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR. Patient compliance with mask wearing was also recorded.
Of 291 HCWs and 54 cleaning staff who managed 243 patients in the CIF and 674 patients in the CTF from July 24 to August 29, 2020, no one acquired COVID-19. All 24 air samples and 520 environmental samples collected in the patient area of the CTF were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patient compliance with mask wearing was 100%.
With appropriate infection control measures, zero environmental contamination and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to HCWs and cleaning staff was achieved.