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The importance of intuitionistic temporal logics in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence has become increasingly clear in the last few years. From the proof-theory point of view, intuitionistic temporal logics have made it possible to extend functional programming languages with new features via type theory, while from the semantics perspective, several logics for reasoning about dynamical systems and several semantics for logic programming have their roots in this framework. We consider several axiomatic systems for intuitionistic linear temporal logic and show that each of these systems is sound for a class of structures based either on Kripke frames or on dynamic topological systems. We provide two distinct interpretations of “henceforth”, both of which are natural intuitionistic variants of the classical one. We completely establish the order relation between the semantically defined logics based on both interpretations of “henceforth” and, using our soundness results, show that the axiomatically defined logics enjoy the same order relations.
This article investigates the long-time behavior of conservative affine processes on the cone of symmetric positive semidefinite
matrices. In particular, for conservative and subcritical affine processes we show that a finite
-moment of the state-independent jump measure is sufficient for the existence of a unique limit distribution. Moreover, we study the convergence rate of the underlying transition kernel to the limit distribution: first, in a specific metric induced by the Laplace transform, and second, in the Wasserstein distance under a first moment assumption imposed on the state-independent jump measure and an additional condition on the diffusion parameter.
Deep learning has pushed the scope of digital pathology beyond simple digitization and telemedicine. The incorporation of these algorithms in routine workflow is on the horizon and maybe a disruptive technology, reducing processing time, and increasing detection of anomalies. While the newest computational methods enjoy much of the press, incorporating deep learning into standard laboratory workflow requires many more steps than simply training and testing a model. Image analysis using deep learning methods often requires substantial pre- and post-processing order to improve interpretation and prediction. Similar to any data processing pipeline, images must be prepared for modeling and the resultant predictions need further processing for interpretation. Examples include artifact detection, color normalization, image subsampling or tiling, removal of errant predictions, etc. Once processed, predictions are complicated by image file size – typically several gigabytes when unpacked. This forces images to be tiled, meaning that a series of subsamples from the whole-slide image (WSI) are used in modeling. Herein, we review many of these methods as they pertain to the analysis of biopsy slides and discuss the multitude of unique issues that are part of the analysis of very large images.
To explore differences in proportion of food budget and total food expenditure by dwelling type.
A cross-sectional study using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2015–2016 Household Expenditure Survey. Food expenditure was examined on multiple categories: fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pre-prepared meals, meals in restaurants, hotels and clubs, and fast food and takeaway meals, using two-part models and zero-one inflated beta regression models. Dwelling types were categorised as separate house, semi-detached house, low-rise apartment and high-rise apartment.
Seven thousand three hundred and fifty-eight households from greater capital city areas.
Households living in high-rise apartments were estimated to allocate a greater proportion of their food budget to meals in restaurants, hotels and clubs, and to spend more (actual dollars) on that category, compared with other dwelling types. No substantial differences were estimated in the proportion of food budget allocated to the other food categories across dwelling types.
The dwelling type households live in may play a role in their food budget. Households living in a high-rise apartment may potentially spend more on meals in restaurants, hotels and clubs than those living in other dwelling types. Given the growth in urban population and the changes in living arrangements, findings point to the critical need for a better understanding of the influence of dwelling types on food expenditure and call for research investigating the relationship between the two.
Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is a widely used word list memory test. We update normative data to include adjustment for verbal memory performance differences between men and women and illustrate the effect of this sex adjustment and the importance of excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normative samples.
This study advances the Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) by using a new population-based sample through the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, which randomly samples residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from age- and sex-stratified groups. Regression-based normative T-score formulas were derived from 4428 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 30–91 years. Fully adjusted T-scores correct for age, sex, and education. We also derived T-scores that correct for (1) age or (2) age and sex. Test-retest reliability data are provided.
From raw score analyses, sex explained a significant amount of variance in performance above and beyond age (8–10%). Applying original age-adjusted MOANS norms to the current sample resulted in significantly fewer-than-expected participants with low delayed recall performance, particularly in women. After application of new T-scores adjusted only for age, even in normative data derived from this sample, these age-adjusted T-scores showed scores <40 T occurred more frequently among men and less frequently among women relative to T-scores that also adjusted for sex.
Our findings highlight the importance of using normative data that adjust for sex with measures of verbal memory and provide new normative data that allow for this adjustment for the AVLT.
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Huntington’s disease, inevitably lead to impairments in higher-order cognitive functions, including the perception of emotional cues and decision-making behavior. Such impairments are likely to cause risky daily life behavior, for instance, in traffic. Impaired recognition of emotional expressions, such as fear, is considered a marker of impaired experience of emotions. Lower fear experience can, in turn, be related to risk-taking behavior. The aim of our study was to investigate whether impaired emotion recognition in patients with NDD is indeed related to unsafe decision-making in risky everyday life situations, which has not been investigated yet.
Fifty-one patients with an NDD were included. Emotion recognition was measured with the Facial Expressions of Emotions: Stimuli and Test (FEEST). Risk-taking behavior was measured with driving simulator scenarios and the Action Selection Test (AST). Data from matched healthy controls were used: FEEST (n = 182), AST (n = 36), and driving simulator (n = 18).
Compared to healthy controls, patients showed significantly worse emotion recognition, particularly of anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. Furthermore, patients took significantly more risks in the driving simulator rides and the AST. Only poor recognition of fear was related to a higher amount of risky decisions in situations involving a direct danger.
To determine whether patients with an NDD are still fit to drive, it is crucial to assess their ability to make safe decisions. Measuring emotion recognition may be a valuable contribution to this judgment.
The objective was to examine the association between parenting practices, toddler’s dietary intake and BMI. In addition, potential moderation of these associations by general parenting and child temperament was examined.
The current cross-sectional study assessed parenting practices using the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, general parenting using the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire, child temperament using the Child Behavior Check List, and children’s dietary intake through parental questionnaires. Children’s weight and length were objectively measured to determine BMI z-scores. Associations were examined using multiple linear regression analyses. Moderation was examined using interaction terms.
393 Dutch toddlers (age 1–3 years) and their parents recruited through fifty childcare centres and preschools in the Netherlands.
Various practices were related to children’s diet and BMI. For instance, the availability of healthy foods is the most important predictor of healthy dietary intake (e.g. β = –0·35 for sweets; β = 0·18 for fruit). The association of availability with a healthier diet was strongest when parents scored low on the positive parenting style dimensions, including nurturance, structure and/or behavioural control. In addition, it seemed that a high availability of healthy foods and low availability of unhealthy foods is especially beneficial for children showing withdrawal/depressive, anxious or overactive behaviour, while encouraging balance and variety is not beneficial for these children. All other practices were related to children’s diet and/or BMI as well.
The findings underline the importance of viewing the impact of parenting practices in the context of general parenting and child temperament.
Autosomal recessive ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is characterized by early onset cerebellar ataxia, lower limb spasticity, and sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Early atrophy of the superior cerebellar vermis is always present. Molecular linkage analysis found that the ARSACS gene is located on chromosome 13q12. Cloning of the gene, SACS, demonstrated that it encodes the protein sacsin.
Systematic evaluation of neurological, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological features in two male siblings.
Investigation of the putative relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and affective symptoms.
Detailed neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessment.
The first patient, aged 55, the disease started in early infancy and a severe progressive cerebellar syndrome with spasticity of the legs and axonal polyneuropathy developed. In his brother, aged 50, the debut of neurological symptoms was in preadolescence with a less severe deterioration over time. Cognitive functioning was only marginally impaired in the latter patient, whereas behavioural aberrations were present in the first patient only. Both patients showed a reduced cognitive and emotional responsivity to environmental events leading to impairments in several areas of daily life, such as lack of effort and strategic planning, as well as impulsivity and impoverished social interaction with emotional indifference. This symptom profile typically points towards the presence of an apathy syndrome.
In ARSACS, in addition to the motor impairments, it may be postulated that the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is present. Thus, this hereditary form of ataxia may be accompanied by a series of non-motor symptoms of which motivational and affective signs dominate. \
A review was made of the literature on Huntington’s disease, including the clinical neurology, recent advances in pathophysiology and genetic mechanisms and psychopathology. It can be concluded that research on the latter is scarce, although the subject is relevant because of the co-occurrence of psychiatric, neurological and genetic phenomena, which may lead to novel concepts in the understanding of brain function. So far, attempts to provide a comprehensive and pragmatic description of the psychopathology of Huntington’s disease have been disappointing, probably due to the limitations of the DSM classification system in this disorder. Future research should focus not only on this classification system, but also on neuropsychological functioning, because of the degenerative nature of the disease. Systematic and controlled studies should be performed on the treatment of psychiatric abnormalities in Huntington’s disease before any conclusions can be drawn.
Spinocerebellar ataxias represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Over the last decade, novel mitochondrial genetic diseases have been identified in which mutations in DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene are involved. POLG1 is essential for mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication and repair. at present, more than 100 disease mutations in POLG have been indentified that are causally related to an array of multi-system neuropsychiatric diseases.
The significance of POLG in the pathophysiology of complex neuropsychiatric disorders.
Studying the involvement of POLG mutation in major depression.
Detailed diagnostic evaluation, including genetic analysis, of a middle aged female patient with recurrent psychotic depression, slowly progressive gait instability and dilated cardiomyopathy.
As to psychiatry, major depression with psychotic features was present. the diagnosis of dilatated cardiomyopathy was confirmed. MRI scanning of the brain demonstrated marked cerebellar atrophy. Neuropsychological functioning was characterized by a sub-average disability, lowered speed of information processing and a relatively intact working memory. Extensive genetic and metabolic investigation demonstrated a nucleotide substitution c.2207 A→G in the POLG gene resulting in amino acid change Asn 736Ser in exon 13. This mutation was considered to be compatible with a mitochondrial disorder and implicated in the pathophysiology of the neuropsychiatric syndrome.
This novel POLG mutation is considered to be the etiological explanation for the combination of major depression, cardiomyopathy, and ataxia. in patients with complex neuropsychiatric disorders, extensive diagnostic analyses is warranted, including the search for mitochondriopathies.
The capacity to accumulate information over time is crucial to our functioning in an ever-changing world. Recently, in healthy subjects, we showed that brain uses a distributed and hierarchical network of brain areas to process information over time. Specifically, we revealed hierarchy of information processing over time from early sensory areas toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. Here, we investigate this issue in first-episode schizophrenia patients.
Previous studies posited that schizophrenia is the result of impairment of hierarchical temporal processing by the brain, claiming for impairment in use of context while being processing information. The hierarchical temporal deficit is a fundamental trait that may be a better target for the study of etiology and pathophysiology of the disease.
We intended to map, in schizophrenia patients, the topographical organization of temporal scales using an ecologically relevant auditory stimulus - a real-life story. In addition, we assumed that studying healthy siblings, who are at high-risk for cognitive dysfunctions, will enable to determine functional neuromarkers of predisposition to disorder.
The fMRI data were analyzed using inter-subject correlation approach. The time-courses within each brain area in schizophrenia patients were estimated against healthy controls and unaffected siblings of the patients.
Among patients, we observed impaired hierarchy with processing intact in low level but disturbed in high level. The sibling group showed an intermediate effect.
Better understanding of the underlying neural circuit involved in information processing in schizophrenia patients may assist in early identification of functional neuromarkers for the disease.
Impairments in social behavior and cognition, such as the ability to identify others’ emotional state, are important features in schizophrenia. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) and are nonapeptides that influence social cognition and behavior. Previous studies have shown that the administration of intranasal AVP or OXT may affect the ability to recognize facial emotions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a single dose of AVP or OXT on social cognition in patients with schizophrenia. The secondary objective of the study was to test for sex-specific effects of intranasal AVP and OXT administration on social cognition.
In this double-blind, placebo-control, cross-over study, 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, received a dose of AVP, OXT or placebo in three separate meetings. Forty-five minutes after administration, subjects performed facial emotion recognition tasks.
There were no significant main effects of hormone administration on the ability to recognize facial emotions between treatment conditions. However, AVP administration resulted in sex-specific differences in emotion recognition. Specifically, in men, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize angry faces. In women, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize sad faces and improved the ability to recognize fearful faces.
These findings indicate that intranasal AVP may affect the recognition of facial emotions differently in men and women. Thus, AVP may increase the differences between men and women on social cognition.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Recent studies in healthy populations have shown a hierarchical network of brain areas to process information over time. Specifically, we revealed that the capacity to accumulate information changes gradually from the early sensory areas toward high-order perceptual and cognitive areas. Previous research in schizophrenia pointed to impairment in comprehension of information. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying the breakdown of information processing are poorly known. Better understanding of the neural circuits involved in information processing may assist in early identification of predisposition to the disease. Using fMRI, we examined different levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented stimuli. Healthy participants, patients with first episode schizophrenia and their undiagnosed siblings listened to a real-life narrated story and scrambled versions of it. To estimate the level of synchronization in response time courses, we calculated inter-subject correlation (inter-SC) across the entire stimuli within each group. The time-scale gradients found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings. Within the schizophrenia group, the reliability patterns obtained for the shortest and intermediate temporal scales were similar to patterns observed in healthy groups. However, the analysis of responses to story condition (long temporal scale) revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SC. In comparison to healthy groups, the response time courses to the story were highly variable within the schizophrenia group, although some significant inter-SCs in the TPJ and precuneus were found. The hierarchical temporal deficit is a fundamental trait that may be a better target for the study of the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The objection of horrible commands claims that divine command metaethics is doomed to failure because it is committed to the extremely counterintuitive assumption that torture of innocents, rape, and murder would be morally obligatory if God commanded these acts. Morriston, Wielenberg, and Sinnott-Armstrong have argued that formulating this objection in terms of counterpossibles is particularly forceful because it cannot be simply evaded by insisting on God's necessary perfect moral goodness. I show that divine command metaethics can be defended even against this counterpossible version of the objection of horrible commands because we can explain the truth-value intuitions about the disputed counterpossibles as the result of conversational implicatures. Furthermore, I show that this pragmatics-based defence of divine command metaethics has several advantages over Pruss's reductio counterargument against the counterpossible version of the objection of horrible commands.
What is the nature of a claim to recover restitution as money had and received? Lord Mansfield famously described the claim in terms of equity and conscience, which has led some to maintain that Mansfield fused elements of the common law with elements of equity. This chapter shows that no such thing occurred. Lord Mansfield took the scattered materials of the common law and provided them with a new unifying rationale. That rationale was conscience, but was not a borrowing from the equitable doctrines of the Court of Chancery: he rather developed the common law with concepts also seen in Chancery equity. And while some maintain that Mansfield borrowed from Roman law, that is also shown not to have happened. The upshot is that money had and received – the basic restitutionary remedy – is not a product of the fusion of law and equity, but is an independent development illustrating nothing about fusion.
Over a hundred millisecond radio pulsars (MSPs) have been observed in globular clusters (GCs), motivating theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of these sources through stellar evolution coupled to stellar dynamics. Here we study MSPs in GCs using realistic N-body simulations with our Cluster Monte Carlo code. We show that neutron stars (NSs) formed in electron-capture supernovae can be spun up through mass transfer to form MSPs. Both NS formation and spin-up through accretion are greatly enhanced through dynamical interaction processes. We find that our models for average GCs at the present day with masses ≍ 2 × 105M⊙ can produce up to 10 – 20 MSPs, while a very massive GC model with mass ≍ 106M⊙ can produce close to 100. We show that the number of MSPs is anti-correlated with the total number of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) retained in the host cluster. As a result, the number of MSPs in a GC could be used to place constraints on its BH population. Some intrinsic properties of MSP systems in our models (such as the magnetic fields and spin periods) are in good overall agreement with observations.