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Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a polyphagous and highly destructive invasive insect pest of many crops. It was recently introduced into India and widely reported in almost all parts of India. Development of a temperature-based phenology model for predicting its rate of development and distribution will help in understanding the establishment and further spread of introduced invasive insect pests. Development, survival and reproduction parameters of S. frugiperda at six constant temperature conditions (15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C) were investigated and further validated with data generated under fluctuating temperature conditions. The estimated lower developmental threshold temperatures were 12.1°C for eggs, 11°C for larvae, 12.2°C for pupae, 15.13°C for males and 12.66°C for females. Degree-day (DD) requirements for the development of the different stages of S. frugiperda were 50, 250 and 200 DD for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. The best-fitted functions were compiled for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which was stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters. The developed phenology model predicted temperature ranges between 27 and 30°C as favourable for S. frugiperda development, survival and reproduction. The results revealed that maximum net reproductive rate (215.66 females/female/generation) and total fecundity (981.08 individuals/female/generation) were attained at 30°C constant temperature. The mean length of generations decreased from 74.29 days at 15°C to 38.74 days at 30°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase (0.138 females/female/day) and shortest doubling time (4.9 days) were also observed at 30°C. Results of simulated life table parameters showed high temperature-dependent development of S. frugiperda and complete development within all the tested constant temperature ranges (15–35°C). Simulated life table parameters for predicting risk indices of S. frugiperda in India indicated a significant increase in activity indices and establishment risk indices with a higher number of generations during future (2050 and 2070) climatic change scenarios compared to present conditions. Our results indicate that India will be highly suitable for the establishment and survival of S. frugiperda in future time periods.
Beachpea (Vigna marina) is a halophytic wild leguminous plant which occurs throughout tropical and subtropical beaches of world. As quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for salt tolerance in V. marina and its crossability with other Vigna species are known, the current study was undertaken to know the presence of these QTLs in the V. marina accessions along with check varieties of pulses. Accordingly, 20 Vigna genotypes (15 accessions of V. marina collected from sea-shore areas of Andaman and Nicobar Islands along with five check varieties of green gram and black gram) were subjected to molecular characterization using seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with salt tolerance. Of the markers used, only four SSR markers amplified in the studied germplasm. Number of alleles detected per primer and size of alleles ranged from 1 to 3 and 100 to 325 bp, respectively. Polymorphism information content and heterozygosity values ranged from 0.305 to 0.537 and 0.375 to 0.612, respectively. Three major clusters, cluster I, II and III were obtained at Jaccard's similarity coefficient value of 0.48 through the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic means method of cluster analysis. It grouped green gram and black gram genotypes in clusters I (04) and II (01), whereas all V. marina genotypes were grouped in cluster III (15). Principal co-ordinate analysis explained 85.9% of genetic variation among genotypes which was further confirmed by cluster analysis. This study indicated the effectiveness of SSR markers in separating cultivated Vigna species from wild V. marina. The findings will be useful for transferring trait of robust salt tolerance of V. marina in cultivated Vigna species using marker-assisted breeding.
The Miocene beds of Kutch in India are well known for their mammalian assemblages, including the extinct ape Sivapithecus, but far less is known about the fossil squamates from this area. Although India with its over 800 reptile species is recognized as one of the global biodiversity hotspots, knowledge of past diversity and paleobiogeography of squamates on this subcontinent is very limited. We here report on new lizard finds, which have been recovered from two stratigraphic levels: the older Palasava locality (dated to the middle Miocene, ca. 14 Ma) and the younger Tapar site (late Miocene, ca. 11–10 Ma). Although fragmentarily preserved, the material described here sheds important light on the composition and paleobiogeography of squamates during the Miocene in South Asia. The older Palasava locality contains cf. Uromastyx s.l. and Varanus sp., the latter representing the oldest record of this taxon in the region of India south of the Himalayas and its occurrence here suggests a mean annual temperature not less than 15°C. The material from the younger Tapar locality consists of an unidentified acrodontan lizard, here questionably placed in agamids, and a skink. The latter shows a resemblance to mabuyines, however, the fragmentary nature of the material does not allow a precise allocation without doubts. The cosmopolitan mabuyines have been suggested to have their origin in Asia, so the potential presence of mabuyines in the Tapar locality might represent the first, but putative, Asian evidence of the occurrence of this group in the Miocene.
Smallflower umbrella sedge is one of the problematic weeds in direct-seeded rice in India. Bispyribac-sodium (acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide) is a commonly used in rice, but recently growers have reported lack of smallflower umbrella sedge control with this herbicide. An extensive survey was carried out in two rice growing states, Chhattisgarh and Kerala, where 53 putative bispyribac-sodium resistant (BR) biotypes were collected. Studies were conducted to confirm resistance to bispyribac-sodium and to test the efficacy of newly developed synthetic auxin herbicide florpyrauxifen-benzyl on putative BR biotypes. Whole-plant bioassay revealed that bispyribac-sodium is no longer effective. Of 53 putative BR biotypes, 17 biotypes survived recommended label rate of 25 g ai ha−1. Effective bispyribac-sodium rate required to control 50% of the plants in most of the BR biotypes (ED50) ranged from 19 to 96 g ha−1 whereas it was 10 g ha−1 in susceptible biotype. In two highly resistant biotypes, ED50 was beyond the maximum tested rate, 200 g ha−1. This suggests 2 to >20-fold resistance in BR biotypes. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme activity assay suggests altered target site as mechanism of resistance to bispyribac-sodium. This study confirms the first case of evolved resistance in smallflower umbrella sedge for bispyribac-sodium in India. However, the newly developed synthetic auxin, florpyrauxifen-benzyl effectively controlled all BR biotypes at the field use rate 31.25 g ae ha−1.
In a prospective cohort study, we compared a 2-swabs-per-nostril 5% iodophor regimen with a 1-swab-per-nostril 10% iodophor regimen on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in nursing-home residents. Compared with baseline, both single-swab and double-swab regimens resulted in an identical 40% reduction in nasal carriage and 60% reduction in any carriage, skin or nasal.
We report a familial cluster of 24 individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The index case had a travel history and spent 24 days in the house before being tested and was asymptomatic. Physical overcrowding in the house provided a favourable environment for intra-cluster infection transmission. Restriction of movement of family members due to countrywide lockdown limited the spread in community. Among the infected, only four individuals developed symptoms. The complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved using next-generation sequencing from eight clinical samples which demonstrated a 99.99% similarity with reference to Wuhan strain and the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a distinct cluster, lying in the B.6.6 pangolin lineage.
The usage of mobile phones has seen exponential growth worldwide.1,2 While college students use mobile applications for educational purposes, the reports of adverse health problems are emerging.3,4
Investigate the impact of mobile usage patterns on the life of medical students and its association with psychiatric effects concerning ringxiety and nomophobia.
Data was collected from the 300 medical students of Ashwini Rural Medical College of India through a survey for this cross-sectional study. Chi-square (χ2) was used for statistics that revealed association, mobile phone usage patterns, including time spent before sleep, in classrooms or clinics, and frequency of update checks.
A significant association was found between time spent on mobile before sleep and duration of sleep, and mobile usage in classrooms or clinics and psychological effects (p<0.0001). Significant association observed between mobile use in classes or clinics and the frequency of update checks, and the frequency of update checks and psychological effects (p<0.0001). About 78% of participants distracted in self-study due to mobile. Updates checked every 10 minutes by 14.7%, every hourly by 43%, and during breaks by 42.3%. Mobile low network caused anxiety (13.3%) and irritability (67.3%). About 41.7% of students couldn’t abstain from mobile use for a day. Every student used the mobile phone averagely for 24 minutes before they went to sleep.
Our study results highlight the prevalence of ringxiety and nomophobia in medical school students. With the surging dependency on mobile phones and technology, we need to cautiously monitor its adverse effects on psychology and psychiatric conditions.
This retrospective case series study sought to describe the safety and clinical effectiveness of propafenone for the control of arrhythmias in children with and without CHD or cardiomyopathy.
We reviewed baseline characteristics and subsequent outcomes in a group of 63 children treated with propafenone at 2 sites over a 15-year period Therapy was considered effective if no clinically apparent breakthrough episodes of arrhythmias were noted on the medication.
Sixty-three patients (29 males) were initiated on propafenone at a median age of 2.3 years. CHD or cardiomyopathy was noted in 21/63 (33%). There were no significant differences between demographics, clinical backgrounds, antiarrhythmic details, side effect profiles, and outcomes between children with normal hearts and children with CHD or cardiomyopathy. Cardiac depression at the initiation of propafenone was more common amongst children with CHD or cardiomyopathy compared to children with normal hearts. Systemic ventricular function was diminished in 15/63 patients (24%) prior to starting propafenone and improved in 8/15 (53%) of patients once better rhythm control was achieved. Other than one child in whom medication was stopped due to gastroesophageal reflux, no other child experienced significant systemic or cardiac side effects during treatment with propafenone. Propafenone achieved nearly equal success in controlling arrhythmias in both children with normal hearts and children with congenital heart disease or cardiomyopathy (90% versus 86%, p = 0.88).
Propafenone is a safe and effective antiarrhythmic medication in children.
This study aimed to evaluate serum otolin-1 levels in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and to compare these levels with healthy individuals.
This was a case-control study. After obtaining institutional ethical committee clearance, the serum level of otolin-1 was calculated in adult individuals (18–75 years old) who were divided into group 1 (patients presenting with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo) and group 2 (healthy patients without benign paroxysmal positional vertigo as the control group). Data analysis was carried out to compare the serum levels in the cases and controls. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
A total of 70 age-matched individuals (cases, n = 40; controls, n = 30) were included in the study. The mean serum level of otolin-1 was 636.8 pg/ml (range, 259–981 pg/ml) in the group of patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and 236.2 pg/ml (range, 189–370 pg/ml) in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0000).
The serum levels of otolin-1 in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo are significantly higher compared with individuals without benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
To design a low radar cross section (RCS) antenna, the major concern is not only to reduce scattering, but also to maintain its radiation parameters, viz. gain, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), etc. This paper presents a simple configuration of low RCS microstrip patch array with a periodic structure-based superstrate. The ground of the array is designed as reduced ground plane with high impedance surface elements, viz. rectangular patch and Jerusalem cross. The configuration of superstrate consists of multilayered, viz., two-layered and three-layered structures having partially absorbing and reflecting surfaces. In both the proposed configurations, the array gain of 12.5 dB is maintained with reduced structural RCS over the entire in-band frequency range. The reflection coefficient (~ −20 dB) and VSWR (~ 1.1) of the array are maintained. It is shown that the proposed superstrate-based patch array design has significantly reduced in-band RCS (−18 dBsm) at its resonant frequency.
Triticum monococcum L. and T. boeoticum L., diploid wild relatives of bread wheat (T. aestivum L.), possess resistance to leaf rust (also known as brown rust) caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. Haustorium formation-based resistance mechanisms (i.e. pre-haustorial and post-haustorial resistance) to leaf rust have been studied and reported in various T. monococcum accessions. In the present study, the mechanism of leaf rust resistance in T. monococcum and T. boeoticum accessions was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Components of resistance studied at a histological level against leaf rust pathotypes, a Mexican pathotype (TCB/TD) and a Swiss pathotype (97512-19), indicated different types of resistance mechanism operative in the two accessions. The resistance in T. monococcum ranged from pre-haustorial resistance against 97512-19 to post-haustorial resistance against TCB/TD. The response in T. boeoticum was post-haustorial with necrosis against the two pathotypes. Pre-haustorial resistance observed in T. monococcum could serve as a potential source of durable rust resistance in wheat breeding.
Salt stress is a major abiotic stress affecting the productivity of rice crop worldwide. This study screened a set of 71 rice genotypes collected from coastal parts of Goa and Karnataka states in India for seedling stage salinity tolerance to identify genotypes alternative to standard salt-tolerant donors Pokkali, FL478, etc. Phenotyping for seedling stage tolerance was carried out under micro plots at an induced salinity of 12 dS/m. For haplotyping, 14 Saltol QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on chromosome 1 were utilized. On the basis of the response to salt stress, 10 genotypes were found tolerant, 16 moderately tolerant, 29 sensitive and 15 as highly sensitive. Among the SSR markers, marker RM10871 was the most polymorphic with a polymorphic information content of 0.90, exhibiting 14 different alleles followed by RM10793 (0.84) and RM3412 (0.80) with 8 and 7 alleles, respectively. These markers also exhibited high values for the effective number of alleles (Ne) and gene diversity (I). The haplotype analysis revealed that the allelic constitution of the Saltol region of 10 tolerant genotypes from our study varied in comparison to the reference tolerant check FL478. Further, the haplotype of three tolerant genotypes, namely, Goa Dhan 2, Panvel 1 and Goa wild rice (GWR) 005 appears to be completely different from the FL478 haplotype indicating tolerance in these genotypes is controlled by genomic region other than Saltol. These three genotypes with probable novel regions for seedling stage salt tolerance can be considered for enhancing salinity tolerance of rice cultivars.
To study the total goitre rate (TGR), urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and salt iodine content among schoolchildren in a previously endemic area for severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD).
Cross-sectional epidemiological study.
The study was carried out in the Gonda district (sub-Himalayan region) of North India.
Nine hundred and seventy-seven schoolchildren (6–12 years) were studied for parameters such as height, weight, UIC and salt iodine content. Thyroid volume (TV) was measured by ultrasonography to estimate TGR.
The overall TGR in the study population was 2·8 % (95 % CI 1·8, 3·8). No significant difference in TGR was observed between boys and girls (3·5 % v. 1·9 %, P = 0·2). There was a non-significant trend of increasing TGR with age (P = 0·05). Median UIC was 157·1 μg/l (interquartile range: 94·5–244·9). At the time of the study, 97 % of salt sample were iodised and nearly 86 % of salt samples had iodine content higher than or equal to 15 part per million. Overall, TGR was significantly lower (2·8 % v. 31·0 %, P < 0·001), and median UIC was significantly higher (157·1 v. 100·0 μg/l, P < 0·05) than that reported in the same area in 2009.
A marked improvement was seen in overall iodine nutrition in the Gonda district after three and a half decades of Universal Salt Iodisation (USI). To sustainably control IDD, USI and other programmes, such as health education, must be continuously implemented along with putting mechanisms to monitor the programme at regular intervals in place.
It is generally believed that the physiological consequences of stress could contribute to poor outcomes for patients being treated for cancer. However, despite preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that stress promotes increased cancer-related mortality, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in mediating these effects does not yet exist. We reviewed 47 clinical studies published between 2007 and 2020 to determine whether psychosocial stress affects clinical outcomes in cancer: 6.4% of studies showed a protective effect; 44.6% showed a harmful effect; 48.9% showed no association. These data suggest that psychosocial stress could affect cancer incidence and/or mortality, but the association is unclear. To shed light on this potentially important relationship, objective biomarkers of stress are needed to more accurately evaluate levels of stress and its downstream effects. As a potential candidate, the neuroendocrine signalling pathways initiated by stress are known to affect anti-tumour immune cells, and here we summarise how this may promote an immunosuppressive, pro-tumour microenvironment. Further research must be done to understand the relationships between stress and immunity to more accurately measure how stress affects cancer progression and outcome.
Improving plant resistance against Fusarium wilt (FW) is key to sustaining chickpea production worldwide. Given this, the current study tested a set of 75 FW-responsive chickpea breeding lines including checks in a wilt-sick plot for two consecutive years (2016 and 2017). Genetic diversity analysis using 75 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) revealed a total of 267 alleles with an average of 3.56 alleles per marker. The entire set was divided into two major classes based on clustering method and factorial analysis. Similarly, STRUCTURE analysis placed the 75 genotypes into three distinct sub-groups (K = 3). Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis using the generalized linear model approach revealed nine and eight significant MTAs for FW resistance in the years 2016 and 2017, respectively. Three significant MTAs were obtained for FW resistance following the mixed linear model approach for both years. The SSR markers CESSR433, NCPGR21 and ICCM0284 could be potentially employed for targeted and accelerated improvement of FW resistance in chickpea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on association mapping of the genomic loci controlling FW (Foc2) resistance in chickpea.
Investment in family planning (FP) provides returns through a lifetime. Global evidence shows that FP is the second-best buy in terms of return on investment after liberalizing trade. In this study, we estimate the cumulative benefits of FP investments for India from 1991 to 2016 and project them up to 2061 with four scenarios of fertility levels. The findings suggest that India will have greater elasticity of FP investments to lifetime economic returns compared to the world average (cost–revenue ratio of 1:120). We have taken four scenarios for the goalpost, viz., 2.1, 1.8, 1.6, and 1.4. Although different scenarios of total fertility rate (TFR) levels at the goalpost (i.e., the year 2061) offer varied lifetime returns from FP, scenario TFR < 1.8 will be counterproductive and will reduce the potential benefits. With a comprehensive approach, if the country focuses more on improving the quality of FP services and on reducing the unmet need for FP to enhance reproductive health care and expand maximum opportunities for education and employment for both women and men, it can improve its potential to reap more benefits.
Induction chemotherapy (iC) followed by concurrent chemoradiation has been shown to improve overall survival (OS) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, the survival benefit of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) versus conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) following iC remains unclear.
Materials and methods:
The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for primary stage III, cT4N0-1M0 LAPC (2004–15). Kaplan–Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards method and propensity score matching were used.
Among 872 patients, 738 patients underwent CFRT and 134 patients received SBRT. Median follow-up was 24·3 and 22·9 months for the CFRT and SBRT cohorts, respectively. The use of SBRT showed improved survival in both the multivariate analysis (hazards ratio 0·78, p = 0·025) and 120 propensity-matched pairs (median OS 18·1 versus 15·9 months, p = 0·004) compared to the CFRT.
This NCDB analysis suggests survival benefit with the use of SBRT versus CFRT following iC for the LAPC.
This National Cancer Database (NCDB) analysis was performed to evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) versus observation for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant therapy (NT).
Materials and methods:
The NCDB was queried for primary stages I–II cT1-3N0-1M0 resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with NT (2004–2015). Baseline patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were extracted. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). With a 6-month conditional landmark, Kaplan–Meier analysis, multivariable Cox proportional hazards method and 1:1 propensity score matching was used to analyse the data.
A total of 1,737 eligible patients were identified, of which 1,247 underwent post-operative observation compared to 490 with AC. The overall median follow-up was 34·7 months. The addition of AC showed improved survival on the multivariate analysis (HR 0·78, p < 0·001). AC remained statistically significant for improved OS, with a median OS of 26·3 months versus 22·3 months and 2-year OS of 63·9% versus 52·9% for the observation cohort (p < 0·001). Treatment interaction analysis showed OS benefit of AC for patients with smaller tumours.
Our findings suggest a survival benefit for AC compared to observation following NT and surgery for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, especially in patients with smaller tumours.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This change will improve primary care physicians and pediatrics ability to identify, intervene and prevent obesity related renal damage in the vulnerable population of young adults OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Obesity related glomerulopathy has a reversible stage manifested as hyperfiltration. Early intervention depends on the ability to identify hyperfiltration. Hyperfiltration prevalence is underestimated using the currently recommended formula We investigated whether calculating BSA-adjusted GFR will more readily identify hyperfiltration. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We extracted data from a large urban, multi-institutional Electronic Health Records (EHR) clinical data research network to construct an EHR data base of 60,549 women and girls ages 12-21 years from the New York metropolitan area. EGFR was calculated in two ways, 1) according to age appropriate formula, and 2) according to age appropriate formula and adjusted to body surface area (BSA). BMI-for-age values were classified according to the World Health Organization schema and grouped according to the CDC definitions. BSA was calculated according to the Du-Bois formula. Hyperfiltration was defined by a threshold of 135ml/min. The Bland Altman method assessed the agreement between formulas across the different BMI groups. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Serum creatinine values were similar across different BMI groups. Comparing eGFR values, hyperfiltration rates were similar across BMI groups, ranging between 4%-6.6%. BSA-adjusted GFR was different across BMI groups: hyperfiltration rates were 0.81% for the underweight group, 2.56% for the normal weight, 12.18% for the overweight and 39% in the obese group. This trend of hyperfiltration paralleled the the rise in urine creatinine across BMI groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: BSA-adjusted GFR more sensitively detects hyperfiltration due to obesity than does eGFR. Calculating BSA-adjusted GFR will improve primary care and pediatric physicians’ ability to identify, intervene and prevent early ORG. Changes in body composition may account for the increasing discordance between BSA-adjusted and eGFR as BMI rises.