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In industrialised countries, it is very likely that there will be a sharp rise in the number of individuals in old age in the upcoming decades. Common characteristics of these individuals include multi-morbidity or frequent doctor visits which are obviously linked to increased healthcare costs.1 Therefore, identifying the determinants associated with increased healthcare costs among individuals in old age is crucial. Knowledge regarding these factors can help to manage healthcare services.
The article examines the controversy triggered by the “Victory Tour” of Russia’s high-profile biker organization, the Night Wolves, to mark the 70th anniversary of the Soviet Union’s defeat of Nazi Germany. The tour provoked important questions about the relationship between European borders and the politics of World War II commemoration. The article argues that the international public discourse around the Night Wolves illuminates how state borders are being transformed both as hard, territorialized borders and as “soft,” symbolic boundaries. The analysis compares how print and online media in Russia, Poland, and Germany framed the Night Wolves’ tour across Europe. It emphasizes the construction of borders as a narrative project and maps the symbolic boundary-drawing strategies mobilized by various actors. It shows how cross-border commemorative tours can serve as a tool of transnational memory politics that shapes the very meaning and salience of state borders and regional divisions.
Until 1854, the date of publication of Westergaard's Zendavesta,2 Europe was unacquainted with the Iranian recension of the Xorde Avesta. In his edition Westergaard was able to make use of three Sāde manuscripts for the first time, which he himself acquired during his stay in Persia between 1841 and 1844: 6115 (K36 [= M1]) (IrXA Sāde) from 1724, 6870 (K37 [= M2]) (IrXA Sāde in NP script + Faroxšī) from the 19th century, 3100 (K38 [= M3]) (Faroxšī, very close to 3095 [Suppl.persan1191]) from 1814.3
The 1844 Teatro Victoria in Valparaiso, Chile, can be considered the first purpose-built opera house in the Andean region of the Americas. Managed by impresario Pietro Alessandri, it became the centre of an early operatic scene in the South Pacific and a model for theatres built during the following decades. In this article, I discuss the Teatro Victoria as an opera house and the way in which it functioned on the borders of what was then a new global operatic scene. Latin American research on opera has focused mostly on singers and performances, rather than on the workings of the opera houses and the operatic scene. This article discusses the rationale behind the development of the Teatro Victoria project, some of the strategies underpinning its success and the notion of this particular opera house as a projection of certain ideas of ‘Italian culture’ and networks. The article shows, first, that the successful reception and appropriation of Italian opera in this period was not necessarily guaranteed, and it differed across the Americas. Second, that local brokers and host communities had key roles in shaping that reception, which can easily be perceived as a passive one when looked at only from the perspective of the singers or the music itself.
This research paper focuses on time-lagged heat stress (HS) effects from an across-generation perspective. Temperature × humidity indexes (THI) from the last 8 weeks of pregnancy were associated with subsequent female offspring performances. The offspring dataset considered 172 905 Holstein dairy cows from calving years 2002–2013 from 1,968 herds, located in the German federal state of Hesse. Production traits included milk yield (MKG), protein percentage (PRO%), fat percentage (FAT%), somatic cell score (SCS) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) from the first official test-day in first lactation. Female fertility traits were the non-return-rate after 56 d (NRR56) in heifers and the interval from calving to first insemination (ICFI) in first parity cows. Longevity traits were the length of productive life (LPL), lifetime productivity in milk yield (LTP-MKG) and milk yield per day of life (MKG-DL). The association analyzes for 10 traits combined with meteorological data from 8 single weeks before calving implied in total 80 different runs. THI ≥50 from all single 8 weeks before calving had unfavorably significant effects on FAT%, ICFI and LPL. Heat stress in terms of THI ≥60 from the last 3 weeks before calving impaired MKG. NRR56 decreased with increasing THI, as observed for all 6 weeks before calving. LTP-MKG and MKG-DL decreased due to high THI in the last 4 weeks before calving. Heat stress (THI ≥60) during late pregnancy had no significantly unfavorable impact on PRO% and MUN. Interestingly, SCS in offspring declined with increasing THI during late pregnancy. In conclusion, for most of the primary and functional traits, unfavorable impact of HS from the dry period on time-lagged performances in offspring was identified, even on longevity. From a practical perspective, our data suggest to provide HS abatement to late gestation dams to avoid long-term adverse effects on the offspring.
In contrast to traditional extradition law, the political offense exemption has been abolished within the framework of the European Arrest Warrant (EAW). Notwithstanding its overall success, the EAW does not constitute an adequate instrument with regard to political offenses. In light of the recent case of the former Catalan President, Carles Puigdemont, the abolition has proven to be too hasty and the justificatory force behind the principles of mutual trust and recognition is, with respect hereto, rather limited. The damage caused to these principles by upholding the exemption would be negligible, given the small number of cases—Puigdemont being the first political offender requested under the aegis of the EAW. However, the potential benefits are substantial, given that the exemption provides for a higher level of human rights protection—analogous to the values of European Union (EU). Solely relying on the double criminality requirement in order to properly take into account the specificities of the Member States’ legal systems essentially positions the judges at the forefront of where mutual trust and constitutional identity collide. Moreover, the exemption prevents states from intervening in other states’ internal political conflicts, through the medium of criminal law.
Older adults exhibit heightened vulnerability for alcohol-related health impairments. Increases in the proportion of older adults within the European Union’s total population and prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in this age group are being observed. This large scale international study was conducted to identify those older adults with an increased risk to engage in hazardous drinking behaviour.
Socio-demographic, socio-economic, personality characteristics (Big Five Inventory, BFI-10), and alcohol consumption patterns of 13,351 individuals from 12 different European countries, collected by the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe, were analyzed using regression models.
Age, nationality, years of education, as well as personality traits, were significantly associated with alcohol intake. For males, extraversion predicted increased alcohol intake (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.07–1.16), whereas conscientiousness (RR = 0.93, CI = 0.89–0.97), and agreeableness (RR = 0.94, CI = 0.90–0.99), were associated with a reduction. For females, openness to new experiences (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.04–1.18) predicted increased alcohol intake. Concerning excessive drinking, personality traits, nationality, and age-predicted consumption patterns for both sexes: Extraversion was identified as a risk factor for excessive drinking (OR = 1.15; CI = 1.09–1.21), whereas conscientiousness was identified as a protective factor (OR = 0.87; CI = 0.823–0.93).
Hazardous alcohol consumption in the elderly was associated with specific personality characteristics. Preventative measures, crucial in reducing deleterious health consequences, should focus on translating the knowledge of the association of certain personality traits and alcohol consumption into improved prevention and treatment.
We describe here efforts to create and study magnetized electron–positron pair plasmas, the existence of which in astrophysical environments is well-established. Laboratory incarnations of such systems are becoming ever more possible due to novel approaches and techniques in plasma, beam and laser physics. Traditional magnetized plasmas studied to date, both in nature and in the laboratory, exhibit a host of different wave types, many of which are generically unstable and evolve into turbulence or violent instabilities. This complexity and the instability of these waves stem to a large degree from the difference in mass between the positively and the negatively charged species: the ions and the electrons. The mass symmetry of pair plasmas, on the other hand, results in unique behaviour, a topic that has been intensively studied theoretically and numerically for decades, but experimental studies are still in the early stages of development. A levitated dipole device is now under construction to study magnetized low-energy, short-Debye-length electron–positron plasmas; this experiment, as well as a stellarator device that is in the planning stage, will be fuelled by a reactor-based positron source and make use of state-of-the-art positron cooling and storage techniques. Relativistic pair plasmas with very different parameters will be created using pair production resulting from intense laser–matter interactions and will be confined in a high-field mirror configuration. We highlight the differences between and similarities among these approaches, and discuss the unique physics insights that can be gained by these studies.
We investigate unramified extensions of number fields with prescribed solvable Galois group G and certain extra conditions. In particular, we are interested in the minimal degree of a number field K, Galois over
, such that K possesses an unramified G-extension. We improve the best known bounds for the degree of such number fields K for certain classes of solvable groups, in particular for nilpotent groups.
Suicide risk in patients is markedly elevated during psychiatric inpatient care, as well as after discharge. However, it is unclear whether, and to what extent, this increased suicide risk varies between sex. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze sex differences for suicides during and after psychiatric hospitalization in various countries.
National suicide mortality rates and inpatient-related suicide rates (three intervals: during psychiatric inpatient treatment, 1 month, and 1 year after discharge) from 12 countries for 2000–2016 were analyzed, and a logistic model was used to quantify the effect of sex.
Persons admitted to or discharged from psychiatric inpatient care exhibited significantly increased rates of suicide compared to those in the general population. Furthermore, increase of suicide risk was significantly higher for females than for males for all investigated time intervals (inpatient suicide odds ratio [OR] 1.85; suicide within 1 month after discharge—OR 1.94; suicide within 1 year after discharge—OR 2.04).
Analysis confirmed the time during and after psychiatric inpatient care to be significantly associated with an elevated risk for suicide. Further, a significant sex effect was observed, with females in this population being at a proportionally higher risk for suicide during psychiatric inpatient treatment as well as the year following discharge. Our study implicates that more effective suicide preventive measures during inpatient stay, focusing on female patients, are needed.
The study reported in this research communication aimed to assess the influence of maternal contact on calves' activity, fearfulness, and social competence. Calves were either dam-reared for their first 14 d of age (Maternal Contact, n = 12) or were separated from their dams within 12 h after birth (Motherless, n = 12). Calves of both treatments and the dams of Maternal Contact calves were group-housed and suckling was prevented with udder nets. The general activity (lying, locomotion, swapping between lying and standing) was measured using pedometers in eight Maternal Contact and eight Motherless calves within a 24-d period. Since general activity might be affected by calves' age or the separation of Maternal Contact calves from the dams the 24-d period was additionally divided into two groups (period A: 3rd–13th day of age, period B: 14th–27th day of age). Emotionality and social competence were assessed in the open field, novel object, and confrontation test with an unknown cow at 14, 21, and 28 d of age, respectively. Mann–Whitney-U-tests were performed for statistical analysis. Locomotion was greater in Motherless calves than Maternal Contact calves during the 24-d period (A + B combined, P < 0.001) and period B (14th to 27th day of age, P < 0.001). There was no treatment difference in duration of lying or in the amount of swapping in any of the periods. After a Bonferroni correction, which we used due to the exploratory character of the study, there were no treatment differences in behaviours indicating emotionality. Compared to Motherless calves, Maternal Contact calves showed increased vigilance (P < 0.01) during the confrontation test. The results of this study indicate that mother-reared calves likely searched less for social contact and developed greater social skills than calves that were separated from their mothers soon after birth.
Mental health disorders and their treatments produce significant costs and benefits in both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors. The latter are often referred to as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Little is known about healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector and how to include these in health economics research.
The triple aim of this study is (i) to identify healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector, (ii) to validate the list of healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector on a European level by sector-specific experts, and (iii) to classify the identified ICBs.
A scientific literature search in PubMed and an additional grey literature search, carried out in six European countries, were used to retrieve ICBs. In order to validate the international applicability of the ICBs, a survey was conducted with an international group of experts from the criminal justice sector. The list of criminal justice ICBs was categorized according to the PECUNIA conceptual framework.
The full-text analysis of forty-five peer-reviewed journal articles and eleven grey literature sources resulted in a draft list of items. Input from the expert survey resulted in a final list of fourteen unique criminal justice ICBs, categorized according to the care atom.
This study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs of mental health-related interventions within the criminal justice sector. More research is needed to facilitate the further and increased inclusion of ICBs in health economics research.
As current vehicle development processes in the automotive industry are highly distributed, the interaction between design teams is limited. In this paper we use a simulation in order to investigate how the rate of design team interaction affects the solution quality and development cost. Results show, that in case of no limiting constraints, a low rate of interaction yields the best results regarding solution quality and development cost. If design activities are affected by constraints, however, the rate of interaction is subject to a conflict between solution quality and development cost.
Mental health problems can lead to costs and benefits in other sectors (e.g. in the education sector) in addition to the healthcare sector. These related costs and benefits are known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Although some ICBs within the education sector have been identified previously, little is known about their extensiveness and transferability, which is crucial for their inclusion in health economics research.
The aim of this study was to identify ICBs in the education sector, to validate the list of ICBs in a broader European context, and to categorize the ICBs using mental health as a case study.
Previously identified ICBs in the education sector were used as a basis for this study. Additional ICBs were extracted from peer-reviewed literature in PubMed and grey literature from six European countries. A comprehensive list of unique items was developed based on the identified ICBs. The list was validated by surveying an international group of educational experts. The survey results were used to finalize the list, which was categorized according to the care atom.
Additional ICBs in the education sector were retrieved from ninety-six sources. Fourteen experts from six European countries assessed the list for completeness, clarity, and relevance. The final list contained twenty-four ICBs categorized into input, throughput, and output.
By providing a comprehensive list of ICBs in the education sector, this study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs in health economics research in the broader European context.
Seasonal patterns in hospitalizations have been observed in various psychiatric disorders, however, it is unclear whether they also exist in schizophrenia. Previous studies found mixed results and those reporting the presence of seasonality differ regarding the characteristics of these patterns. Further, they are inconclusive whether sex is an influencing factor. The aim of this study was therefore to examine if seasonal patterns in hospitalizations can be found in schizophrenia, with special regard to a possible influence of sex, by using a large national dataset.
Data on all hospital admissions within Austria due to schizophrenia (F20.0–F20.6) for the time period of 2003–2016 were included. Age standardized monthly variation of hospitalization for women and men was analyzed and the level of significance adjusted for multiple testing.
The database comprised of 110,735 admissions (59.6% men). Significant seasonal variations were found in the total sample with hospitalization peaks in January and June and a trough in December (p < 0.0001). No significant difference in these patterns was found between women and men with schizophrenia (p < 0.0001).
Our study shows that schizophrenia-related hospitalizations follow a seasonal pattern in both men and women. The distribution of peaks might be influenced by photoperiod changes which trigger worsening of symptoms and lead to exacerbations in schizophrenia. Further research is necessary to identify underlying factors influencing seasonal patterns and to assess whether a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia is especially vulnerable to the impact of seasonal variations.