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Endoscopic septoplasty is an alternative approach for a deviated nasal septum. Since its introduction, numerous techniques have been developed, each with its own advantages and limitations. A literature review is presented, along with our experience with endoscopic spur resection.
The Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant literature, and the records of all patients undergoing endoscopic spur resection at the University Hospitals Leuven between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed.
Results and conclusion
Endoscopic septoplasty offers improved visualisation and the option of limited flap dissection, which are particularly helpful when dealing with isolated spurs, posterior deviations and revision septoplasty. It enhances teaching and improves surgical transition to endoscopic sinus surgery. Reported success and complication rates are comparable to those seen in traditional approaches. Endoscopic spur resection, as conducted at the University Hospitals Leuven, was shown to be a quick, safe and efficient technique when dealing with isolated septal spurs, especially when combined with endoscopic sinus surgery.
A tomographic method, aiming at probing velocity fields at depth in stellar atmospheres, is applied to the red supergiant star μ Cep and to snapshots of 3D radiative-hydrodynamics simulation in order to constrain atmospheric motions and relate them to photometric variability.
S-type stars are late-type giants enhanced with s-process elements originating either from nucleosynthesis during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) or from a pollution by a binary companion. The former are called intrinsic S stars, and the latter extrinsic S stars. The intrinsic S stars are on the AGB and have undergone third dredge-up events. The atmospheric parameters of S stars are more numerous than those of M-type giants (C/O ratio and s-process abundances affect the thermal structure and spectral synthesis), and hence they are more difficult to derive. These atmospheric parameters are also entangled within each other. Nevertheless, high-resolution spectroscopic data of S stars combined with the Gaia Data Release 2 (GDR2) parallaxes and with the MARCS model atmospheres for S-type stars were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and luminosities. These parameters not only allow to locate the intrinsic and extrinsic S stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram but also allow the accurate abundance analysis of the s-process elements.
We present very detailed images of the photosphere of an AGB star obtained with the PIONIER instrument, installed at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The images show a well defined stellar disc populated by a few convective patterns. Thanks to the high precision of the observations we are able to derive the contrast and granulation horizontal scale of the convective pattern for the first time in a direct way. Such quantities are then compared with scaling relations between granule size, effective temperature, and surface gravity that are predicted by simulations of stellar surface convection.
Barium (Ba) stars form via mass-transfer in binary systems, and can subsequently interact with their white dwarf companion in a second stage of binary interaction. We used observations of main-sequence Ba systems as input for our evolutionary models, and try to reproduce the orbits of the Ba giants. We show that to explain short and sometimes eccentric orbits, additional interaction mechanisms are needed along the RGB.
We report on our search for spectroscopic binaries among a sample of AGB stars. Observations were carried out in the framework of the monitoring of radial velocities of (candidate) binary stars performed at the Mercator 1.2m telescope, using the HERMES spectrograph. We found evidence for duplicity in UV Cam, TU Tau, BL Ori, VZ Per, T Dra, and V Hya.
We determine Zr and Nb elemental abundances in barium stars to probe the operation temperature of the s-process that occurred in the companion asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Along with Zr and Nb, we derive the abundances of a large number of heavy elements. They provide constraints on the s-process operation temperature and therefore on the s-process neutron source. The results are then compared with stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis models. We compare the nucleosynthetic profile of the present sample stars with those of CEMP-s, CEMP-rs and CEMP-r stars. One barium star of our sample is potentially identified as the highest-metallicity CEMP-rs star yet discovered.
This study represents the first exploration of the parasite fauna of cichlid fishes in the Mweru-Luapula subregion (Central Africa). Twelve species of cichlids and 14 species of Monogenea from three genera (Cichlidogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Scutogyrus) were collected. We present a first record of the gill parasite fauna of eight host species, Oreochromis mweruensis, Orthochromis sp. ‘Mambilima’, Sargochromis mellandi, Serranochromis angusticeps, S. stappersi, S. thumbergi and Tylochromis mylodon. The host range of ten parasite species was expanded. The study further includes the description of Cichlidogyrus consobrini sp. n. from S. mellandi and Orthochromis sp. ‘Mambilima’. A new morphotype of C. halli is characterized, and three species – C. papernastrema, C. quaestio and C. zambezensis – are redescribed. Furthermore, the biodiversity and host specificity of these parasites is compared with that of cichlid parasites from Lake Kariba and Cameroon. Two species, including C. consobrini sp. n. and a new morphotype of C. halli, are putative endemics. The parasite fauna in Bangweulu-Mweru is highly similar in species composition to Lake Kariba, but in Bangweulu-Mweru the same parasite species are more host-specific, probably because of hydrogeographical differences between the two regions.
The Gaia-ESO survey (GES; Gilmore et al. (2012), Randich et al. (2013)) is a spectroscopic survey complementing the Gaia mission to bring accurate radial velocities and chemical abundances for 105 stars. Merle et al. (submitted to A&A; see also this volume) developped a tool (DOE) to detect multiple peaks in the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of GES spectra. Using the GIRAFFE HR10 and HR21 settings, we were able to compare the efficiency of our SB detection tool depending on the wavelength range and resolution. We show that a careful design of CCF masks can improve the detection rate in the HR21 settings. HR21 spectra are similar to the ones produced by the RVS spectrograph of the Gaia mission, though the lower resolution of RVS spectra may result in a lower detection efficiency than the case of HR21. Analysis of RVS spectra in the context of spectroscopic binaries can take advantage of the lessons learnt from the GES to maximize the detection rate.
S stars are s-process and C-enriched (0.5<C/O<1) red giants. Their abundances can be determined thanks to a new grid of MARCS model atmospheres covering their whole parameter range. Detailed abundance determinations in intrinsic S stars (TP-AGB) and extrinsic S stars (binary masqueraders) can provide strong constraints on the s-process nucleosynthesis: in particular, the s-process temperature can be determined using zirconium and niobium abundances, independently of stellar evolution models. Synthetic spectra of dwarf S stars have been computed and will be sought for in spectroscopic survey data, constraining their luminosity thanks to Gaia parallaxes.
The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES, Gilmore et al. 2012) provides a unique opportunity to detect spectroscopically multiplicity among different populations of the Galaxy using the cross-correlation functions (CCFs). We present here the GES internal Data Release 4 (iDR4) results of the detection of double, triple and quadruple-line spectroscopic binary candidates (SBs) and discuss some peculiar systems.
Barium stars are formed via binary interaction with a former AGB companion. Observations are needed to constrain theoretical models and better understand their evolution and surface composition. We present the HR diagram of Ba and related stars, using the recently released TGAS parallaxes, and the mass distribution of the Ba giants that we derived from it.
S-type stars are late-type giants enhanced with s-process elements originating either from nucleosynthesis during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) or from a pollution by a binary companion. The former are called intrinsic S stars, and the latter extrinsic S stars. The atmospheric parameters of S stars are more numerous than those of M-type giants (C/O ratio and s-process abundances affect the thermal structure and spectral synthesis), and hence they are more difficult to derive. Nevertheless, high-resolution spectroscopic data of S stars combined with the TGAS (Tycho-Gaia Astrometric solution) parallaxes were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and luminosities. These parameters allow to locate the intrinsic and extrinsic S stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
A new in situ Scanning Electron Microscope-Focused Ion Beam-based method to study porous carbon electrodes involving Pt filling of pores from gaseous precursors has been demonstrated to show drastically improved image contrast between the carbon and porous phases when compared with the Si-resin vacuum-impregnation method. Whereas, the latter method offered up to 20% contrast, the new method offers remarkably higher contrast (42%), which enabled fast semi-automated demarcation of carbon boundaries and subsequent binarization of the images with very high fidelity. Tomographic reconstruction of the porous carbon electrode was then obtained from which several morphological parameters were quantified. The porosity was found to be 72±2%. The axial and radial tortuosites were 1.45±0.04 and 1.43±0.04, respectively. Pore size, which is defined to be the distance from the medial axis of the pore to the nearest solid boundary, was quantified. Average pore size determined from the pore size distribution was 90 nm and the corresponding 1 sigma ranges from 45 to 134 nm. Surface-to-volume ratio of the carbon phase was 46.5 µm−1. The ratio of total surface area to the total volume of electrode including pores (i.e., specific surface area) was 13 µm−1.
FO(·)IDP3 extends first-order logic with inductive definitions, partial functions, types and aggregates. Its model generator IDP3 first grounds the theory and then uses search to find the models. The grounder uses Lifted Unit Propagation (LUP) to reduce the size of the groundings of problem specifications in IDP3. LUP is in general very effective, but performs poorly on definitions of predicates whose two-valued interpretation can be computed from data in the input structure. To solve this problem, a preprocessing step is introduced that converts such definitions to Prolog code and uses XSB Prolog to compute their interpretation. The interpretation of these predicates is then added to the input structure, their definitions are removed from the theory and further processing is done by the standard IDP3 system. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method.
3-D simulations suggest that the atmospheres of red supergiants are subject to large-amplitude convective motions, which are suspected to generate supersonic motions and shocks. We perform tomography of supergiant-star atmospheres, on temporal series of high-resolution spectra and on 3-D hydrodynamical synthetic spectra. The tomographic technique is improved by the computation of the contribution function, which is used to construct numerical spectral masks probing different optical depths. This exploratory work allows us to put spatial and temporal constraints on velocity fields predicted by 3-D model atmospheres.
Binarity is often invoked to explain peculiarities that can not be explained by the standard theory of stellar evolution. Detecting orbital motion via the Doppler effect is the best method to test binarity when direct imaging is not possible. However, when the orbital period exceeds length of a typical observing run, monitoring often becomes problematic. Placing a high-throughput spectrograph on a small semi-robotic telescope allowed us to carry out a radial velocity survey of various types of peculiar evolved stars. In this review we highlight some findings after the first four years of observations. Thus, we detect eccentric binaries among hot subdwarfs, barium, S stars, and post-AGB stars with disks, which are not predicted by the standard binary interaction theory. In disk objects, in addition, we find signs of the on-going mass transfer to the companion, and an intriguing line splitting, which we attribute to the scattered light of the primary.
DV Cam is a triple system showing the diversity of the physics of photospheres of B-type stars at a common age: an SPB star in a wide orbit around a close binary consisting of an ultra-slowly rotating helium-weak star and a much faster rotating mid-B star.
The main purpose of Commission 14 is to foster interactions between the astronomical community and those conducting research to provide data vital to reducing and analysing astronomical observations and conducting theoretical investigations. One way that the Commission accomplishes this goal is through triennial compilations on recent relevant research in astronomy, atomic, molecular and solid state physics, and related fields of chemical analysis. The most recent compilations appear in the accompanying set of Commission 14 WG Triennial Reports, which were produced by members of the Working Groups and the Organizing Committee of Commission 14.