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How can the stunning diversity of social systems and behaviours seen in nature be explained? Drawing on social evolution theory, experimental evidence and studies conducted in the field, this book outlines the fundamental principles of social evolution underlying this phenomenal richness.To succeed in the competition for resources, organisms may either 'race' to be quicker than others, 'fight' for privileged access, or 'share' their efforts and gains. The authors show how the ecology and intrinsic attributes of organisms select for each of these strategies, and how a handful of straightforward concepts explain the evolution of successful decision rules in behavioural interactions, whether among members of the same or different species. With a broad focus ranging from microorganisms to humans, this is the first book to provide students and researchers with a comprehensive account of the evolution of sociality by natural selection.
Day fines were implemented into the Czech Republic criminal system in 2010. They shall reflect the gravity of the crime and personal and financial circumstances of the offender. For natural persons, the daily fine shall be based on an average daily income and for legal persons on their overall financial situation. Day fines are, together with the sanction of prohibition of an activity, one of the two most popular sanctions for legal persons and they are used for various crimes. On the contrary, natural persons are sanctioned with day fines in less than five per cent of cases and the fines are used mainly as a sanction for the crime of hazard due to intoxication (including some events of drunken driving), which represents more than half of the occasions when day fines were imposed. The courts’ practice is, however, somewhat detached from the theoretical underpinnings of the concept of day fines as it appears that judges in reality first set the overall amount of the fine they want to impose and then (without any clear system) divide it into the daily fine unit and the number of days. In most cases the total amount of the fine does not seem proportionate to the offender’s income.
This chapter discusses the consequences of industrialization and growth for the standard of living of the world’s population. The estimates concerning GDP growth, life expectancy, and educational attainment are discussed and an inequality-adjusted human development index is constructed and presented. At the onset of the process of modern economic growth in 1800 there were already large differences in well-being between the advanced economies in Europe and North America and the rest of the world, which further widened during the ninteenth century. This widening was the result of faster growth of the core economies; only rarely did countries show a substantial decline. The decrease of GDP per capita in China between 1700 and 1900 is a rare exception to this rule.
Historians of the early modern witch-hunt often begin histories of their field with the theories propounded by Margaret Murray and Montague Summers in the 1920s. They overlook the lasting impact of nineteenth-century scholarship, in particular the contributions by two American historians, Andrew Dickson White (1832–1918) and George Lincoln Burr (1857–1938). Study of their work and scholarly personae contributes to our understanding of the deeply embedded popular understanding of the witch-hunt as representing an irrational past in opposition to an enlightened present. Yet the men's relationship with each other, and with witchcraft sceptics – the heroes of their studies – also demonstrates how their writings were part of a larger war against 'unreason'. This Element thus lays bare the ways scholarly masculinity helped shape witchcraft historiography, a field of study often seen as dominated by feminist scholarship. Such meditation on past practice may foster reflection on contemporary models of history writing.
This paper discusses weather observations of Moravian missionaries in Greenland in the long 18th century, placing them in the broader context of their missionary work at Neu-Herrnhut and other stations as well as their comments on the natural world. Some of their climate-related remarks and measurements were published and discussed in print, notably in David Cranz’ History of Greenland and a number of scholarly reviews at the time. These publications are compared to and complemented by data retrieved by the authors from unpublished source material in the Moravian Archives in Herrnhut, Germany, demonstrating that the Moravian diaries can fill in significant gaps in Greenland’s weather charts before systematic measurements were introduced in the 19th century. Their special interest for climate studies is underscored in conclusion, in particular their observations of extreme climate events that can allow us to better characterise the amplitude and geographical extent of such events and to compare them with climate model simulations in order to better understand the respective roles of external (volcanism, solar activity) and internal (atmospheric circulation) forcings and the impacts of potential feedbacks within the ocean–atmosphere system.
The ability to analyze nanoparticles in the atom probe has often been limited by the complexity of the sample preparation. In this work, we present a method to lift–out single nanoparticles in the scanning electron microscope. First, nanoparticles are dispersed on a lacey carbon grid, then positioned on a sharp substrate tip and coated on all sides with a metallic matrix by physical vapor deposition. Compositional and structural insights are provided for spherical gold nanoparticles and a segregation of silver and copper in silver copper oxide nanorods is shown in 3D atom maps. Using the standard atom probe reconstruction algorithm, data quality is limited by typical standard reconstruction artifacts for heterogeneous specimens (trajectory aberrations) and the choice of suitable coatings for the particles. This approach can be applied to various unsupported free-standing nanoparticles, enables preselection of particles via correlative techniques, and reliably produces well-defined structured samples. The only prerequisite is that the nanoparticles must be large enough to be manipulated, which was done for sizes down to ~50 nm.
Do pandemics have lasting consequences for political behavior? The authors address this question by examining the consequences of the deadliest pandemic of the last millennium: the Black Death (1347–1351). They claim that pandemics can influence politics in the long run if the loss of life is high enough to increase the price of labor relative to other factors of production. When this occurs, labor-repressive regimes, such as serfdom, become untenable, which ultimately leads to the development of proto-democratic institutions and associated political cultures that shape modalities of political engagement for generations. The authors test their theory by tracing the consequences of the Black Death in German-speaking Central Europe. They find that areas hit hardest by that pandemic were more likely to adopt inclusive political institutions and equitable land ownership patterns, to exhibit electoral behavior indicating independence from landed elite influence during the transition to mass politics, and to have significantly lower vote shares for Hitler’s National Socialist Party in the Weimar Republic’s fateful 1930 and July 1932 elections.
This article calls attention to an unpublished account of the 1954 General Meeting of SNTS in Marburg, written by C. K. Barrett. The interesting part of Barrett's account is its picture of Rudolf Bultmann who, after the evening sessions, with a group of colleagues withdrew to a pavement café at the Marktplatz and sat there ‘at the head in undisputed preeminence’.
Disposednessis the formal title for the dimension of affectivity within the ontic concretions of Dasein (i.e., human existence). It is a constitutive moment in the dynamic of the disclosedness of Dasein (i.e., human existence). It is a constitutive moment in the dynamic of the disclosedness of being, and it exemplifies Heidegger’s unique approach in the Being and Time phase with regard to the simultaneity of an ontological and a quasi-anthropological understanding.
The ontic concerns concrete properties and characteristics of an entity, in contrast to the ontological which pertains to the specific way an entity of a certain kind has its characteristics. The early to mid Heidegger centrally distinguishes between the ontic (ontisch) and the ontological (ontologisch), as his foundational move is to keep entities (Seiendes) conceptually distinct from being (Sein).
No previous studies have been found focusing on the long-term development of beliefs about health, illness and healthcare in migrant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to explore this and the influence on health-related behaviour (i.e. self-care and care seeking) in migrant women from the Middle East living in Sweden seven years after delivery.
GDM is increasing, particularly in migrant women. The risk of adverse outcomes of GDM for health can be improved by interventions reducing blood glucose and lifestyle modifications which medicalise the woman’s pregnancy due to intensive follow-up and demanding self-care. The reactions might have an enduring impact on the women’s long-term psychological and physical health and adoption of preventive health behaviours.
Qualitative exploratory study. Semi-structured follow-up interviews 7 years after delivery with women previously interviewed in gestational weeks 34–38 and 3 and 14 months after delivery. Data analysed with qualitative content analysis.
Health meant freedom from illness, feeling well and living long to be able to care for the children. The present situation was described either positively, changing to a healthier lifestyle, or negatively, with worries about being affected by type 2 diabetes. Beliefs changed among the majority of women, leading to a healthier lifestyle, and they looked positively back at the time when diagnosed and their reactions to it. With few exceptions, they were confident of being aware of future health risks and felt responsible for their own and their children’s health/lifestyle. None except those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes had been in contact with healthcare since the last follow-up a year after delivery. Yet, they still would like and need a healthcare model delivering more information, particularly on developing a healthy lifestyle for children, and with regular check-ups also after the first year after delivery.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate SARS-CoV-2-exposed masks and respirators. We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The two arms of the study included: 1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment, and 2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination (5CD) to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on three N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and two medical mask (MM) models. We inoculated FFR and MM materials with three coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and treated with 10 µM MB and exposed to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5CD using multiple US and international test methods and compared to the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all three coronaviruses with 99.8 - to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and MMs tested. FFR and MM integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas one FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating three tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5CD. MBL decontamination is effective, low-cost and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in all-resource settings.
In the burgeoning realm of global governance, ethics has occupied an increasingly prominent place in recent years. One of the buzzwords of the last two decades or so has been ‘accountability’, a term which carries overtones of proper behaviour, control and responsibility. Persons in a position of leadership emphasize their concern for such things as full financial disclosure and transparency. The humanitarian intervention over Kosovo may have been illegal but was nonetheless, many have claimed, ethically justifiable. Codes of ethics have been devised both for the international bar and, somewhat lukewarm, for the international judiciary. The infamous ‘torture memos’ have thrown into perspective the need for legal advisors to behave ethically; writings have appeared on the ethical aspects of humanitarian missions, and several studies have been published focusing on the ethics of the international legal order as such, the ethics of international commercial arbitration, or the ethics of the international bar.
Black, Asian and minority ethnicity groups may experience better health outcomes when living in areas of high own-group ethnic density – the so-called ‘ethnic density’ hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis for the treatment outcome of compulsory admission.
Data from the 2010–2011 Mental Health Minimum Dataset (N = 1 053 617) was linked to the 2011 Census and 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation. Own-group ethnic density was calculated by dividing the number of residents per ethnic group for each lower layer super output area (LSOA) in the Census by the LSOA total population. Multilevel modelling estimated the effect of own-group ethnic density on the risk of compulsory admission by ethnic group (White British, White other, Black, Asian and mixed), accounting for patient characteristics (age and gender), area-level deprivation and population density.
Asian and White British patients experienced a reduced risk of compulsory admission when living in the areas of high own-group ethnic density [odds ratios (OR) 0.97, 95% credible interval (CI) 0.95–0.99 and 0.94, 95% CI 0.93–0.95, respectively], whereas White minority patients were at increased risk when living in neighbourhoods of higher own-group ethnic concentration (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11–1.26). Higher levels of own-group ethnic density were associated with an increased risk of compulsory admission for mixed-ethnicity patients, but only when deprivation and population density were excluded from the model. Neighbourhood-level concentration of own-group ethnicity for Black patients did not influence the risk of compulsory admission.
We found only minimal support for the ethnic density hypothesis for the treatment outcome of compulsory admission to under the Mental Health Act.
During the first wave of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 epidemic in the Netherlands, notifications consisted mostly of patients with relatively severe disease. To enable real-time monitoring of the incidence of mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – for which medical consultation might not be required – the Infectieradar web-based syndromic surveillance system was launched in mid-March 2020. Our aim was to quantify associations between Infectieradar participant characteristics and the incidence of self-reported COVID-19-like illness. Recruitment for this cohort study was via a web announcement. After registering, participants completed weekly questionnaires, reporting the occurrence of a set of symptoms. The incidence rate of COVID-19-like illness was estimated and multivariable Poisson regression used to estimate the relative risks associated with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors and pre-existing medical conditions. Between 17 March and 24 May 2020, 25 663 active participants were identified, who reported 7060 episodes of COVID-19-like illness over 131 404 person-weeks of follow-up. The incidence rate declined over the analysis period, consistent with the decline in notified cases. Male sex, age 65+ years and higher education were associated with a significantly lower COVID-19-like illness incidence rate (adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 0.80 (95% CI 0.76–0.84), 0.77 (0.70–0.85), 0.84 (0.80–0.88), respectively) and the baseline characteristics ever-smoker, asthma, allergies, diabetes, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease and children in the household were associated with a higher incidence (RRs of 1.11 (1.04–1.19) to 1.69 (1.50–1.90)). Web-based syndromic surveillance has proven useful for monitoring the temporal trends in, and risk factors associated with, the incidence of mild disease. Increased relative risks observed for several patient factors could reflect a combination of exposure risk, susceptibility to infection and propensity to report symptoms.
Lord Byron is one of the most striking nineteenth-century examples of an icon in the modern sense of the word. Far into the nineteenth century Byron and the main characters from his poems remained models for the rebellious ‘romantic’ hero: a modern version of Milton's fallen angel. Much has been written about Byron's work, life and reputation. This enduring interest makes ‘Byron’ ideally suited for a demonstration of research into the historical development of an iconic person as a cultural model. The chapter analyses the Dutch reception of Byron and shows its entanglement with the discussion about the ‘un-Dutch’ character of Romanticism. Paradoxically, there was also an appropriation of Byron, resulting in a Christian ‘light’ version of the ‘Byronic hero’.
Keywords: Lord Byron, icon as cultural model, mythologization, European and Dutch appropriation, modern Prometheus and Lucifer
On 22 April 1822, the Dutch poet Isaäc da Costa (1798-1860) wrote a letter to a friend in which he openly confessed his fascination with Lord Byron, whose Cain he had just read:
Yesterday I read Cain and I was truly filled with horror. The text is beautiful, it's terribly beautiful, resembling the poet's physiognomy and the way he portrayed Lucifer. Now I dare to say that I know this man and his soul. Today I bought his portrait, which I’m sending you for amusement, begging you to return it to me as soon as possible. You will notice the man of genius, the sensitive poet, the son of kings, the English Lord; but also, alas!, the melancholic doubter and libertine, spoilt by the spleen and philosophy of our days. His eyes, as beautiful as they may be, show the opposite of the divine resignation of the adorable saviour's face, and the beastly powerful back of the head and neck all show the seducer and the author of Don Juan. Powerful in his striving for evil; and yet weak: this is how he apparently looks; and whilst wrestling with sombre violence against his nature's limitations, he turns out to be a toy for the evil spirit, that turns his glorious talent into sin, thus proving the meaning of Providence: the greatest freedom consisting in the humblest subjugation to the Heavenly Father […] A resemblance with the Apollo is there, but it is well known that the Apollo when slightly changed gets an infernal expression;
Herbivore distribution throughout Africa is strongly linked to mean annual precipitation. We use that relationship to predict functional group composition of herbivore communities during the last glacial maximum (ca. 21 ka) on the now submerged Palaeo-Agulhas Plain (PAP), South Africa. We used metabolic large herbivore biomass (MLHB) from 39 South African protected areas, in five functional groups (characterized by behavior and physiology). We examined how modern factors influenced MLHB and considered the effects of biome, annual rainfall, percentage winter rainfall, and protected area size. Overall, biome was the most important factor influencing the relationship between MLHB and rainfall. In general, MLHB increased with rainfall, but not for the grassland biome. Outside grasslands, most functional groups’ metabolic biomass increased with increasing rainfall, irrespective of biome, except for medium-sized social mixed feeder species in savanna and thicket. Protected area size was influential for medium-sized social mixed feeders and large browsers and rainfall influenced medium-sized social mixed feeders, offering some perspectives on spatial constraints on past large herbivore biomass densities. These results improve our understanding of the likely herbivore community composition and relative biomass structure on the PAP, an essential driver of how early humans utilized large mammals as a food resource.