To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Measurement burst designs, in which assessments of a set of constructs are made at two or more times in quick succession (e.g., within days), can be used as a novel method to improve the stability of basic measures typically used in longitudinal peer research. In this Element, we hypothesized that the stabilities for adolescent-reported peer acceptance, anxiety, and self-concept would be stronger when using the measurement burst approach versus the single time observation. Participants included youth between 10 and 13 years old who completed (a) sociometric assessments of acceptance, and measures of (b) social and test anxiety, and (c) self-concept across three times with two assessments made at each burst. Findings broadly showed that the stabilities were significantly stronger with the measurement burst when compared to the single time assessment, supporting our main hypothesis. We discuss the utility of the measurement burst in a broader context and considerations for researchers.
Arumberia is an enigmatic sedimentary surface texture that consists of parallel, sub-parallel or radiating ridges and grooves, most commonly reported from upper Neoproterozoic – lower Palaeozoic strata. It has variably been interpreted as the impression of a small metazoan, a ‘vendobiont’, a physical sedimentary structure formed on a substrate with or without a microbial mat covering, or a non-actualistic microbial community. In this paper we contribute new insights into the origin of Arumberia, resulting from the discovery of the largest contiguous bedding plane occurrence of the texture reported to date: a 300 m2 surface in the lower Cambrian Port Lazo Formation of Brittany, NW France. We compare the characteristic features of Arumberia at this locality with 38 other global records, revealing four defining characteristics: (1) the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of exposed Arumberia lines (either positive relief ‘ridges’ or negative relief ‘grooves’) records fully preserved cords within clay laminae; (2) lines may transition laterally into reticulated patterns; (3) characteristic parallel and sub-parallel Arumberia lines can become modified by desiccation on emergent substrates prior to interment; and (4) Arumberia are streamlined with palaeoflow in successions showing evidence of unidirectional currents, but are organized parallel to ripple crests where strata were sculpted by oscillatory flows. These characteristics indicate that Arumberia records a 3D entity, distinct in material properties from its host sediment, which occurred in very shallow water settings where it was prone to passive reorganization in moving water, and desiccation when water drained. A literature survey of all known Arumberia occurrences reveals that the most reliable examples of the form are stratigraphically restricted to a 40 Ma interval straddling the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary (560–520 Ma). Together these characteristics suggest that Arumberia records the remains of extinct, sessile filamentous organisms (microbial or algal?) that occupied very shallow water and emergent environments across the globe at the dawn of the Phanerozoic Eon.
We consider a uniform ellipsoid of potential vorticity (PV), where we exploit analytical solutions derived for a balanced model at the second order in the Rossby number, the next order to quasi-geostrophic (QG) theory, the so-called QG+1 model. We consider this vortex in the presence of an external background shear flow, acting as a proxy for the effect of external vortices. For the QG model the system depends on four parameters, the height-to-width aspect ratio of the vortex, $h/r$, as well as three parameters characterising the background flow, the strain rate, $\gamma$, the ratio of the background rotation rate to the strain, $\beta$, and the angle from which the flow is applied, $\theta$. However, the QG+1 model also depends on the PV, as well as the Prandtl ratio, $f/N$ ($f$ and $N$ are the Coriolis and buoyancy frequencies, respectively). For QG and QG+1 we determine equilibria for different values of the background flow parameters for increasing values of the imposed strain rate up to the critical strain rate, $\gamma _c$, beyond which equilibria do not exist. We also compute the linear stability of this vortex to second-order modes, determining the marginal strain $\gamma _m$ at which ellipsoidal instability erupts. The results show that for QG+1 the most resilient cyclonic ellipsoids are slightly prolate, while anticyclonic ellipsoids tend to be more oblate. The highest values of $\gamma _m$ occur as $\beta \to 1$. For large values of $f/N$, changes in the marginal strain rates occur, stabilising anticyclonic ellipsoids while destabilising cyclonic ellipsoids.
We aimed to evaluate how coronavirus (COVID-19) restrictions had altered individual's drinking behaviours, including consumption, hangover experiences, and motivations to drink, and changing levels of depression and anxiety.
We conducted an online cross-sectional self-report survey. Whole group analysis compared pre- versus post-COVID restrictions. A correlation coefficient matrix evaluated the associations between all outcome scores. Self-report data was compared with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores from the 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Multiple linear modelling (MLM) was calculated to identify factors associated with increasing AUDIT scores and post-restriction AUDIT scores.
In total, 346 individuals completed the survey, of which 336 reported drinking and were therefore analysed. After COVID-19 restrictions 23.2% of respondents reported an increased AUDIT score, and 60.1% a decreased score. AUDIT score change was positively correlated with change in depression (P < 0.01, r = 0.15), anxiety (P < 0.01, r = 0.15) and drinking to cope scores (P < 0.0001, r = 0.35). MLM revealed that higher AUDIT scores were associated with age, mental illness, lack of a garden, self-employed or furloughed individuals, a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and smoking status.
COVID-19 restrictions decreased alcohol consumption for the majority of individuals in this study. However, a small proportion increased their consumption; this related to drinking to cope and increased depression and anxiety.
The harmonious free play of the imagination and understanding is at the heart of Kant’s account of beauty in the Critique of the Power of Judgement, but interpreters have long struggled to determine what Kant means when he claims the faculties are in a state of free play. In this article, I develop an interpretation of the free play of the faculties in terms of the freedom of attention. By appealing to the different way that we attend to objects in aesthetic experience, we can explain how the faculties are free, even when the subject already possesses a concept of the object and is bound to the determinate form of the object in perception.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
As practitioners of a historical science, paleontologists and geoscientists are well versed in the idea that the ability to understand and to anticipate the future relies upon our collective knowledge of the past. Despite this understanding, the fundamental role that the history of paleontology and the geosciences plays in shaping the structure and culture of our disciplines is seldom recognized and therefore not acted upon sufficiently. Here, we present a brief review of the history of paleontology and geology in Western countries, with a particular focus on North America since the 1800s. Western paleontology and geology are intertwined with systematic practices of exclusion, oppression, and erasure that arose from their direct participation in the extraction of geological and biological resources at the expense of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC). Our collective failure to acknowledge this history hinders our ability to address these issues meaningfully and systemically in present-day educational, academic, and professional settings. By discussing these issues and suggesting some ways forward, we intend to promote a deeper reflection upon our collective history and a broader conversation surrounding racism, colonialism, and exclusion within our scientific communities. Ultimately, it is necessary to listen to members of the communities most impacted by these issues to create actionable steps forward while holding ourselves accountable for the past.
We described the epidemiology of bat intrusions into a hospital and subsequent management of exposures during 2018–2020. Most intrusions occurred in older buildings during the summer and fall months. Hospitals need bat intrusion surveillance systems and protocols for bat handling, exposure management, and intrusion mitigation.
Adults with ADHD describe self-medicating with cannabis. A small number of psychiatrists in the US prescribe cannabis medication for ADHD, despite there being no evidence from trials. The EMA-C trial (Experimental Medicine in ADHD-Cannabinoids) was a pilot randomised placebo-controlled experimental study of a cannabinoid medication, Sativex Oromucosal Spray, in 30 adults with ADHD. The primary outcome was cognitive performance and activity level using the QbTest. Secondary outcomes included ADHD and emotional lability (EL) symptoms. From 17.07.14-18.06.15, 30 participants were randomly assigned to the active (n=15) or placebo (n=15) group. For the primary outcome, no significant difference was found in the intent-to-treat analysis although the overall pattern of scores was such that the active group usually had scores that were better than the placebo group (Est=-0.17,95%CI-0.40-0.07, p=0.16, n=15/11 active/placebo). For secondary outcomes Sativex was associated with a nominally significant improvement in hyperactivity/impulsivity (p=0.03) and a cognitive measure of inhibition (p=0.05), and a trend towards improvement for inattention (p=0.10) and EL (p=0.11). Per-protocol effects were higher. Results did not meet significance following adjustment for multiple testing. One serious (muscular seizures/spasms) and three mild adverse events occurred in the active group and one serious (cardiovascular problems) adverse event in the placebo group. Adults with ADHD may represent a subgroup of individuals who experience a reduction of symptoms and no cognitive impairments following cannabinoid use. While not definitive, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the self-medication theory of cannabis use in ADHD and the need for further studies of the endocannabinoid system in ADHD.
During this work-RC was a Ph.D. student funded by a grant to PA from Vifor Pharma. PA received funds (consultancy/sponsored talks/research/education) from Shire, Lilly, Novartis, Janssen, PCMScientific, Vifor Pharma, QBTech. Sativex was free from GW Pharm
The COVID-19 pandemic has enforced the restructuring of inpatient psychiatric services. In the UK, the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust has introduced a triage ward system to ensure all patients have a COVID test prior to admission to the general ward with the aim to reduce COVID transmission amongst psychiatric inpatients.
To characterise the flow of patients through a COVID-19 psychiatric triage ward and the protocol of assessment and management used.
Descriptive analysis of patients admitted to a COVID-19 triage ward since its creation.
The caseload of patients admitted to the COVID-19 triage ward since its inception will be presented. This will include the profile of patients admitted, their status (formal/informal) and their acceptance of COVID-19 tests. The protocol followed at this COVID-19 triage ward will be presented, and the challenges faced and suggestions to overcome them will be discussed.
This presentation aims to share the workflow and protocols adopted at a COVID-19 triage ward in the UK, discussing challenges experienced as well as good practices.
There are significant drug–drug interactions between human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral therapy and intranasal steroids, leading to high serum concentrations of iatrogenic steroids and subsequently Cushing's syndrome.
All articles in the literature on cases of intranasal steroid and antiretroviral therapy interactions were reviewed. Full-length manuscripts were analysed and the relevant data were extracted.
A literature search and further cross-referencing yielded a total of seven reports on drug–drug interactions of intranasal corticosteroids and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors, published between 1999 and 2019.
The use of potent steroids metabolised via CYP3A4, such as fluticasone and budesonide, are not recommended for patients taking ritonavir or cobicistat. Mometasone should be used cautiously with ritonavir because of pharmacokinetic similarities to fluticasone. There was a delayed onset of symptoms in many cases, most likely due to the relatively lower systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone.
This article examines the relationships between livestock vaccinations, herd introduction decisions, and livestock disease–related outcomes. We develop a theoretical model and derive testable hypotheses about the relationships between these outcomes and practices and test them using two-stage least squares regression analysis. We find that vaccinations reduce disease-related livestock deaths, implying that vaccine availability and use may improve herd and household welfare. We do not find robust evidence of increase in disease-related illness due to herd introductions. Our results highlight the role of livestock vaccinations in safeguarding herd value, which is connected to broader household welfare for livestock keepers of Eastern Africa.
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in serum biomarkers of acute brain injury, including white matter and astrocyte injury during chronic foetal hypoxaemia. We have previously shown histopathological changes in myelination and neuronal density in fetuses with chronic foetal hypoxaemia at a level consistent with CHD.
Mid-gestation foetal sheep (110 ± 3 days gestation) were cannulated and attached to a pumpless, low-resistance oxygenator circuit, and incubated in a sterile fluid environment mimicking the intrauterine environment. Fetuses were maintained with an oxygen delivery of 20–25 ml/kg/min (normoxemia) or 14–16 ml/kg/min (hypoxaemia). Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels in the two groups were assessed by ELISA at baseline and at 7, 14, and 21 days of support.
Based on overlapping 95% confidence intervals, there were no statistically significant differences in either Myelin Basic Protein or Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels between the normoxemic and hypoxemic groups, at any time point. No statistically significant correlations were observed between oxygen delivery and levels of Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein.
Chronic foetal hypoxaemia during mid-gestation is not associated with elevated serum levels of acute white matter (Myelin Basic Protein) or astrocyte injury (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein), in this model. In conjunction with our previously reported findings, our data support the hypothesis that the brain dysmaturity with impaired myelination found in fetuses with chronic hypoxaemia is caused by disruption of normal developmental pathways rather than by direct cellular injury.
To scale-out an experiential teaching kitchen in Parks and Recreation centres’ after-school programming in a large urban setting among predominantly low-income, minority children.
We evaluated the implementation of a skills-based, experiential teaching kitchen to gauge programme success. Effectiveness outcomes included pre–post measures of child-reported cooking self-efficacy, attitudes towards cooking, fruit and vegetable preference, intention to eat fruits and vegetables and willingness to try new fruits and vegetables. Process outcomes included attendance (i.e., intervention dose delivered), cost, fidelity and adaptations to the intervention.
After-school programming in Parks and Recreation Community centres in Nashville, TN.
Predominantly low-income minority children aged 6–14 years.
Of the twenty-five city community centres, twenty-one successfully implemented the programme, and nineteen of twenty-five implemented seven or more of the eight planned sessions. Among children with pre–post data (n 369), mean age was 8·8 (sd 1·9) years, and 53·7 % were female. All five effectiveness measures significantly improved (P < 0·001). Attendance at sessions ranged from 36·3 % of children not attending any sessions to 36·6 % of children attending at least four sessions. Across all centres, fidelity was 97·5 %. The average food cost per serving was $1·37.
This type of nutritional education and skills building experiential teaching kitchen can be successfully implemented in a community setting with high fidelity, effectiveness and organisational alignment, while also expanding reach to low-income, underserved children.
Camelid pastoralism, agriculture, sedentism, surplus production, increasing cultural complexity, and interregional interaction during northern Chile's Late Formative period (AD 100–400) are seen in the flow of goods and people over expanses of desert. Consolidating evidence of material culture from these interactions with a bioarchaeological dimension allows us to provide details about individual lives and patterns in the Late Formative more generally. Here, we integrate a variety of skeletal, chemical, and archaeological data to explore the life and death of a small child (Calate-3N.7). By taking a multiscalar approach, we present a narrative that considers not only the varied materiality that accompanies this child but also what the child's life experience was and how this reflects and shapes our understanding of the Late Formative period in northern Chile. This evidence hints at the profound mobility of their youth. The complex mortuary context reflects numerous interactions and long-distance relationships. Ultimately, the evidence speaks to deep social relations between two coastal groups, the Atacameños and Tarapaqueños. Considering this suite of data, we can see a child whose life was spent moving through desert routes and perhaps also glimpse the construction of intercultural identity in the Formative period.
King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula) is renowned for its terrestrial palaeoenvironmental record, which includes evidence for potentially up to four Cenozoic glacial periods. An advantage of the glacigenic outcrops on the island is that they are associated with volcanic formations that can be isotopically dated. As a result of a new mapping and chronological study, it can now be shown that the published stratigraphy and ages of many geological units on eastern King George Island require major revision. The Polonez Glaciation is dated as c. 26.64 ± 1.43 Ma (Late Oligocene (Chattian Stage)) and includes the outcrops previously considered as evidence for an Eocene glacial ('Krakow Glaciation'). It was succeeded by two important volcanic episodes (Boy Point and Cinder Spur formations) formed during a relatively brief interval (< 2 Ma), which also erupted within the Oligocene Chattian Stage. The Melville Glaciation is dated as c. 21–22 Ma (probably 21.8 Ma; Early Miocene (Aquitanian Stage)), and the Legru Glaciation is probably ≤ c. 10 Ma (Late Miocene or younger). As a result of this study, the Polonez and Melville glaciations can now be correlated with increased confidence with the Oi2b and Mi1a isotope zones, respectively, and thus represent major glacial episodes.
This chapter contextualizes Richard Wright's final completed novel, the still-unpublished "Island of Hallucination," amid another, less romantic side of Paris noir: one where lush dreams of post-racial expatriation are challenged, where Black transnationalism is inescapably molded by state surveillance, and where a capital of the cultural Cold War is erected on the foundation of a capital of Black modernity.
By responding to information gained through observing or interacting with other individuals, fish can learn about important aspects of their environment, including where to forage, how to recognize and avoid predators, and who to mate with. Social learning processes are often closely intertwined with the social environment; whether individuals engage in social learning, who they learn from, and what they learn frequently depend on complex, nonrandom patterns of social interaction. Social network analysis provides a sophisticated toolset for quantifying such elements of social structure. In this chapter, we discuss how integrating social network approaches with investigations into social learning have provided novel and important insights regarding the ways in which fish acquire and use social information in realistic social contexts.
We present a second-personal account of corporate moral agency. This approach is in contrast to the first-personal approach adopted in much of the existing literature, which concentrates on the corporation’s ability to identify moral reasons for itself. Our account treats relationships and communications as the fundamental building blocks of moral agency. The second-personal account rests on a framework developed by Darwall. Its central requirement is that corporations be capable of recognizing the authority relations that they have with other moral agents. We discuss the relevance of corporate affect, corporate communications, and corporate culture to the second-personal account. The second-personal account yields a new way to specify first-personal criteria for moral agency, and it generates fresh insights into the reasons those criteria matter. In addition, a second-personal analysis implies that moral agency is partly a matter of policy, and it provides a fresh perspective on corporate punishment.
About 800 foodborne disease outbreaks are reported in the United States annually. Few are associated with food recalls. We compared 226 outbreaks associated with food recalls with those not associated with recalls during 2006–2016. Recall-associated outbreaks had, on average, more illnesses per outbreak and higher proportions of hospitalisations and deaths than non-recall-associated outbreaks. The top confirmed aetiology for recall-associated outbreaks was Salmonella. Pasteurised and unpasteurised dairy products, beef and molluscs were the most frequently implicated foods. The most common pathogen−food pairs for outbreaks with recalls were Escherichia coli-beef and norovirus-molluscs; the top pairs for non-recall-associated outbreaks were scombrotoxin-fish and ciguatoxin-fish. For outbreaks with recalls, 48% of the recalls occurred after the outbreak, 27% during the outbreak, 3% before the outbreak, and 22% were inconclusive or had unknown recall timing. Fifty per cent of recall-associated outbreaks were multistate, compared with 2% of non-recall-associated outbreaks. The differences between recall-associated outbreaks and non-recall-associated outbreaks help define the types of outbreaks and food vehicles that are likely to have a recall. Improved outbreak vehicle identification and traceability of rarely recalled foods could lead to more recalls of these products, resulting in fewer illnesses and deaths.