To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In an empirical study on the classification of the psychoses, 302 patients were rated using the Longitudinal Psychopathology Schedule. The data were condensed by factor analysis, which yielded 10 factors - mania and schizomania, depression and suicidal activity, and 6 factors concerned with psychotic symptoms (verbal hallucinosis/passivity, delusion formation, defect symptoms, social decline, cycloid symptomatology and a factor loading depressive auditory hallucinations and visual hallucinations). Provisional diagnostic groups were obtained using DSM III. Discriminant function analyses showed that the only clearly distinct diagnostic group was bipolar disorder, and this was true for various definitions. Canonical variate analyses were performed using 3- and 4-criterion groups. These showed that a group corresponding approximately to cycloid psychosis also met criteria for being a distinct group. The most detailed examination pf the data, using 4-criterion groups and serial reclassification, suggested that the psychoses might fall into 5 groups - bipolar disorder, cycloid psychosis, depression, defect states and schizoaffective depression.
Synthesis and solubility studies of onoratoite have been undertaken to determine the role of this rare secondary phase in the immobilization of Sb and the conditions responsible for its formation in the supergene zone. Solubility studies were undertaken at 298.15 K. A value of ΔGfθ (Sb8O11Cl2, s, 298.15 K) = –2576 ±12 kJ mol–1 was derived. Calculations involving sénarmontite, Sb2O3, klebelsbergite, Sb4O4SO4(OH)2 and schafarzikite, FeSb2O4, show that onoratoite is a thermodynamically stable phase only at negligible activities of SO42–(aq) and low activities of Fe2+(aq), at low pH and very high activities of Cl–(aq). This explains why onoratoite is such a rare secondary phase and why it cannot exert any significant influence on the dispersion of Sb in the supergene environment.
Studies of the stability of the oxides schafarzikite, FeSb2O4, and tripuhyite, FeSbO4, have been undertaken to clarify the roles these secondary minerals may have in determining the dispersion of antimony in oxidizing environments. Solubilities were determined at 298.15 K in aqueous HNO3, and these data were used to calculate values of ΔGfϴ at the same temperature. The derived Δ Gfϴ (s, 298.15 K) values for FeSb2O4 and FeSbO4 are – 959.4±4.3 and – 836.8±2.2 kJ mol–1, respectively. These results have been compared with electrochemically derived data, extrapolated from 771–981 K. The present study shows conclusively that although the mobility of Sb above the water table is limited by simple Sb(III) and Sb(V) oxides and stibiconite-group minerals, depending upon the prevailing redox potential and pH, tripuhyite is an important ultimate sink for Sb in the supergene environment. It is highly insoluble even in strongly acidic conditions and its anomalous stability at ambient temperatures causes the common mineral goethite, FeOOH, to react to form tripuhyite at activities of Sb(OH)5(aq) as low as 10–11. The comparatively limited numbers of reported occurrences of tripuhyite in the supergene zone are almost certainly due to the fact that its physical properties, especially colour and habit, are remarkably similar to those of goethite. In contrast, the small number of reported occurrences of schafarzikite can be related to its decomposition to tripuhyite as redox potentials rise at the top of the supergene zone and the fact that it decomposes to sénarmontite, Sb2O3, in acidic conditions, releasing Fe2+ ions into solution. In general, the findings confirm the immobility of Sb in near-surface conditions. Geochemical settings favouring the formation of the above minerals have been assessed using the results of the present study and data from the literature.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
Synthesis and solubility studies of brizziite, NaSbO3, have been undertaken to determine the possible role of this rare secondary phase in the immobilization of Sb under supergene conditions and the conditions responsible for its formation in the supergene zone. Solubility studies were undertaken at T = 298.15 K. A value of ΔGfө) (NaSbO3, s, 298.15 K) = –806.66 ± 1.4 kJ mol–1 was derived. Calculations involving tripuhyite, FeSbO4, byströmite, MgSb2O6, ordoñezite, ZnSb2O6 and rosiaite, PbSb2O6, show that brizziite is a thermodynamically stable phase only at negligible activities of Pb2+(aq) at high pH and high salinity. Calculations involving mopungite Na[Sb(OH)6] combined with reported mineral associations suggest that mopungite is the thermodynamically unstable precursor to brizziite and its presence in natural settings must be due to kinetic stability. This explains why brizziite is such a rare secondary phase and therefore why it cannot exert any significant influence on the dispersion of Sb in the supergene environment.
In order to clarify the roles that secondary minerals may have in determining the extent of dispersion of Sb in the supergene environment, syntheses and stability studies of the Sb(V) oxides byströmite, MgSb2O6, ordoñezite, ZnSb2O6 and rosiaite, PbSb2O6, have been undertaken. Solubilities in aqueous HNO3 were determined at 298.2 K and the data obtained used to calculate values of Δ at the same temperature. The derived Δ(s, 298.2 K) values for MgSb2O6 (–1554.1 ±3.6 kJ mol–1), ZnSb2O6 (–1257.0 ±2.6 kJ mol–1) and PbSb2O6 (–1154.2 ±2.6 kJ mol–1) have been used in subsequent calculations to determine their relative stabilities and relationships with other secondary Sb minerals.
New closed-form analytical equations for volume fractions and surface-area-to-volume ratios for architected lattice cellular materials are derived. Prior approximate equations which erroneously over count overlapping volumes and the associated surface area are commonly used in the literature. These equations are found to have up to 184% error for volume fraction calculations for hollow lattices and 211% error for surface-area-to-volume ratio calculations, thus necessitating computational methods to arrive at accurate geometric properties for cellular lattice materials. This work derives new equations which are accurate to better than 1% for both volume fraction and surface-area-to-volume ratio as compared to the computational models. These new equations for cellular lattice materials are applicable to both pyramidal and tetrahedral unit cells as well as to both hollow and solid lattice members. By eliminating the need for numerical models to compute accurate volume fractions and surface-area-to-volume ratios of architected cellular materials, these new analytical equations will enable accurate yet computationally efficient optimization of the physical properties of architected cellular materials.
There are growing calls to reduce, and where possible eliminate, the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings, but the attitudes and beliefs of consumers, carers and mental health professionals towards these practices are not well understood. The aim of this study was to compare the attitudes of mental health service consumers, carers and mental health professionals towards seclusion and restraint in mental health settings. In particular, it aimed to explore beliefs regarding whether elimination of seclusion and restraint was desirable and possible.
In 2014, an online survey was developed and widely advertised in Australia via the National Mental Health Commission and through mental health networks. The survey adopted a mixed-methods design, including both quantitative and qualitative questions concerning participants’ demographic details, the use of seclusion and restraint in practice and their views on strategies for reducing and eliminating these practices.
In total 1150 survey responses were analysed. A large majority of participants believed that seclusion and restraint practices were likely to cause harm, breach human rights, compromise trust and potentially cause or trigger past trauma. Consumers were more likely than professionals to view these practices as harmful. The vast majority of participants believed that it was both desirable and feasible to eliminate mechanical restraint. Many participants, particularly professionals, believed that seclusion and some forms of restraint were likely to produce some benefits, including increasing consumer safety, increasing the safety of staff and others and setting behavioural boundaries.
There was strong agreement across participant groups that the use of seclusion and restraint is harmful, breaches human rights and compromises the therapeutic relationship and trust between mental health service providers and those who experience these restrictive practices. However, some benefits were also identified, particularly by professionals. Participants had mixed views regarding the feasibility and desirability of eliminating these practices.
This paper describes a study which has been concerned with numerical predictions of the airwakes resulting from two simplified ship geometries: the internationally agreed Simple Frigate Shape, SFS1, and its successor, SFS2. Extensive steady-state simulations have been carried out for a wide range of wind conditions using Fluent, a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. The CFD predictions have been partially validated against wind tunnel data produced by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and have shown good agreement. The resulting airwake velocity components have been exported from Fluent, interpolated onto suitable grids and attached to the FLIGHTLAB flight-simulation environment as look-up tables; piloted flight trials were then carried out using the Liverpool full-motion simulator. The pilot workload and helicopter control margins resulting from a range of wind-over-deck conditions have been used to develop the Ship-Helicopter Operating Limits (SHOL) for a Lynx-like helicopter and the SFS2. The workload was compared to the pilot’s experiences on a similar aircraft and a Type 23 Frigate and the simulated SHOL compared with SHOLs derived from sea trials. The results are very encouraging and open up further the long awaited prospect of such simulations being used in the future to reduce at-sea trials, and to provide a safe environment for pilot training.
The interpretations of the Wallace site offered by Huffman and Earley are invalid. The site is not Upper Republican in affiliation, the structural remains in it do not support the interpretations made, and the proposed correspondences to Pawnee cosmology are based on unjustified assumptions.
Edge effects have been studied extensively in fragmented landscapes, often with conflicting findings. Edge effects may also be important in other situations, such as linear clearings (e.g. along roads, power lines or train tracks). We tested for responses of small mammals to a narrow (c. 10 m) linear clearing created by a railway in the largest area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Only two environmental variables, light intensity and train noise, were greatest at the edge and decreased with distance from the edge. Temperature differed (greater extremes and more variable) only at the edge itself. The few small mammal species that were only rarely captured at the edge resulted in an apparent edge-effect with respect to species richness. The abundance of small mammals, however, was independent of distance from the railway. There was no correlation between resource availability at the tracks and abundance of small mammals. Edge effects were minimal, which suggests that narrow railways (in contrast with roads) in unfragmented landscapes probably do not have a significant impact (if any) on wildlife, as found elsewhere and especially in tropical forests. The use of railways instead of roads is a potential strategy to minimize the effects of traversing important habitats for commercial reasons.
To report a case series of elective removal of bone-anchored hearing aid implants, and reasons for removal.
Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database.
Two tertiary referral centres in the Manchester area: Manchester Royal Infirmary and Salford Royal University Hospital.
A series of 499 adults and children who had undergone a total of 602 implant insertions (1984–2008).
Main outcome measures:
Implant removal rates, and reasons.
Twenty-seven of the 602 implants (4.5 per cent) required removal. Of these, 12 were due to pain (2.0 per cent), seven to persistent infection (1.2 per cent), three to failure of osseointegration (0.5 per cent), three to trauma (0.5 per cent) and two to other reasons (0.4 per cent).
Chronic implant site pain represents the main reason why implants are removed electively, and affects 2 per cent of all implants. This complication has important medico-legal implications and should be discussed when obtaining informed consent for implantation.
Bone-anchored hearing aid implantations have been performed in Manchester for over 20 years. This study examined a range of variables that can occur during the implantation process, and the effect they may have on successful outcome.
Retrospective study and literature review.
Tertiary referral centre in central Manchester.
Details of 602 bone-anchored hearing aid implantation procedures were retrieved from the departmental database. The overall complication rate was 23.9 per cent. The rate of revision surgery was 12.1 per cent.
This study involved a significantly larger number of patients than any previously reported, similar study. Possible reasons for differences in outcomes, and recommendations for best practice, are discussed.
Previous studies had shown that haploid strains of Aspergillus nidulans which have a chromosome segment in duplicate are unstable at mitosis. Through the study of various haploid and diploid strains, with and without translocations and with balanced and unbalanced genomes, it has been shown: (1) that imbalance of chromosome segments is responsible for instability, and (2) that the chromosomal deletions produced are confined solely or largely to the segments which provoke instability.
The term ‘mitotic non-conformity’ has been proposed for this instability phenomenon. An explanation for it has been sought in terms of attachment sites, limited in number and specific for chromosome segments, at which replication is initiated.
Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with a chromosome segment additional to the normal complement are vegetatively unstable. Previous work suggested that the deletions occurring at mitosis were confined to the unbalanced segments. It has been shown now that deletions, while probably always involving a duplicate segment, may extend beyond it to produce hypohaploids and hypodiploids, respectively, from unbalanced haploid and unbalanced diploid parents.
Hypoploids have been proposed tentatively as an explanation for some cases of phenotypic variegation; on this basis it is possible to account for some of the diverse phenomena shown by, for example, position-effect variegation.
A number of acridines have been tested for ability to inhibit conidia of strains of Aspergillus nidulans. The effectiveness of any one acridine in growth inhibition and killing involves interaction of genotype and conditions of treatment such as temperature, pH, treatment medium and light intensity. Mutant alleles which confer growth resistance to acriflavine are selective in their actions towards other acridines, may differ in their dominance relationships with different acridines and are even selective with regard to the conditions under which they confer acriflavine resistance. Certain pairs of acridines, used simultaneously, show additive effects, potentiation, or annulment by one of inhibition caused by the other.
Some of these findings have been applied in a study of factors affecting acridine-induced mutation in Aspergillus conidia. Under conditions which permit metabolism, acriflavine induces a high frequency of unstable morphological variants. One such variant has been shown to be a disomic. Using a system of reversion from auxotrophy to prototrophy, acriflavine-induced mutation has been obtained both with high light intensities and in the absence of light. In the latter case recombination as a feature of the mutation process is excluded.