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In drafting the first Australian class actions regime under Part IVA of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 (Cth) (FCAA), the Commonwealth legislature had the difficult task of creating a procedure that was appropriate for the Australian jurisdiction, including being in keeping with its litigation culture, while also learning from the procedures already employed in the United States and Canada. After twenty-seven years of federal class actions, it can be said that Australia has fashioned in Part IVA an effective and efficient framework for resolving mass litigation, accompanied by a robust body of jurisprudence. Equally, class action practice in Australia has evolved in ways that would have been beyond the reasonable comprehension of those who initially drafted Part IVA, third-party litigation funding being a key development. This chapter tells the story of Part IVA’s creation and maturation, providing an overview of the jurisprudence that has characterised its evolution, as well as an account of contentious issues at the forefront of modern class action practice.
Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
In our rejoinder to the excellent commentaries provided by Macfie, Noose, and Gorrondona (This Volume) and Davies and Thompson (This Volume), we discuss three key directions for research and clinical work that emerge from our chapter on environmental and sociocultural influences on personality disorders. First, it is critical to recognize the importance of early caregiving environments and family processes in the etiology of personality pathology. Second, identifying transactional models that integrate biological, psychological and sociocultural influences may move the field towards a more holistic and multifaceted understanding of the underpinnings of personality pathology. Third and finally, expanding the use of dimensional models of personality pathology may contextualize these transactional relationships and facilitate more rapid advances in our understanding and conceptualizations of (mal)adaptive expressions of personality traits. Dimensional models may further facilitate consideration of socioeconomic, cultural and geopolitical influences in evaluating and defining the maladaptiveness of specific traits and behaviors. Increasing our focus on contextual, environmental, and sociocultural influences in research design, assessment, and case conceptualization will improve personality research and clinical care.
In addition to identifying important biological and psychosocial correlates of personality disorders, recent research has illuminated environmental and sociocultural factors that influence the development, expression, and maintenance of personality disorders. In particular, cross-national and cross-cultural comparisons indicate that the expression, meaning, and impact of specific personality traits and behaviors differ across gender roles, historical periods, and cultural and socioeconomic groups. Moreover, whereas interpersonal and attachment theories have historically underscored the importance of parent-child relationships, emotional attunement, and early childhood adversity in the formation and continuation of personality pathology, recent behavioral genetic studies suggest that unique, non-shared environmental influences account for as much or more variance in personality disorders as shared influences among family members. Additional sources of sociocultural and environmental influence on personality disorders include peer and romantic relationships. Increasingly, integrative theories highlight the importance of considering interactions and transactions across biological, psychological, and sociocultural systems in understanding the etiology of personality disorders. These theoretical and empirical advances have important implications for personality disorder research and clinical practice, and point to the potential utility of considering cross-cultural diagnostic validity when evaluating dimensional or categorical diagnostic models.
Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance.
To determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP).
In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP.
Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10−13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10−4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10−3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP.
People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
We agree with Lake and colleagues on their list of “key ingredients” for building human-like intelligence, including the idea that model-based reasoning is essential. However, we favor an approach that centers on one additional ingredient: autonomy. In particular, we aim toward agents that can both build and exploit their own internal models, with minimal human hand engineering. We believe an approach centered on autonomous learning has the greatest chance of success as we scale toward real-world complexity, tackling domains for which ready-made formal models are not available. Here, we survey several important examples of the progress that has been made toward building autonomous agents with human-like abilities, and highlight some outstanding challenges.
Recent observations of the radio-frequency flux spectrum of Jupiter in the frequency range 80-10 000 MHz suggest that the synchrotron component is not independent of frequency as has been generally accepted. Rather, the flux decreases at frequencies below 300 MHz and above 3000 MHz. In this paper we show that extensions and variations of the well-known dipolar model for this emission can account for the modified spectrum.
This paper is a preliminary account of the calculation of the circularly polarized synchrotron radiation received from a distribution of electricallycharged particles confined to a thin shell in the magnetic field of a dipole. Calculations of the total radiation and the degree of linear polarization have previously been carried out, and these calculations are duplicated in part.
Phase coherent interferometers with intercontinental baselines became possible because of the development of stable frequency standards. With sufficiently stable frequency standards, no connection is necessary between the two ends of an interferometer. The first VLBI experiments were conducted by a group at the University of Florida who used an intensity interferometer with independent tape recorders for observations of Jupiter. Later, they changed to a coherent system using crystal-controlled oscillators. Since then, several interferometer systems have been developed. A Canadian group developed a system using video tape recorders at each end of the interferometer. They recorded the data in analogue form and managed to bring the two tapes together and to synchronize them to an accuracy of better than a microsecond. After synchronization, the outputs were combined and fringes extracted. Their system has a bandwidth of about 4 MHz. No-one else has attempted a wide-band analogue system.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism contributes to the development of depression (major depressive disorder, MDD), but it is unclear whether neural effects observed in healthy individuals are sustained in MDD.
To investigate BDNF Val66Met effects on key regions in MDD neurocircuitry: amygdala, anterior cingulate, middle frontal and orbitofrontal regions.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 79 persons with MDD (mean age 49 years) and 74 healthy volunteers (mean age 50 years). Effects on surface area and cortical thickness were examined with multiple comparison correction.
People who were Met allele carriers showed reduced caudal middle frontal thickness in both study groups. Significant interaction effects were found in the anterior cingulate and rostral middle frontal regions, in which participants in the MDD group who were Met carriers showed the greatest reduction in surface area.
Modulatory effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on distinct subregions in the prefrontal cortex in MDD support the neurotrophin model of depression.
A number of copy number variants (CNVs) have been suggested as
susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. For some of these the data
remain equivocal, and the frequency in individuals with schizophrenia is
To determine the contribution of CNVs at 15 schizophrenia-associated loci
(a) using a large new data-set of patients with schizophrenia
(n = 6882) and controls (n = 6316),
and (b) combining our results with those from previous studies.
We used Illumina microarrays to analyse our data. Analyses were
restricted to 520 766 probes common to all arrays used in the different
We found higher rates in participants with schizophrenia than in controls
for 13 of the 15 previously implicated CNVs. Six were nominally
significantly associated (P<0.05) in this new
data-set: deletions at 1q21.1, NRXN1, 15q11.2 and
22q11.2 and duplications at 16p11.2 and the Angelman/Prader–Willi
Syndrome (AS/PWS) region. All eight AS/PWS duplications in patients were
of maternal origin. When combined with published data, 11 of the 15 loci
showed highly significant evidence for association with schizophrenia
We strengthen the support for the majority of the previously implicated
CNVs in schizophrenia. About 2.5% of patients with schizophrenia and 0.9%
of controls carry a large, detectable CNV at one of these loci. Routine
CNV screening may be clinically appropriate given the high rate of known
deleterious mutations in the disorder and the comorbidity associated with
these heritable mutations.
Parasitism rates of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and searching and oviposition behaviours of its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus Mercet were compared on two cassava varieties: a glabrous variety, Nase 4 and a hirsute variety, MM97/0245 with c. 88 leaf hairs/cm2. Parasitism was assessed after potted plants of both varieties were exposed in open fields to natural infestation by B. tabaci and its natural enemy. For the behavioural studies, naive, less than 24-h-old females were individually observed on infested cassava leaflets under a microscope for a maximum of 1 h each. The different foraging behaviours were recorded using the computer software ‘The Observer 5.0’ (Noldus Ltd, Wageningen, The Netherlands). Total per cent parasitism and parasitism by E. mundus did not differ significantly between varieties. Upon encounter with leaf hairs, the parasitoids stopped and groomed before resuming the host search. The frequency of repeat probing, host feeding and antennation after probing and host feeding were higher on the glabrous than on the hirsute variety, while the converse was observed when feeding on liquids on the leaf. The duration of host assessment, initial probing, grooming and resting on the leaf was higher on the glabrous than on the hirsute variety. Leaf hairiness at the density investigated caused some changes in the behaviour of the parasitoids, but did not have an overall effect on field parasitism. Since cassava is generally considered to have glabrous leaves and the variety MM97/0245 is one of the most hirsute varieties, we discount leaf hairiness as a factor in determining levels of parasitoid activity.
Turbulent Boussinesq convection under the influence of rapid rotation (i.e. with comparable characteristic rotation and convection timescales) is studied. The transition to turbulence proceeds through a relatively simple bifurcation sequence, starting with unstable convection rolls at moderate Rayleigh (Ra) and Taylor numbers (Ta) and culminating in a state dominated by coherent plume structures at high Ra and Ta. Like non-rotating turbulent convection, the rapidly rotating state exhibits a simple power-law dependence on Ra for all statistical properties of the flow. When the fluid layer is bounded by no-slip surfaces, the convective heat transport (Nu − 1, where Nu is the Nusselt number) exhibits scaling with Ra2/7 similar to non-rotating laboratory experiments. When the boundaries are stress free, the heat transport obeys ‘classical’ scaling (Ra1/3) for a limited range in Ra, then appears to undergo a transition to a different law at Ra ≈ 4 × 107. Important dynamical differences between rotating and non-rotating convection are observed: aside from the (expected) differences in the boundary layers due to Ekman pumping effects, angular momentum conservation forces all plume structures created at flow-convergent sites of the heated and cooled boundaries to spin-up cyclonically; the resulting plume/cyclones undergo strong vortex-vortex interactions which dramatically alter the mean state of the flow and result in a finite background temperature gradient as Ra → ∞, holding Ra/Ta fixed.
Silicon 〈111〉 single crystals were implanted with 70 keV Ar ions to the dose of 1017 ions/cm2. Next, the friction coefficient between a Si crystal and a hard steel ball was measured using a pin-on-disk setup in air and in vacuum. The wear tracks were measured using a surface profilometer. For measurements performed in vacuum, a strong influence of implantation on friction force and wear tracks was found. The microstructure of the samples was subsequently investigated using RBS, ERD, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Micro-RBS measurements showed that Ar had been removed from the wear tracks, despite their continued exhibition of low friction.
The impact of Sahelian grasshopper species on short cycle pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was studied at two sites in north-west Mali and techniques of crop loss assessment were investigated. At one of these sites an onfarm study was carried out with the co-operation of seven village farmers. The grasshoppers Diabolocatantops axillaris (Thunberg) and Kraussaria angulifera (Krauss) were the principal destructive species, primarily causing grain loss through their feeding upon millet heads. Leaf damage was found to be sustainable to a high level before influencing yield, although direct grain loss through head damage was shown to be an important determinant of final yield. It was concluded that the best means of determining the yield loss attributable to grasshopper attack for late-season patterns of damage was to estimate head damage immediately prior to harvest. In this estimate, heads were assigned to one of ten classes according to the severity of the damage. Studies at a second site demonstrated the existence of a linear relationship between estimates of head damage and actual grain weight loss. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that the average loss of yield incurred as a result of grasshopper attack in the study village, Mamaribougou Freybe, was 25.7% + 3.0, −2.5. A system is proposed by which such village-level crop loss estimates may be undertaken.