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Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
The introduction of the first atypical antipsychotic with a long acting formulation has open new therapeutic options for the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Our objective consists of comparing psychopathology levels and global functioning in patients with paranoid schizophrenia treated in monotherapy either with long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) or conventional depot antipsychotics (DA).
Patients attending at the community mental health center during the six-month recruitment period were eligible to enter the study. Scores achieved in positive and negative subscales of PANNS and EEAG scale of (Global Activity Evaluating Scale) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months later. Six patients treated with RLAI and six patients treated with DA were recruited. Data were analyzed both with the real sample (N=6 per group) and extrapoling the same results to a bigger sample size (N=24 per group).
Mean increase in scores for both PANNS positive and negative subscales were lower in patients treated with RLAI that in those treated with DA (positive subscale: 0.018±0.06 vs. 0.048±0.03, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.387; negative subscale: 0.232±0.076 vs. 0.3095±0.123, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.579). EEAG scores were higher for patients treated with RLAI than those treated with DA (1.250±0.56 vs. 0.333±0.225, p=0.144). When these results are extrapolated to a sample of 24 patients per group, differences in EEAG reach statistical significance (p=0.034).
After 6 months of treatment, patients treated with RLAI tend to show a greater improvement in their global activity than those treated with DA.
Reduced Glutathion Peroxidase (GSH) is a common biologic marker of antioxidant status frequently used in schizophrenic research. Data regarding GSH levels in schizophrenic patients are controversial. Our objective is to study whether or not GSH levels have seasonal or circadian fluctuations in schizophrenic outpatients.
23 clinically stable treated chronic schizophrenic outpatients were studied in summer and winter. The same day in July and January, blood samples were extracted between 8:30 and 9:00 after one night fasting. The same routine was followed during the two experimental sessions.
GSH plasma levels were not significant different between summer and winter. There was no significant difference between nocturnal and diurnal GSH levels in neither winter nor summer.
Plasma GSH does not present seasonal levels either a circadian rhythm.
Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a common biologic marker of oxidative stress used in psychiatric research. Data regarding MDA levels in healthy subjects are controversial. One factor affecting MDA levels may stem from the existence of a circadian rhythm of MDA formation. The objective of this study consists of investigating whether MDA formation has a circadian rhythm of formation in healthy human subjects.
The sample was comprised by 9 healthy male subjects. None of them had a history of medical or neurological disease and routine laboratory parameters were normal. The study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and all subjects gave written informed consent before their inclusion. Blood samples were extracted at 12:00 and 2:00 in December 2004. The same routine was followed during the two experimental sessions. Serum MDA was determined by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) according to the method of Ohkaba et al (1979).
The sample was comprised by 9 male healthy subjects (age 33.0±11.7). There were significant differences in MDA levels between 12:00 and 2:00 (2.33±1.01 vs. 1.58±0.48, p<0.015).
MDA has a circadian rhythm of formation with higher levels at 12:00 than 2:00. This variation in circadian MDA levels of formation should be accounted when researching in this field.
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