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Negative symptoms has been classically associated with cognition, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. But negative symptoms are not a unitary construct, encompassing two different factors: diminished expression, and motivation and pleasure. Few works have studied the relationship between these two different negative symptoms factors and cognition (neuro and social cognition), psychosocial functioning and quality of life, jointly, in patients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia.
The objective of the present work was to study, in a sample of patients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia, the relationship between the negative symptoms (diminished expression and motivation and pleasure) and neurocognition, social cognition, functioning and quality of life.
The study was carried out with 82 outpatients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia from two Spanish hospitals (“12 de Octubre” University Hospital, Madrid and “Virgen de la Luz” Hospital, Cuenca). The patients were assessed with the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) for evaluating diminished expression (EXP) and motivation and pleasure (MAP) symptoms, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) for evaluating neurocognition and social cognition, the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS).
A negative correlation was found between neurocognition and the two negative symptoms subscales: CAINS-EXP (r=-0.458, p<0.001) and CAINS-MAP (r=-0.374, p<0.001); but with social cognition only CAINS-EXP was correlated (r=-0.236, p=0.033). Also, it was found a high negative correlation between SOFAS scores and CAINS-MAP (r=-0.717, p<0.001); and a medium negative correlation with CAINS-EXP (r=-0.394, p<0.001). Finally, QLS score was high correlated with both CAINS subscales: CAINS-EXP (r=-0.681, p<0.001) and CAINS-MAP (r=-0.770, p<0.001).
This study found a relationship between negative symptoms and neurocognition, social cognition, functioning and quality of life in a sample of patients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia. But the two different negative symptom factors, diminished expression, and motivation and pleasure, are associated differently with psychosocial functioning, but especially with social cognition where the relationship was only found with diminished expression symptoms.
Background: Pituitary adenomas are common and often require complex multidisciplinary care with multiple specialists. This may result in a health care system that is challenging for patients to navigate. Audits of care at our institution revealed opportunities for improvement to better align care with patients’ needs. Methods: A quality improvement initiative that incorporated a patient advisory committee of patients who had received treatment for pituitary adenoma at our center and their family members was used to help identify opportunities for improvement. The patient-identified gaps in care included the need to coordinate and minimize appointments and the desire for better communication and education. Based on this information, changes were implemented to the pituitary program, including increasing access to the multidisciplinary clinic and developing a standardized and centralized triage process. Results: A pre and post-intervention analysis consisting of retrospective chart reviews revealed that these changes had an impact on wait times for first assessment, and a significant shift in location of this first visit – with a larger proportion of patients being seen in the multidisciplinary clinic after intervention. Conclusions: We demonstrate that patient involvement, beyond individual patient-physician interactions, can lead to meaningful and observable changes, and can improve the quality of care for pituitary adenoma.
When performing septoplasty or septorhinoplasty, we have observed that patients blink on injection of local anaesthetic (lidocaine 1 per cent with adrenaline 1:80 000) into the nasal mucosa of the anterior septum or vestibular skin, despite appropriate general anaesthesia. This study sought to quantify this phenomenon by conducting a prospective audit of all patients undergoing septoplasty or septorhinoplasty.
Patients were observed for a blink reflex at the time of local anaesthetic infiltration into the nasal vestibule. Also measured at this point were propofol target-controlled infusion levels, remifentanil rate, bispectral index, blood pressure, heart rate, pupil size and position, and patient movement.
There were 15 blink reflexes in the 30 patients observed. The average bispectral index value was 32.75 (range, 22–50) in the blink group and 26.77 (range, 18–49) in the non-blink group. No patients moved on local anaesthetic injection.
The blink reflex appears to occur in 50 per cent of patients, despite a deep level of anaesthesia. Without an understanding and appreciation of the blink reflex, this event may result in a request to deepen anaesthesia, but this is not necessary and surgery can proceed safely.
We must begin with names. ‘Tony Edwards’ is the person to whom this volume is dedicated, but it is not a name that everyone will immediately recognize, particularly those who know him only from his published work, for he has made himself known in public, from the first, as A. S. G. Edwards. When he began his career, this was the manner in which most scholars, most men at least, named themselves. Fashions have changed, and given names, one, two, or more, are now almost universal. But Tony has held on tenaciously to his initials, perhaps because he has three of them. We do not believe that he did so in any spirit of emulation of or desire to align himself with ‘Edwards A. S. G.’, the Edwards Active Strain Gauge well known to Google, an advanced form of technical engineering equipment which guarantees the vacuum conditions needed for the manufacture of certain precision instruments, such as aircraft engine turbine blades. It seems strangely apt as an analogous form of ‘A. S. G.’, whether one thinks of the ‘active strain’ involved as what he exerts upon himself or upon other people. The analogy fails, of course, when one comes to the creation of vacuum, where it works back to front, for Tony's work has essentially been to fill the vacuum that once existed in the study of manuscript history.
Late medieval manuscripts and early modern print history form the focus of this volume. It includes new work on the compilation of some important medieval manuscript miscellanies and major studies of merchant patronage and of a newly revealed woman patron, alongside explorations of medieval texts and the post-medieval reception history of Langland, Chaucer and Nicholas Love. It thus pays a fitting tribute to the career of Professor A.S.G. Edwards, highlighting his scholarly interests and demonstrating the influence of his achievements. Carol M. Meale is Senior Research Fellow at the University of Bristol; Derek Pearsall is Professor Emeritus at Harvard University and Honorary Research Professor at the University of York. Contributors: Nicolas Barker, J.A. Burrow, A.I. Doyle, Martha W. Driver, Susanna Fein, Jane Griffiths, Lotte Hellinga, Alfred Hiatt, Simon Horobin, Richard Linenthal,Carol M. Meale, Orietta Da Rold, John Scattergood, Kathleen L. Scott, Toshiyuki Takamiya., John J. Thompson.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.