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Aimed at those new to studying Spinoza, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to his thought, placing it in its historical and philosophical contexts, and assessing its critical reception. In addition to providing an analysis of Spinoza's metaphysical, epistemological, psychological, and ethical views in the Ethics, Henry Allison also explores his political theory and revolutionary views on the Bible, as well as his account of Judaism, which led to the excommunication of the young Spinoza from the Jewish community in Amsterdam. Although the book's main focus is on the analysis of Spinoza's views, including a close reading of the central arguments of the Ethics, it also considers many of the standard objections to these arguments as well as possible responses to them. This completely revised and updated new edition of Allison's classic book, with two new chapters, will help a new generation of students to understand and value Spinoza's work.
Data assimilation is a hugely important mathematical technique, relevant in fields as diverse as geophysics, data science, and neuroscience. This modern book provides an authoritative treatment of the field as it relates to several scientific disciplines, with a particular emphasis on recent developments from machine learning and its role in the optimisation of data assimilation. Underlying theory from statistical physics, such as path integrals and Monte Carlo methods, are developed in the text as a basis for data assimilation, and the author then explores examples from current multidisciplinary research such as the modelling of shallow water systems, ocean dynamics, and neuronal dynamics in the avian brain. The theory of data assimilation and machine learning is introduced in an accessible and unified manner, and the book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students from science and engineering without specialized experience of statistical physics.
Wesley Hohfeld is known the world over as the legal theorist who famously developed a taxonomy of legal concepts. His contributions to legal thinking have stood the test of time, remaining relevant nearly a century after they were first published. Yet, little systematic attention has been devoted to exploring the full significance of his work. Beginning with a lucid, annotated version of Hohfeld's most important article, this volume is the first to offer a comprehensive look at the scope, significance, reach, intricacies, and shortcomings of Hohfeld's work. Featuring insights from leading legal thinkers, the book also contains many of Hohfeld's previously unseen personal papers, shedding new light on the complex motivations behind Hohfeld's projects. Together, these selected papers and original essays reveal a portrait of a multifaceted and ambitious intellectual who did not live long enough to see the impact of his ideas on the study of law.
The Cambridge Edition of the Complete Fiction of Henry James provides, for the first time, a scholarly edition of a major writer whose work continues to be read, quoted, adapted and studied. The nine tales in this volume, published between 1884 and 1888, include 'The Aspern Papers', set in Venice and featuring a devious scholar attempting to steal the letters of an American poet from his former lover, and 'The Liar,' on the world of painters and their models. These tales exemplify James's continuing interest in the art of short fiction during a period which saw him responding to the stimulations of French naturalism and successfully reworking the international theme that had made him famous at the end of the 1870s. Extensive explanatory notes enable modern readers to understand the tales' historical, cultural and literary references.
This book proposes a radical new reading of the development of twentieth-century French philosophy. Henry Somers-Hall argues that the central unifying aspect of works by philosophers including Sartre, Foucault, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze and Derrida is their attempt to provide an account of cognition that does not reduce thinking to judgement. Somers-Hall shows that each of these philosophers is in dialogue with the others in a shared project (however differently executed) to overcome their inheritances from the Kantian and post-Kantian traditions. His analysis points up the continuing relevance of German idealism, and Kant in particular, to modern French philosophy, with novel readings of many aspects of the philosophies under consideration that show their deep debts to Kantian thought. The result is an important account of the emergence, and essential coherence, of the modern French philosophical tradition.
This excellent resource synthesizes the theory and practice of PLC, providing a straightforward introduction to the fundamentals of PLC, as well as an exhaustive review of the performance, evaluation, security, and heterogeneous network that combine PLC with other means of communications. It advances the groundwork on power-line communication (PLC), a tool which has the potential to boost the performance of local networks, and provides useful worked practical problems on, for example, PLC protocol optimization. Covering the PHY and MAC layers of the most popular PLC specifications, including tutorials and experimental frameworks, and featuring many examples of real-world applications and performance, it is ideal for university researchers and professional engineers designing and maintaining PLC or hybrid devices and networks.
Climate change is a key problem of the 21st century. China, as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases, has committed to stabilize its current emissions and dramatically increase the share of electricity production from non-fossil fuels by 2030. However, this is only a first step: in the longer term, China needs to aggressively strive to reach a goal of zero-emissions. Through detailed discussions of electricity pricing, electric vehicle policies, nuclear energy policies, and renewable energy policies, this book reviews how near-term climate and energy policies can affect long-term decarbonization pathways beyond 2030, building the foundations for decarbonization in advance of its realization. Focusing primarily on the electricity sector in China - the main battleground for decarbonization over the next century – it provides a valuable resource for researchers and policymakers, as well as energy and climate experts.
This article concerns the unfolding COVID-19 pandemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It analyses the sanitary measures that the government has taken to respond to the pandemic since March 2020, the way these measures are enforced, and the extent to which women comply with the measures. The article draws from desk research and empirical data from the eastern city of Bukavu, where the research team conducted 134 structured interviews. The findings show widespread willingness to comply with some of the main measures because of fear of sanctions, fear of the pandemic and because of trust in the state or church. The article argues that many women hold the state accountable for the success in containing the virus, but also criticize the state for not providing livelihood assistance during the state of emergency. Further research is needed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on state legitimacy.
This chapter proceeds in four parts. The first part reviews the development of the Internet and e-commerce in China, as well as China’s experiences on e-commerce issues in WTO and beyond, especially in free trade agreements. The second part discusses the history of the e-commerce negotiations in the WTO, from the 1998 E-commerce Declaration and the Doha Declaration, to the joint statement in 2017 and the launch of the plurilateral Joint Statement Initiative negotiations in 2019, with China joining at the last minute. The third part analyses in detail China’s three submissions in the negotiations, as well as the most problematic issues for China. The chapter concludes with reflections on how the negotiations will unfold, especially how the main sticking points in China’s internet and data regulatory regime could be addressed. Why was China reluctant to participate in the e-commerce negotiation at first? Why did it change its position in 2019? What will be the main issues in the negotiation? What are the positions of China and how will its participation shape the negotiation? By answering these questions, this chapter provides a critical analysis of the data regulation of China, a world leader in the AI and data-driven economy.
Archaeologists have used isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N) of the collagen of human bones, as well as knowledge of available nutrients, to infer that the diet of the ancient Maya was drawn from the resources of the Maya forest landscape. The interpretations have focused on plant carbohydrates from maize and protein dominated by white-tail deer. The δ15N values of bone collagen suggest that most of the protein requirements of the Maya could have been satisfied with a mixture of wild animal flesh and wild and cultivated plants including beans. Chaya, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, domesticated before the Spanish conquest, has a high-protein content and the potential to have been a significant contributor to the ancient Maya diet. Chaya is easily propagated, is grown in home gardens by the Maya today, and is a significant part of the local traditional diet. Chaya's stable isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) resembles that of other terrestrial plants, but its values for nitrogen (δ15N) are significantly higher. Consumption of chaya would result in slightly higher δ15N values in humans than expected from the consumption of terrestrial animals. Thus, chaya is situated well as a component of the complex, diverse, and varied diets of ancient Mesoamericans.
This study investigated associations of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) with cognitive performance and cognitive decline over 6 years. We used longitudinal data from the Sydney Memory and Aging Study comprising 1037 community-dwelling non-demented participants aged 70–90 years. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies Version 2. Adherence to the ADG was scored using the Dietary Guideline Index 2013 (DGI-2013). Cognition was assessed using neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains and global cognition at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 years later. Linear mixed models analysed the association between adherence to the ADG and cognitive function and cognitive decline over 6 years. Results indicated that overall adherence to the ADG was suboptimal (DGI-2013 mean score 43⋅8 with a standard deviation of 10⋅1; median score 44, range 12–73 with an interquartile range of 7). The percent of participants attaining recommended serves for the five food groups were 30⋅2 % for fruits, 11⋅2 % for vegetables, 54⋅6 % for cereals, 28⋅9 % for meat and alternatives and 2⋅1 % for dairy consumption. Adherence to the ADG was not associated with overall global cognition over 6 years (β = 0⋅000; 95 % CI: −0⋅007, 0⋅007; P = 0⋅95). Neither were DGI-2013 scores associated with change in global cognitive performance over 6 years (β = 0⋅002; 95 % CI: −0⋅002, 0⋅005; P = 0⋅41) nor in any individual cognitive domains. In conclusion, adherence to the ADG was not associated with cognitive health over time in this longitudinal analysis of older Australians. Future research is needed to provide evidence to support specific dietary guidelines for neurocognitive health among Australian older adults.
When international conflict causes an authoritarian leader’s popularity to soar, extant theories lead us to treat such “rallying” as sincere preference change, the product of surging patriotism or cowed media. This study advances a theory of less-than-fully sincere rallying more appropriate for nondemocratic settings, characterizing it as at least partly reflecting cascading dissembling driven by social desirability concerns. The identification strategy combines a rare nationally representative rally-spanning panel survey with a list experiment and econometric analysis. This establishes that three quarters of those who rallied to Putin after Russia annexed Crimea were engaging in at least some form of dissembling and that this rallying developed as a rapid cascade, with social media joining television in fueling perceptions this was socially desirable.
The three chapters in this Part of the book take an interesting turn from the rest of the book, one akin to a jumping off a flat page and into a new dimension, a new universe. These three chapters are not, primarily, about consuming genomics, but about how people, often consumers, who are not “the usual suspects,” are producing genomics, sometimes their own genomics. And, as in science fiction (and perhaps in science fact), the laws of nature are not necessarily the same in parallel universes, so the human laws dealing with this space – whether called DIY gene editing, nontraditional gene editing, or genetic biohacking – are not quite the same as those in the consuming space.
In letter 30, Spinoza states that he intends to write a treatise that would bring to a close the endless stream of accusations of atheism made by common people. Five years later, in 1670, the treatise known as the Theological-Political Treatise (TTP) was published anonymously. However, one could argue that the TTP takes the existence of God for granted. Spinoza berates men who only know God inadequately ‘through created things, of which they know not the causes’ and who accuse of atheism philosophers in possession of real knowledge of God. Such men believe in miracles, which, being ‘in contravention to God’s nature and laws’, inevitably ‘leads them to atheism’. But Spinoza’s attempt to turn the tables did not convince the radical Cartesian Lambert van Velthuysen (1622–85), whose critique of the TTP in letter 42 deals with three main topics, which all seem to imply more than atheism