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Oceanic mesoscale currents (‘eddies’) can have significant effects on the distributions of passive tracers. The associated inhomogeneous and anisotropic eddy fluxes are traditionally parametrised using a transport tensor ($K$-tensor), which contains both diffusive and advective components. In this study, we analyse the eddy transport tensor in a quasigeostrophic double-gyre flow. First, the flow and passive tracer fields are decomposed into large- and small-scale (eddy) components by spatial filtering, and the resulting eddy forcing includes an eddy tracer flux representing advection by eddies and non-advective terms. Second, we use the flux-gradient relation between the eddy fluxes and the large-scale tracer gradient to estimate the associated $K$-tensors in their entire structural, spatial and temporal complexity, without making any additional assumptions or simplifications. The divergent components of the eddy tracer fluxes are extracted via the Helmholtz decomposition, which yields a divergent tensor. The remaining rotational flux does not affect the tracer evolution, but dominates the total tracer flux, affecting both its magnitude and spatial structure. However, in terms of estimating the eddy forcing, the transport tensor prevails over its divergent counterpart because of the significant numerical errors induced by the Helmholtz decomposition. Our analyses demonstrate that, in general, the $K$-tensor for the eddy forcing is not unique, that is, it is tracer-dependent. Our study raises serious questions on how to interpret and use various estimates of $K$-tensors obtained from either observations or eddy-resolving model solutions.
Single-particle reconstruction can be used to perform three-dimensional (3D) imaging of homogeneous populations of nano-sized objects, in particular viruses and proteins. Here, it is demonstrated that it can also be used to obtain 3D reconstructions of heterogeneous populations of inorganic nanoparticles. An automated acquisition scheme in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to collect images of thousands of nanoparticles. Particle images are subsequently semi-automatically clustered in terms of their properties and separate 3D reconstructions are performed from selected particle image clusters. The result is a 3D dataset that is representative of the full population. The study demonstrates a methodology that allows 3D imaging and analysis of inorganic nanoparticles in a fully automated manner that is truly representative of large particle populations.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation commonly used for telecommunications, navigation and food processing. More recently microwave technologies have found applications in fibre-reinforced polymer composites, which are increasingly used in aircraft structures. Microwave energy can be applied with low power (up to milliwatts) for non-destructive testing and high power (up to kilowatts) for heating/curing purposes. The state-of-the-art applications at high power include curing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, joining and recycling, whereas low-power microwave techniques can provide quality checks, strain sensing and damage inspection. Low-power microwave testing has the advantage of being non-contact, there is no need for surface transducers or couplants, it is operator friendly and relatively inexpensive; high-power microwave energy can offer volumetric heating, reduced processing time and energy saving with no ionising hazards. In this paper the recent research progress is reviewed, identifying achievements and challenges. First, the critical electromagnetic properties of composites that are closely related to the heating and sensing performance are discussed. Then, representative case studies are presented. Finally, the trends are outlined, including intelligent/automated inspection and solid-state heating.
The aim of this study is to understand the dynamics of Rossby waves induced by a localised and periodic ‘plunger’ forcing – imposed on a background flow – which is intended as an elementary representation of transient mesoscale eddy forcing in the ocean. We consider linearised dynamics and its quasi-nonlinear extension, and focus on the rotating shallow-water model. The plunger induces a spectrum of Rossby waves that drive zonal momentum flux convergence at the forced latitudes. This behaviour has a robust and significant dependence on the background flow, which we treat as zonal and uniform. We systematically analyse this dependence using two methods. First, we use the eddy geometry formulation, in which Reynolds stresses are expressed in terms of eddy elongation and eddy tilt parameters, and consider the relationship between eddy geometry and zonal momentum redistribution. Second, we implement decompositions of flow responses into linear dynamical eigenmodes and compare with expectations from linear Rossby wave theory. Both methods compliment each other and aid the understanding of zonal momentum redistribution and its dependence on uniform background flow. We find that this dependence is determined by two factors: (i) dispersion-constrained resonance with the plunger forcing and (ii) efficiency of nonlinear eddy self-interactions. These results significantly improve our understanding of shallow-water Rossby waves, and may also be applied towards the development of parameterisations of oceanic mesoscale eddies.
The provision of manipulable material to pigs is a legal requirement to ensure their good welfare. Loose straw is edible, chewable, investigable and manipulable, and has been proven to be effective in reducing abnormal behaviour. However, it is incompatible with slatted systems and therefore not a viable option for many intensive units. Thus, there is a need to identify enrichment materials that are as effective as loose straw and compatible with slatted floors. This study investigated the viability of using compressed straw blocks on a commercial farm in terms of cost and effectiveness in reducing biting relative to plastic hanging toys. A total of 880 slaughter pigs were used, among which half (n = 440, 8 groups) were provided with commercial pig toys (TOY) and the other half (n = 440, 8 groups) were provided compressed straw blocks (STRAW BLOCK). Animals were separated according to sex to investigate whether there was a higher propensity to tail and ear bite depending on sex. Pigs were monitored from weaning to slaughter, with tails being examined post scalding and any condemnations recorded at the abattoir. Throughout their life, the tails and ears of all pigs were examined individually, and behavioural observations of each pig group were conducted fortnightly. Salivary cortisol was also obtained from a subsample of pigs from each group every fortnight to monitor stress levels. The highest straw usage was recorded in the second weaner stage (39 to 67 days after weaning). Enrichment type or sex had no effect on tail lesion scores or cold carcass weight recorded at the abattoir. There was also no effect of enrichment type or sex on body, tail, or ear lesion scores during either the weaner (0 to 39 days after weaning) or finisher stage (67 to145 days after weaning). Female pigs showed more biting behaviour than males, and female pigs that were provided STRAW BLOCK performed better than those provided TOY. In both the weaner and finisher accommodation, more instances of interaction were recorded with TOY pens as enrichment than with STRAW BLOCK, but the interaction duration was not recorded. There was no effect of sex on either stage. More instances of aggression were observed with the TOY than with STRAW BLOCK in the weaner stage (P < 0.05). Enrichment type or sex had no effect on cortisol levels. Thus, relative to plastic hanging toys, compressed straw blocks provided in this manner did not benefit pig welfare.
This study is motivated by the need to develop stochastic parameterisations for representing the effects of mesoscale oceanic eddies in non-eddy-resolving and eddy-permitting ocean circulation models. A necessary logical step on the way to such parameterisations is the understanding of flow responses to spatially stationary and localised, time-dependent ‘plunger’ forcings intended to represent transient eddy flux divergences. Specifically, this study develops an understanding of the plunger-induced convergence of potential vorticity (PV) fluxes using the linearised single-layer shallow-water model. Time-periodic solutions are obtained and the ‘footprint’, defined as the time-mean, quasi-linear PV flux convergence, quantifies the cumulative PV redistribution induced by the plunger. Using the footprint, the equivalent eddy flux (EEF) is defined such that it succinctly quantifies the extent of the PV redistribution, and its dependencies on the forcing latitude and the background flow are examined in detail. For a uniform background flow the EEF is positive for all forcing latitudes, corresponding to net-poleward PV flux convergence, as expected by current theory of
-plane Rossby waves. The EEF also has a robust dependence on the direction and magnitude of a uniform background flow, which is a useful quality for the EEF to provide a basis for a parameterisation of eddy PV fluxes. We also examine the PV redistribution due to forcing on top of a Gaussian jet background flow and find that forcing proximity to the jet core is the primary factor in determining whether the jet is sharpened or broadened.
Understandings of the public interest underpin many law reform processes. The public interest is not a fully definable term and so reform bodies have to engage with a range of articulations of that interest. The negotiation of the different articulations, however, has not been explored empirically before. This article reports on a study of the claims to the public interest in a public Australian inquiry into potential abuses of the patent system by pharmaceutical companies. More specifically, submissions to the Pharmaceutical Patents Review are analysed and the results show “oligopolistic” tensions between competing views of the public interest—and with these views claiming primacy over more technical understandings of the issues. This lack of a single “public interest” allows dominant players to frame the debate to reflect their interests; and the tension between these players means that the debate, and the underlying problem, has not been subject to a resolution.
IBM Finland, a small national subsidiary, was at once a Finnish business and an interface to much larger networks of technological innovation and knowledge sharing. We contextualize its development within a nested set of institutions and identities: IBM's Nordic operations, its European business, and its World Trade Corporation. Its development was profoundly shaped by Finland's unique geopolitical position during the Cold War. IBM's internal structures anticipated and paralleled those of the European Union, with mechanisms for international cooperation, for the creation of transnational identities, and for the resolution and regulation of disputes between national subsidiaries.
When parliament abolished episcopacy, cathedrals, and the Book of Common Prayer, what was left of the Church of England? Indeed, as contemporaries asked between 1646 and 1660, ‘Where is the Church of England?’ The episcopalian clergy could not agree. Some thought the remaining national framework of parishes and congregations was ‘the Church of England’, though now deformed, and worked within it. Others thought that only those ministers and parish congregations who remained loyal in heart to the church as it had been qualified as ‘the church’: most of them continued to serve a parish church and tried to keep the old practices going. A third category of hard-liners thought ‘the Church of England’ was now restricted to a recusant community that worshipped with the Prayer Book in secret and rejected the new national profession. The fundamental issue was the nature of a church: was it a society of believers, however organized, or a hierarchical institution following rules prescribed by God? The question caused tensions and distrust among the clergy, and the rigorists thought of the rest as time-servers and traitors. Disagreements continued to divide the clergy after the Restoration, and were reflected in attitudes towards concessions to dissenters.
We aimed to evaluate the availability and nature of services for people affected by personality disorder in England by conducting a survey of English National Health Service (NHS) mental health trusts and independent organisations.
In England, 84% of organisations reported having at least one dedicated personality disorder service. This represents a fivefold increase compared with a 2002 survey. However, only 55% of organisations reported that patients had equal access across localities to these dedicated services. Dedicated services commonly had good levels of service use and carer involvement, and engagement in education, research and training. However, a wider multidisciplinary team and a greater number of biopsychosocial interventions were available through generic services.
There has been a substantial increase in service provision for people affected by personality disorder, but continued variability in the availability of services is apparent and it remains unclear whether quality of care has improved.
Several English prisons contain democratic therapeutic communities (TCs) for personality disordered offenders, and addiction TCs for serious substance misusers. This article describes how these are organised and comments on how they are specifically tailored and accredited for use in custodial settings. It also describes ‘psychologically informed planned environments’ (PIPEs), offender pathways for those with personality disorders and psychopathy which provide additional support for psychological treatment. It ends by explaining how ‘enabling environments’ are assessed, since these are now becoming widely adopted in prisons to reverse toxic environments – which affect staff, the prison and the outside world as well as the individual prisoner – and to counter negative learning found in custodial institutions.
• Understand the key components of treatment in democratic and addiction TCs
• Understand how TCs can operate in a custodial environment
• Appreciate the differences between a planned environment and a psychological treatment programme in a custodial environment
This paper (a companion to an article published this Journal lxvii ) considers a twelve-year campaign by some Church of England clergy to discredit Nonconformists as irrational enthusiasts. It began in 1668–9, to discourage concessions to Nonconformists through ‘comprehension’ and to prove the loyalty of men suspected of lukewarm attachment to the Church. Congregationalists responded by accusing the conformists of Socinianism. But Presbyterians were less willing to differ from churchmen, and claimed that orthodox Protestants did not disagree about reason. Any differences were exaggerated for polemical advantage, and the controversy drove conformists and Nonconformists further apart.
Synthesis of Ni and Zn substituted nano-greigite, Fe3S4, is achieved from single source diethyldithiocarbamato precursor compounds, producing particles typically 50–100 nm in diameter with plate-like pseudohexagonal morphologies. Up to 12 wt.% Ni is incorporated into the greigite structure, and there is evidence that Zn is also incorporated but Co is not substituted into the lattice. The Fe L3 X-ray absorption spectra for these materials have a narrow single peak at 707.7 eV and the resulting main X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has the same sign at 708.75 eV. All XMCD spectra also have a broad positive feature at 711 eV, a characteristic of covalent mixing. The greigite XMCD spectra contrast with the three clearly defined XMCD site specific peaks found in the ferrite spinel, magnetite. The Fe L2,3X-ray absorption spectra and XMCD spectra of the greigite reflect and reveal the high conductivity of greigite and the very strong covalency of the Fe–S bonding. The electron hopping between Fe3+ and Fe2+ on octahedral sites results in an intermediate oxidation state of the Fe in the Oh site of Fe2.5+ producing an effective formula of [Fe3+ ↑]A-site[2Fe2.5+ ↓]B-siteS42–]. The Ni L2,3 X-ray absorption spectra and XMCD reveal substitution on the Oh site with a strongly covalent character and an oxidation state <Ni1.5+ in a representative formula [Fe3+ ↑]A[[(2 – x)Fe2.5+ ↓][Nix1.5+]]BS42–.