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A major goal of Gardner, Ryan, and Snoeyink (2018) was to determine what steps are needed moving forward in examining gender representation in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Specifically, on the topic of pay differences, we highlight that gender differences in pay are in part due to differences in negotiation behaviors and/or experiences. Prior research demonstrates that female negotiators receive greater backlash than male negotiators—a possible explanation to why men tend to negotiate more often and more successfully than women (Bowles, Babcock, & Lai, 2007). Based on this evidence, one next step in moving forward should involve providing resources and knowledge to improve negotiation skills and practices specifically aimed at eliminating differences between women and men in both propensity to negotiate and the evaluation/consequences of negotiating.
A polycrystalline Cu foam with sub-micron ligament sizes was formed by creating a non-woven fabric via electrospinning with a homogeneous mixture of polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)-and copper acetate(Cu(Ac)2). Thermogravimetric measurement of the electrospun fabric of the precursor solution is reported. Oxidizing the precursor fabric at 773K formed an oxide nano-foam; subsequent heating at 573K with a reducing gas transformed the CuO nano-foam to Cu with a similar ligament and meso-scale pore size morphology. A cross-section prepared by focused ion beam lift-out shows the polycrystalline structure with multi-scale porosity. The mechanical property of the Cu nano-foam is measured by nano-indentation. The load-depth curves and deduced mechanical properties suggest that additional intra-ligament pores lead to unique structure-property relations in this non-conventional form of metal.
The drinking water infrastructure in the United States is ageing; extreme weather events place additional stress on water systems that can lead to interruptions in the delivery of safe drinking water. We investigated the association between household exposures to water service problems and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in Alabama communities that experienced a freeze-related community-wide water emergency. Following the water emergency, investigators conducted a household survey. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for self-reported AGI and ARI by water exposures. AGI was higher in households that lost water service for ⩾7 days (aPR 2·4, 95% CI 1·1–5·2) and experienced low water pressure for ⩾7 days (aPR 3·6, 95% CI 1·4–9·0) compared to households that experienced normal service and pressure; prevalence of AGI increased with increasing duration of water service interruptions. Investments in the ageing drinking water infrastructure are needed to prevent future low-pressure events and to maintain uninterrupted access to the fundamental public health protection provided by safe water supplies. Households and communities need to increase their awareness of and preparedness for water emergencies to mitigate adverse health impacts.
Background: CHD is the leading cause of mortality due to birth defects. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) detects submicroscopic copy number changes and may improve identification of the genetic basis of CHD. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 1252 patients from a regional referral centre who had undergone aCGH. Of the patients, 173 had CHD. A whole-genome custom-designed oligonucleotide array with >44,000 probes was used to detect copy number changes. Results: Of the 1252 patients, 335 (26.76%) had abnormal aCGH results. Of the 173 patients with CHD, 50 (28.9%) had abnormal aCGH results versus 284 (26.3%) of 1079 non-cardiac patients. There were six patients with CHD who had well-described syndromes such as Wolf–Hirschhorn, trisomy 13, DiGeorge, and Williams. Of the patients with CHD, those with left-sided heart disease had the highest proportion (14/31; 45.13%) of abnormal aCGH results, followed by those with conotruncal heart disease (10/29; 34.48%), endocardial cushion defects (13/50; 26%), complex/other heart disease (12/52; 23.08%), and patent ductus arteriosus (1/11; 9.09%). Conclusions: Patients with CHD are at a substantial risk of having microdeletions and microduplications. The incidence of abnormalities on aCGH analysis is higher than identified with karyotype, and identification of copy number changes may help identify the genetic basis of the specific heart defects. However, aCGH may not have a significant diagnostic yield in those with isolated CHD. Further research using larger data sets may help identify candidate genes associated with CHD.
Since Kenya first reported Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease in livestock in 1912, the country has reported the most frequent epizootics of RVF disease. To determine the pattern of disease spread across the country after its introduction in 1912, and to identify regions vulnerable to the periodic epizootics, annual livestock disease records at the Department of Veterinary Services from 1910 to 2007 were analysed in order to document the number and location of RVF-infected livestock herds. A total of 38/69 (55%) administrative districts in the country had reported RVF epizootics by the end of 2007. During the 1912–1950 period, the disease was confined to a district in Rift Valley province that is prone to flooding and where livestock were raised in proximity with wildlife. Between 1951 and 2007, 11 national RVF epizootics were recorded with an average inter-epizootic period of 3·6 years (range 1–7 years); in addition, all epizootics occurred in years when the average annual rainfall increased by more than 50% in the affected districts. Whereas the first two national epizootics in 1951 and 1955 were confined to eight districts in the Rift Valley province, there was a sustained epizootic between 1961 and 1964 that spread the virus to over 30% of the districts across six out of eight provinces. The Western and Nyanza provinces, located on the southwestern region of the country, had never reported RVF infections by 2007. The probability of a district being involved in a national epizootic was fivefold higher (62%) in districts that had previously reported disease compared to districts that had no prior disease activity (11%). These findings suggests that once introduced into certain permissive ecologies, the RVF virus becomes enzootic, making the region vulnerable to periodic epizootics that were probably precipitated by amplification of resident virus associated with heavy rainfall and flooding.
During March–April 1993, an estimated 403000 residents of the 5-county greater Milwaukee, Wisconsin area developed cryptosporidiosis after drinking contaminated municipal water. Although the number of cases dropped precipitously after the implicated water plant closed on 9 April, cases continued to occur. To investigate risk factors for post-outbreak cryptosporidiosis, 33 Milwaukee-area residents who had laboratory-confirmed Cryptosporidium infection with onset of diarrhoea between 1 May and 27 June 1993 were interviewed by telephone. Of these, 28(85%) had onset of diarrhoea during May, 12(36%) had watery diarrhoea during the outbreak, and 5 (15%) were HIV-infected. In a neighbourhood-matched case-control study, immunosuppression (matched odds ratio (MOR) not calculable, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 3·0, infinity) and having a child less than 5 years old in the household (MOR = 17·0, CI 2·0, 395·0) were independently associated with infection. When persons who had diarrhoea during the outbreak were excluded, immunosuppression remained significantly associated with illness (MOR not calculable, CI 1·6, infinity). Cryptosporidium transmission continued after this massive waterborne outbreak but decreased rapidly within 2 months.
Predicting the future of the exobiology of molecular chaperones is bound to be risky business: after all, unravelling the intracellular lives of the chaperones has become legendary for its unexpected twists and turns. Can we expect differently for their extracellular capers? I cannot claim the clearest crystal, but I do have a unique perspective on the field from my perch as Editor-in-Chief of the major specialty journal in the field, Cell Stress & Chaperones. I will refer to papers in recent issues that will lead interested readers to other papers in key areas that I believe provide insights into the future as well. Perhaps we can begin to illuminate the crystal ball by listing major unsolved problems and by identifying the disciplines of the investigators that these problems are now attracting into the field.
One of the exciting and renewing aspects of the heat shock field, as it was known historically, has been the succession of colleagues from different disciplines that have entered and moved the field forward. The chance initial finding of the heat shock response in Drosophila by Ritossa in 1962  was pursued by a small group of Drosophila biologists until about 1978 when the response was discovered in a variety of other organisms. Molecular geneticists were attracted to the heat shock genes as models of inducible eukaryotic gene expression, and the field took on a more global interest.
This article will focus on the role of women in three red power events: the occupation of Alcatraz Island, the Fish-in movement, and the occupation at Wounded Knee. Men held most public roles at Alcatraz and Wounded Knee, even though women were the numerical majority at Wounded Knee. Female elders played a significant role at Wounded Knee, where the occupation was originally their idea. In contrast to these two occupations, the public leaders of the Fish-in movement were women—not an untraditional role for women of Northwest Coastal tribes.
LiCoO2 is currently the preferred cathode material in secondary Li-ion batteries. Stoichiometric LiCoO2 has rhombohedral symmetry and belongs to the R3m space group. This layered structure has Li and Co ions ordered along (111) planes to form alternating cation layers. The Co3+ ion, located in octahedral sites, forms a strong bond with neighboring oxygen atoms to produce O-Co-O sheets. Li layers are sandwiched between these sheets of CoO2.
It has traditionally been accepted that in lithium metal oxides (LiMO2) the valence of the transition metal compensates for the charge on the intercalated Li. The theoretical boundaries for Li concentration in an electrode of LixCoO2 are 0≤x≤l. Using a simple ionic charge transfer model, the fully-lithiated material has ions with charges of Li+, Co3+, and O2-. in the CoO2 end member the ions have charges of Co4+ and O2- This simple model incorrectly leads to the conclusion that the oxygen valence is virtually unaffected by Li intercation.
The versatility of heteropolyanions implies many different uses for Keggin type catalysts. However, new roles for these catalysts must first be preceeded by further understanding of the mechanisms by which they operate. It has been observed that the solvation and/or complexation of heteropolyanions promotes or limits activity in homogeneous chemistry. For this reason the solution state and the solvation characteristics of the catalyst were studied in oxidation and photochemical reactions. Simple oxidation reactions provide a system by which the solution state of the catalyst can be studied. The catalyst used for these mechanistic studies is the Keggin ion (PMo10V2O40)−5.
Tu Fu is, by universal consent, the greatest poet of the Chinese tradition. In Chinese culture, his works have been virtually canonized because, as the expression of the Chinese mind and moral being in their highest form, their supremacy in literature has been placed beyond merely literary considerations. He himself has been viewed as the embodiment of public-minded dedication and unceasing loyalty, a man who sought all his life, with great constancy, to serve his sovereign and his state. In the literary matters of innovative technique and the establishment of many new subgenres, Tu Fu is also seen as without peer: his precedent was influential equally in setting a poetic rule and in breaking it. In the allusive, imitation-based tradition of classical poetry, his work constituted an endless source of quotation and precedent, the lines studied and imitated, the imagery echoed, the subgenres enlarged.
When the history of T'ang poetry came to be constructed during the Sung dynasty, admiration for Tu Fu's technical brilliance and for the moral excellence of his character combined to raise him from relative obscurity to the apex of T'ang poetry. His work, and that of his contemporary Li Po, defined the boundaries of the High T'ang period, and this period in turn came to be identified with the extraordinary flourishing of culture and political power seen in the middle decades of the eighth century. Although in truth the culture of the elite was to evolve to a higher, more sophisticated, and more subtle level in later dynasties, the literati of those centuries looked back to the T'ang era for their foundation and inspiration.
Even the most casual acquaintance with Chinese poetry will have made the name of Tu Fu a familiar one, as the poet acknowledged throughout history by his countrymen to be China's greatest. And it is not only the poetry that is admired; the poet himself inspires respect, veneration even, as a good man. Though separated from us by a gap of thirteen centuries and an unfamiliar culture, we feel we know him, because the 1,400-odd poems reliably ascribed to him constitute a record of his life and his times that has earned him the epithet of poet-historian. There are poets of whom we know very little whose poetry is highly esteemed – Homer or Shakespeare, for example – and others of whom what we know does not enhance our appreciation of their poetry. In the case of Tu Fu, the identification of poet with the poetry is complete, to the point where it is possible to wonder how much of the esteem for the poetry is a product of admiration of the poet: how would we read “Journey to the North” if we thought it had been written by the lively Li Po? And conversely, how much do we like a poet who is continually telling us what a good man he is?
These are awkward questions that do not usually get asked. Professor Chou faces such problems and suggests solutions with far-ranging implications for future scholarship.
The idea that “sincerity” is an essential quality of the lyric poem is a staple of traditional literary criticism which predates the time of Tu Fu. As used in the appreciation of Tu Fu, where sincerity is stressed as one of the excellencies of his poetry, the concept may be thought to have acquired a new theoretical importance. From being an essential quality of worthwhile poetry, sincerity evolved into a standard by which worthwhile poetry may be recognized. Applied with equal frequency to both his personal character and his poetry, it has extended its influence further into Tu Fu criticism by becoming the rationale for holding Tu Fu to be unique. “Sincerity” is the quality that has especially seemed to literary critics to justify his claim to uniqueness. The identification of sincerity as the salient characteristic of his character and his poems both reinforces and is reinforced by Tu Fu's position at the pinnacle of the poetic tradition. In this concluding chapter, we shall explore the dynamics of appreciation whereby sincerity both summarizes the traditional characterization of Tu Fu's poetry and has also placed that poetry beyond literary evaluation.
In seeking to avoid conflating appreciation of the poet with appreciating of his work, I have made distinctions between the poet and the poetry by devising neutral equivalents for traditional critical terms. Tradition, however, has favored their conflation. The dominance of critical terms which conjoin the person and work reflects a very long tradition of ad hominem interpretations of his poetry that dates back to the Sung dynasty. This brief concluding chapter examines the useful conflation of poet and writing in a central tenet of traditional interpretation, that of sincerity.
It is possible now to seek a reconnection between the disjunctive parts of a juxtaposition poem. That poems as varied as the examples given in Chapter 3 should share a method of composition suggests that reconciliation of the parts of a poem is not to be obtained in poetic terms. This leaves the alternative that it is to be made through the person of the poet. In other words, reconnection of the parts of a poem is brought about by the same process as in traditional reconciliations, where the development of a poem by Tu Fu is explained in terms of the poet's mood and personality. Earlier I pointed out that traditional explications such as P'u Ch'i-lung's of “Seeking out Ts'ui Chi and Li Feng,” though ostensibly concerned with the poem, are couched in ad hominem terms. It may seem, therefore, that we have merely arrived at the conclusion with which tradition began. The detour has value, though, in that the isolation of disjoint poems will enable us to validate truisms about Tu Fu in a more precise way, rendering them truths as well as truisms. The concept of disjunction makes clear that a poem's continuity in the poet's mind is posited as a theory rather than assumed as a convention. Whether supposition or convention, identical preoccupations are attributed to Tu Fu, but theory supplies in addition a principle that unites a number of diverse issues.
The sheer difficulty of describing the obvious in Tu Fu's poetry tempts us to assume that the task is unnecessary.
Tu Fu is, by universal consent, the greatest poet of the Chinese tradition. In the epochal An Lu-shan rebellion, he alone of his contemporaries consistently recorded in poetry the great events and pervasive sufferings of the time. For a millennium, Tu Fu's poetry has been accepted as epitomizing the Chinese moral conscience at its highest, and as such his work has been placed almost beyond the reach of criticism. In Reconsidering Tu Fu, Eva Shan Chou defuses these formidable problems by examining Tu Fu as both a cultural monument and a poet. She investigates the evolution of his stature as an icon and shows its continuing effect upon interpretations of Tu Fu's work. Dr Chou provides translations of many poems, both well known and obscure. Her analyses are both original in their formulation and considerate of the many fine readings of traditional commentators.