To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The last meal of Tollund Man, a bog body from Early Iron Age Denmark, has been re-examined using new analyses of plant macrofossils, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, steroid markers and proteins found in his gut. Some 12–24 hours before he was killed, he ate a porridge containing barley, pale persicaria and flax, and probably some fish. Proteins and eggs from intestinal worms indicate that he was infected with parasites. Although the meal may reflect ordinary Iron Age fare, the inclusion of threshing waste could possibly relate to ritual practices. This re-analysis illustrates that new techniques can throw fresh light on old questions and contribute to understanding life and death in the Danish Early Iron Age.
Improved survival has led to a growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), followed by numerous reports of late complications. Liver disease is a known complication in some patients, with most studies focusing on Fontan associated liver disease. Whether liver disease also exists in other patients with CHD is not fully investigated. Elevated central venous pressure is considered pivotal in the development of liver disease in Fontan associated liver disease, and other patients with alterations in central venous pressure may also be at risk for developing liver fibrosis. We wanted to see if liver fibrosis is present in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Many patients with tetralogy of Fallot have severe pulmonary regurgitation, which can lead to elevated central venous pressure. Patients with tetralogy of Fallot may be at risk of developing liver fibrosis.
Materials and methods:
Ten patients (24–56 years) with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation were investigated for liver fibrosis. All patients were examined with magnetic resonance elastography of liver, hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan, indocyanine green elimination by pulse spectrophotometry, elastography via FibroScan, abdominal ultrasound including liver elastography, and blood samples including liver markers.
Three out of ten patients had findings indicating possible liver fibrosis. Two of these had a liver biopsy performed, which revealed fibrosis stage 1 and 2, respectively. The same three patients had an estimated elevated central venous pressure in previous echocardiograms.
Mild liver fibrosis was present in selected patients with tetralogy of Fallot and may be related to elevated central venous pressure.
A new series of 19 radiocarbon dates provides new insights on the human settlement activity in central Ukraine. The paper presents data from the Early Holocene until the establishment of Trypillian mega-sites in the late Vth mill. BC. Our new dates from a long sequence of the site of Melnychna Krucha refine the chronology of the Middle and Late Mesolithic and local ceramic-bearing “Buh-Dniester” culture. Additional dates were obtained on bones from Linear Pottery culture sites and Trypillian sites of stages A3 and B1.
We evaluated processing-speed and shift-cost measures in adults with depression or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and monitored the effects of treatment. We hypothesised that cognitive-speed and shift-cost measures might differentiate diagnostic groups.
Colour, form, and colour–form stimuli were used to measure naming times. The shift costs were calculated as colour–form-naming time minus the sum of colour- and form-naming times. Measurements were done at baseline and end point for 42 adults with depression and 42 with ADHD without depression. Patients with depression were treated with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields and patients with ADHD with methylphenidate immediate release.
During depression treatment, reductions in naming times were recorded weekly. One-way analysis of variance indicated statistical between-group differences, with effect sizes in the medium range for form and colour–form. In both groups, naming times were longer before than after treatment. For the ADHD group, shift costs exceeded the average–normal range at baseline but were in the average–normal range after stabilisation with stimulant medication. For the depression group, shift costs were in the average–normal range at baseline and after treatment. Baseline colour–form-naming times predicted reductions in naming times for both groups, with the largest effect size and index of forecasting efficiency for the ADHD group.
The cognitive-processing-speed (colour–form) and shift-cost measures before treatment proved most sensitive in differentiating patients with depression and ADHD. Reductions in naming times for the depression group were suggested to reflect improved psychomotor skills rather than improved cognitive control.
This paper presents a novel solution for precision draping of prepreg composite fabrics onto double curved molds. Our contributions relate to system design, including hardware and software components, and to system integration. On the hardware side, design and implementation of a drape tool with up to 120 suction cups positioned individually by linear actuators are described. On the software side, design and implementation of the software architecture are presented, along with necessary algorithms within sensor technologies and mathematical modeling. The essential system’s components were verified individually, and the entire integrated system was successfully validated in the Proof-of-Concept experiments, performed on an experimental physical model of the system.
The Danish onshore subsurface contains very large geothermal resources that have the potential to make a significant contribution to transforming Danish energy consumption toward a more sustainable energy mix. Presently, only a minor fraction of this green energy is exploited in three small plants. The main factors that have hampered and delayed larger-scale deployment are related to uncertainties in the geological models, which inevitably lead to high economic risks that are difficult for smaller district heating companies to mitigate without support from a compensation scheme. To facilitate and stimulate much wider use of the Danish geothermal resources, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and other research institutes have conducted several regional research projects focusing on the geological and geochemical obstacles with the principal objective of reducing the exploration risks by selecting the best geological reservoirs.
One of the most important geological factors causing uncertainty is the quality of the reservoirs and their ability to produce the expected volume of warm geothermal brine. Thus, great emphasis has been placed on investigating and understanding the relationships between reservoir sandstone, porosity, permeability, petrography, diagenetic processes and alterations related to variable sediment sources, basin entry points, depositional systems and climate, burial and thermal history. Mesozoic sandstones comprise the most important geothermal reservoirs in Denmark. Details concerning the reservoir quality are compiled and compared for the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone, Triassic Skagerrak, Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic Gassum and Middle Jurassic Haldager Sand formations. The Bunter Sandstone Formation contains extensive aeolian and more confined fluvial sandstones with high porosity and permeability. However, highly saline formation water could be unfavourable. The Skagerrak Formation comprises well-sorted braided stream sandstones in the centre of the basin, and is otherwise characterised by muddy sandstones and alluvial fan conglomerates. An immature mineralogical composition has caused intensive diagenetic changes in the deepest buried parts of the basin. The Gassum Formation consists of shoreface, fluvial and estuarine sandstones interbedded with marine and lacustrine mudstones. In the upper part of the formation, the sandstone beds pinch out into mudstones towards the basin centre. Pervasive siderite- and calcite cement occurs locally in shallowly buried sandstones, and with burial depth the maximum abundances of quartz and ankerite cement increase. Sandstones of shallow burial represent excellent reservoirs. The relatively coarse grain size of the Haldager Sand Formation results in high porosity and permeability even at deep burial, so the formation comprises a high-quality geothermal reservoir.
Substantial progress has been made, and a well-established regional geological model combined with reservoir quality is now available for areas with cored wells. This has enabled an improved estimation of reservoir quality between wells for exploration of geothermal reservoirs.
The typical onset of schizophrenia coincides with the maturational peak in cognition; however, for a significant proportion of patients the onset is before age 18 and after age 30 years. While cognitive deficits are considered core features of schizophrenia, few studies have directly examined the impact of age of illness onset on cognition.
The aim of the study was to examine if the effects of age on cognition differ between healthy controls (HCs) and patients with schizophrenia at illness onset. We examined 156 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve patients across a wide age span (12–43 years), and 161 age- and sex-matched HCs. Diagnoses were made according to ICD-10 criteria. Cognition was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), and IQ was estimated using subtests from the Wechsler adult- or child-intelligence scales. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to examine linear and quadratic effects of age on cognitive scores and interactions by group, including sex and parental socioeconomic status as covariates.
There was a significant overall effect of age on BACS and IQ (p < 0.001). Significant group-by-age interactions for verbal memory (for age-squared, p = 0.009), and digit sequencing (for age, p = 0.01; age-squared, p < 0.001), indicated differential age-related trajectories between patients and HCs.
Cognitive functions showing protracted maturation into adulthood, such as verbal memory and verbal working memory, may be particularly impaired in both early- and late-schizophrenia onset. Our findings indicate a potential interaction between the timing of neurodevelopmental maturation and a possible premature age effect in late-onset schizophrenia.
The use of medicinal zinc oxide (ZnO) must be phased out by 2022, thus prompting an urgent need for alternative strategies to prevent diarrhoea in weaner piglets. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact on weaner piglet performance, diarrhoea incidence and gut development, when (1) dietary ZnO supplementation was substituted by alternative commercial products based on macroalgae, specific probiotics or synbiotics, or (2) dietary ZnO inclusion was reduced from 2500 to 1500 ppm. A total of 4680 DLY piglets (DanBred, Herlev, Denmark), weaned around 35 days of age, were randomly assigned according to sex and BW to six different dietary treatment groups. A basal diet was supplemented with no ZnO (NC = negative control), 2500 ppm ZnO (PC = positive control), 1500 ppm ZnO (RDZ = reduced dose of ZnO) or commercial macroalgae (OceanFeed™ Swine = OFS), probiotic Miya-Gold or synbiotic GærPlus products. The piglets entered and exited the weaner unit at ~7.0 and 30 kg BW, respectively. In-feed ZnO was provided the first 10 days post-weaning, while the alternative supplements were fed throughout the weaner period. As expected, the average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and diarrhoea incidence were improved in the PC compared to NC group (P < 0.05) during phase 1 consistent with improved indices of villi development observed in subgroups of piglets sacrificed 11 days post-weaning. Reduction of ZnO to 1500 ppm lowered ADG (P < 0.05) and slightly increased incidence of diarrhoea during the first 10 days after weaning (but not later) without affecting FCR. None of the three alternative dietary additives, including a 10-fold increased dose of GærPlus than recommended, improved piglet performance, gut health and gut development above that of NC piglets. The OFS piglets sacrificed 11 days after weaning had significantly lower weights of hindgut tissue and contents compared to the PC group, consistent with antimicrobial activity of the product, which was detected from anaerobic in vitro fermentation. In conclusion, dietary ZnO supplementation during the first 10 days post-weaning may be reduced from 2500 to 1500 ppm without major negative implications for weaner piglet performance and health in herds under a high management level. However, none of the alternative dietary supplements were able to improve piglet performance or gut health, when ZnO was omitted from the diet.
Ascarid parasites infect a variety of hosts and regular anthelmintic treatment is recommended for all species. Parascaris spp. is the only ascarid species with widespread anthelmintic resistance, which allows for the study of resistance mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to establish an in vitro drug exposure protocol for adult anthelmintic-naïve Parascaris spp. and report a preliminary transcriptomic analysis in response to drug exposure. Live worms were harvested from foal necropsies and maintained in RPMI-1640 at 37 °C. Serial dilutions of oxibendazole (OBZ) and ivermectin (IVM) were prepared for in vitro drug exposure, and worm viability was monitored over time. In a second drug trial, worms were used for transcriptomic analysis. The final drug concentrations employed were OBZ at 40.1 μm (10 μg mL−1) and IVM at 1.1 μm (1 μg mL−1) for 24 and 3 h, respectively. The RNA-seq analysis revealed numerous differentially expressed genes, with some being potentially related to drug detoxification and regulatory mechanisms. This report provides a method for in vitro drug exposure and the phenotypic responses for Parascaris spp., which could be extrapolated to other ascarid parasites. Finally, it also provides preliminary transcriptomic data following drug exposure as a reference point for future studies of Parascaris spp.
Previous chapters of the book have explored and problematized the justificatory narratives surrounding and paving the way for welfare to work (WTW) programmes. Instead of investigating how such policies are being justified, this chapter digs into some of the ways in which recent WTW programmes in Denmark have avoided facing the imperative of public justification. It analyses how the scope of some WTW policies have been radically extended in quite subtle ways, without having to be publicly scrutinized and justified. Put differently, this chapter analyses politics that does not present itself as politics.
The research endeavour in the chapter is inspired by a recent proliferation of what has been termed ‘management and governance studies’ (Brodkin, 2012; Brodkin and Marston, 2013). Such studies analyse how organizational changes in the management and governance of street-level organizations affect policies (for example, Bjørnholt and Larsen, 2014). For instance, Soss and colleagues (2011) documented in their study of Florida Work Regions how a New Public Management reform, officially aiming at creating a more efficient and better working system through the use of performance measures, in practice led to a marked increase in the use of sanctions – particularly towards the most vulnerable clients. Likewise, Brodkin (2011) questioned the apparent success of a managerial welfare reform in Chicago that linked outcome measurement to fiscal incentives for the frontline workers, through an ethnographic investigation of the ways in which the employees actually produced these performances. This chapter broadens this research agenda in two ways. Firstly, by arguing that there are many different ways apart from governance and management reforms in which WTW policies are being expanded through other means than traditional policy reforms. The growing sophistication of the available data and methods for designing, measuring and implementing new policies also marks new avenues, beyond traditional policy or governance reforms, for expanding and promoting policies through technical and seemingly objective measures. Secondly, the goal is to show how piecemeal and technical adjustments to policies are not only affecting the policies enacted by frontline workers of the welfare state, but also have wider consequences for how WTW policies are justified.
In a prospective cohort design, we investigated: i) diagnostic stability of initially antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients, ii) symptom severity including symptomatic remission, and iii) functional remission including full recovery.
We included 143 antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. After 4–18 years, we clinically re-evaluated diagnosis, symptom severity and functioning for 70 patients. From the nationwide Danish registers, we extracted pragmatic outcome measures for 142 patients. We examined associations between baseline variables (age at diagnosis, sex, and premorbid intelligence) and long-term outcome status (symptomatic and functional remission).
At 4–18 years follow-up, 80% met the criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, however, despite the high diagnostic stability 53% met the criteria of symptomatic and/or functional remission. Symptomatic remission characterized 34% of the patients and was associated with female sex, better premorbid intelligence, and a younger age at schizophrenia diagnosis. Functional remission characterized 41% of the patients and 17% of patients met criteria for full recovery both of which were associated with female sex. The clinically re-evaluated patients did not differ from the drop-outs on key register-based variables.
We confirm the emerging evidence of a decreasing long-term diagnostic stability of schizophrenia, and a protective role of female sex. The association between premorbid intelligence and symptomatic remission underscores the pertinence of including cognitive deficits in the diagnostic category of schizophrenia. The association between younger age at diagnosis and symptomatic remission may reflect positive effects of early detection or a drift in the interpretation of the diagnostic classification system.
Tail biting is a welfare and economical concern in modern pig production. One common preventive measure used throughout the world is tail docking, which is generally considered one of the most effective methods for limiting tail biting. However, tail docking is a painful mutilation and systematic tail docking is not allowed in the EU. Therefore, the aim was to compare pig behaviour and the prevalence of tail biting in finishing pigs with intact tails housed in two different pen designs under Danish commercial conditions. PEN1 was a traditional Danish pen and PEN2 was inspired by Swedish finisher pen design and had a larger proportion of solid floor area (PEN1: 1/3 and PEN2: 2/3), reduced group size (PEN1: 15 and PEN2: 12), increased space allowance per head (PEN1: 0.7 m2 and PEN2: 0.89 m2) and straw allocated on the floor (PEN2) whereas straw was provided in a straw rack in PEN1. Tail damage observations were carried out daily by the stockperson and every 2 weeks one trained research technician assessed tail damages according to a tail scoring system. Tail lesions were observed in 51% of PEN1 and in 11% of PEN2 (P < 0.001). PEN1 had higher prevalence of tail damages than PEN2 (23% v. 5%, P < 0.001). Behavioural observations were carried out by the use of video recordings. Pigs in PEN2 tended to spend more time on tail-directed behaviour than pigs in PEN1 (P = 0.07), whereas pigs in PEN1 tended to spend more time on ear-directed behaviour (P = 0.08). Pigs in PEN2 spent more time on straw-directed behaviour compared to pigs in PEN1 (P < 0.001). Pen design did not affect time spent on other penmate-directed behaviour. In addition, the level of welfare between the two pen designs was compared using the Welfare Quality® protocol. PEN2 received an overall score of ‘excellent’ while PEN1 scored ‘enhanced’. PEN2 scored higher on all principles besides ‘good health’, where PEN1 scored better on lameness and wounds. The main measurements accounting for the differences were water supply, huddling, tail biting, social behaviour and fear of humans. In conclusion, the combination of increased space allowance, increased area of solid flooring, straw allocated onto the floor and reduced group size (PEN2) resulted in fewer tail damaged pigs and a better overall welfare assessment, despite a tendency for more tail-directed behaviour.
Most of what we know about active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been driven, or at least strongly shaped, by our methods for finding them, and multiwavelength AGN surveys have achieved remarkable successes in recent decades. I will present a broad, and thus necessarily shallow, review of such multiwavelength AGN surveys. I will first present some brief introductory points on, e.g., general survey approaches, AGN luminosities, host galaxies, and anisotropic emission/obscuration. I will then review many of the key current surveys and their results, separating these into ground-based and space-based surveys. Finally, I will discuss some future prospects including essential remaining questions and “discovery space” considerations.
Integrated Modular Avionics enables applications of different criticality levels to share the same hardware platform with an established temporal and spatial isolation. On-chip communication systems for such platforms must support different bandwidth and latency requirements of applications while preserving time predictability. In this paper, our concern is a time-predictable on-chip network architecture for targeting applications in mixed-criticality aerospace systems. The proposed architecture introduces a mixed, priority-based and time-division-multiplexed arbitration scheme to accommodate different bandwidth and latency in the same network while preserving worst-case time predictability for end-to-end communication without packet loss. Furthermore, as isolation of erroneous transmission by a faulty application is a key aspect of contingency management, the communication system should support isolation mechanisms to prevent interference. For this reason, a sampling port and isolated sampling buffer-based approach is proposed with a transmission authorisation control mechanism, guaranteeing spatial and temporal isolation between communicating systems.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest natural twinning rate in the world. Unfortunately, due to lack of adequate care during pregnancy, labor and postnatally, twin mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa also remains very high. Thus, it has been estimated that one in five twins dies during the childhood years. In spite of this, surprisingly few twin studies have been conducted in the region, making additional epidemiological data much needed. In 2009, we established one of the first twin registries in Sub-Saharan Africa at the Bandim Health Project in Guinea-Bissau. The registry had two main objectives. First, we wanted to describe the twinning rate and mortality patterns among newborn twins, including mortality risk factors and hospitalization patterns. Such studies can help the local clinicians improve twin health by identifying the most vulnerable children. Second, and in light of the rapidly increasing diabetes rates in Africa, we wanted to use the registry to particularly focus on metabolic disorders. Twins are often born with low birth weight, which according to the ‘thrifty phenotype hypothesis’ could predispose them to metabolic disorders later in life. Yet, no such ‘fetal programming’ data have previously been available from African twins despite the fact that nutritional patterns and influences from other factors (e.g., infections) could be markedly different here compared to high-income settings. In this article, we summarize the findings and current status of the Guinea-Bissau twin registry.
A wealth of clinical studies have identified objective biomarkers, which separate schizophrenia patients from healthy controls on a group level, but current diagnostic systems solely include clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigate if machine learning algorithms on multimodal data can serve as a framework for clinical translation.
Forty-six antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 58 controls underwent neurocognitive tests, electrophysiology, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients underwent clinical assessments before and after 6 weeks of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride. Nine configurations of different supervised machine learning algorithms were applied to first estimate the unimodal diagnostic accuracy, and next to estimate the multimodal diagnostic accuracy. Finally, we explored the predictability of symptom remission.
Cognitive data significantly classified patients from controls (accuracies = 60–69%; p values = 0.0001–0.009). Accuracies of electrophysiology, structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging did not exceed chance level. Multimodal analyses with cognition plus any combination of one or more of the remaining three modalities did not outperform cognition alone. None of the modalities predicted symptom remission.
In this multivariate and multimodal study in antipsychotic-naïve patients, only cognition significantly discriminated patients from controls, and no modality appeared to predict short-term symptom remission. Overall, these findings add to the increasing call for cognition to be included in the definition of schizophrenia. To bring about the full potential of machine learning algorithms in first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients, careful a priori variable selection based on independent data as well as inclusion of other modalities may be required.
Tollund Man is one of the most famous Iron Age bog bodies due to his well-preserved head. Since he was unearthed in 1950 in Bjældskovdal, Denmark, he has been subjected to several scientific investigations, but until now no attempts to reconstruct his general diet through isotope analyses have been conducted. Furthermore, previous radiocarbon (14C) analyses have only been able to date him broadly to the 3rd–4th century BC. In this study, stable isotope measurements (δ13C, δ15N) on bone collagen from Tollund Man’s femur and rib showed that the diet of Tollund Man was terrestrial-based and that the crops he ate probably were grown on manured fields. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates were obtained on both the <30kDa and >30kDa fractions of ultrafiltered collagen. Results showed that the ultrafiltration removed contamination from older substances from the burial environment. The femur was dated to 2330±23 BP, the rib to 2322±30 BP. These dates statistically agree with a previously published AMS 14C age on skin. By combining the new dates with the previous date of his skin it was possible to narrow down the age of Tollund Man to the period 405–380 cal BC (95.4% confidence interval).
Cognitive deficits are already present in early stages of schizophrenia. P3a and P3b event-related potentials (ERPs) are believed to underlie the processes of attention and working memory (WM), yet limited research has been performed on the associations between these parameters. Therefore, we explored possible associations between P3a/b amplitudes and cognition in a large cohort of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia (AN-FES) patients and healthy controls (HC).
Seventy-three AN-FES patients and 93 age- and gender-matched HC were assessed for their P3a/b amplitude with an auditory oddball paradigm. In addition, subjects performed several subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).
AN-FES patients had significantly reduced P3a/b amplitudes, as well as significantly lower scores on all cognitive tests compared with HC. Total group correlations revealed positive associations between P3b amplitude and WM and sustained attention and negative associations with all reaction time measures. These associations appeared mainly driven by AN-FES patients, where we found a similar pattern. No significant associations were found between P3b amplitude and cognitive measures in our HC. P3a amplitude did not correlate significantly with any cognitive measures in either group, nor when combined.
Our results provide further evidence for P3a/b amplitude deficits and cognitive deficits in AN-FES patients, which are neither due to antipsychotics nor to disease progress. Furthermore, our data showed significant, yet weak associations between P3b and cognition. Therefore, our data do not supply evidence for deficient P3a/b amplitudes as direct underlying factors for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
Significant increases in excess all-cause mortality, particularly in the elderly, were observed during the winter of 2014/15 in England. With influenza A(H3N2) the dominant circulating influenza A subtype, this paper determines the contribution of influenza to this excess controlling for weather. A standardised multivariable Poisson regression model was employed with weekly all-cause deaths the dependent variable for the period 2008–2015. Adjusting for extreme temperature, a total of 26 542 (95% CI 25 301–27 804) deaths in 65+ and 1942 (95% CI 1834–2052) in 15–64-year-olds were associated with influenza from week 40, 2014 to week 20, 2015. This is compatible with the circulation of influenza A(H3N2). It is the largest estimated number of influenza-related deaths in England since prior to 2008/09. The findings highlight the potential health impact of influenza and the important role of the annual influenza vaccination programme that is required to protect the population including the elderly, who are vulnerable to a severe outcome.