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In a 2001 paper published in Current Directions in Psychological Science, Ornstein and Haden asserted that despite considerable progress in understanding age-related differences in memory performance, research on children’s memory offered too few insights into the processes that drive the development of skilled remembering. Essentially, the argument was that the focus of research was more on memory development than the development of memory. This chapter offers an update as to whether and to what extent critical gaps identified by Ornstein and Haden (2001a) remain.
In this chapter, we focus on the ways that parent–child conversations during and after hands-on museum exhibit experiences can advance children’s learning and retention of information about cultural practices, and science and engineering. The work draws on research guided by sociocultural theory from two partially intersecting literatures, one concerned with children’s memory for personally experienced events, including work by Ornstein and his colleagues, and the other focused on learning during family museum visits. Unique partnerships between university researchers and museum practitioners make our work possible.
In this article the authors offer an analysis of Jean-Paul Sartre’s 1946 play Huis Clos (No Exit) and Reginald Rose’s 1954 play Twelve Angry Men, with particular attention paid to exploring the insights from each theatrical text about communication. The process of communication may be ambivalent or Janus-faced, and one of the objectives of this analysis is to consider communication in terms of its duality and incisive power. In doing so, the aim is to explore its antithetical tensions by amplifying the mythological, deliberative and philosophical dimensions of communication praxis. In particular, the archetype of the knife provides a useful metaphor for understanding the potentials and pitfalls of communication in human interaction. Scott Haden Church is an Assistant Professor in the School of Communications at Brigham Young University. He has recently published in Critical Studies in Media Communication. Jesse King Jones is in the Masters Programme of the School of Communications at Brigham Young University.
This chapter provides an overview of the concepts and techniques commonly used in experimental design and data summary for computing education research. No prior formal statistical background is assumed. The chapter will help computing educators to develop sound experimental designs, to perform technically correct descriptive analyses, and to understand and evaluate these elements in the computing education literature.
This chapter provides a pragmatic overview of the concepts and techniques commonly used in inferential data analysis for computing education research. The logic of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is discussed in detail. Examples of common inferential tests are provided, along with consideration of when to use each test and how to interpret test results. Common errors in inferential analysis are described, to enable researchers to recognise such errors in the literature and to avoid them in their own research. The emphasis of the chapter is on the practical application and interpretation of inferential techniques, not on the underlying computational formulae.
In unpublished notes, Pila discussed some theory surrounding the modular function j and its derivatives. A focal point of these notes was the statement of two conjectures regarding j, j′ and j″: a Zilber–Pink-type statement incorporating j, j′ and j″, which was an extension of an apparently weaker conjecture of André–Oort type. In this paper, I first cover some background regarding j, j′ and j″, mostly covering the work already done by Pila. Then I use a seemingly novel adaptation of the o-minimal Pila–Zannier strategy to prove a weakened version of Pila's ‘Modular André–Oort with Derivatives’ conjecture. Under the assumption of a certain number-theoretic conjecture, the central theorem of the paper implies Pila's conjecture in full generality, as well as a more precise statement along the same lines.
Surgery of any kind represents a traumatic insult to the body and is accompanied by a verifiable stress response dependent on the magnitude of the insult. While the general principles of broad-based anaesthesia have been covered in Chapters 2, 3 and 4, the purpose of this chapter is to alert the reader to operative procedures that have specific problems or caveats associated with them. For reasons of space, only the more frequently encountered operations have been included.
Obstetric anaesthesia requires detailed knowledge of the physiological changes associated with pregnancy. While these are covered thoroughly in Chapter 23, the salient points are outlined below to aid the reader.
Obstetric anaesthesia requires detailed knowledge of the physiological changes associated with pregnancy. Whilst these are covered thoroughly in Section 2, Chapter 14, the salient points are outlined below to aid the reader.
As pregnancy progresses, the maternal blood volume increases and, although total haemoglobin increases, the haemoglobin concentration falls by dilution. The concentration of clotting factors increases, causing a tendency to deep vein thrombosis exacerbated by pressure on the pelvic veins from the increasingly bulky uterus. Cardiac output increases throughout pregnancy due to increases in stroke volume and heart rate. Thoracic volume rises so that although tidal volume remains comparable to pre-pregnancy values, there becomes an impression of hyperinflation. At the end of pregnancy PaCO2 is reduced to 4 kPa. The hormonal changes of pregnancy cause relaxation of smooth muscle and ligaments, resulting in a reduction in lower oesophageal sphincter tone which, combined with increasing intra-abdominal pressure, leads both to functional hiatus herniae and oesophageal reflux. Gastric contents are more voluminous than usual and gastric emptying is slowed. In labour, gastric emptying virtually ceases.
Patients in the third trimester of pregnancy should not be allowed to lie in the supine position for any reason without left lateral tilt to displace the uterus, because the weight of the uterus compresses the inferior vena cava. The substantial reduction in venous return to the heart that follows may produce fainting. If compensatory vasoconstriction is abolished by epidural blockade, serious falls in cardiac output may result.
Surgery of any kind represents a traumatic insult to the body and is accompanied by a verifiable stress response dependent on the magnitude of the insult. While the general principles of broad-based anaesthesia have been covered in Section 1, Chapters 2, 3 and 4, the purpose of this chapter is to alert the reader to operative procedures that have specific problems or caveats associated with them. For reasons of space, only the more frequently encountered operations have been included.
The majority of patients requiring laparotomy will present an aspiration risk, and therefore require rapid sequence induction and subsequent muscular relaxation with controlled ventilation. In the case of a perforated viscus (duodenal ulcer, for example) electrolyte imbalance, dehydration and cardiovascular instability make for a high-risk procedure. The presence of faecal soiling of the peritoneum is a particularly bad prognostic indicator. Anastomosis of the bowel requires special consideration. Survival of anastomoses is maximised if the blood supply to the joined section is not compromised in any way. In practice, this requires the avoidance of reversal drugs (and therefore a careful choice of relaxant and its dose) and the use of epidural anaesthesia, usually combined with general anaesthesia if there are no contraindicating factors to the technique (such as poor haemodynamic resuscitation). Epidural anaesthesia provides better postoperative pain relief than patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), which is important in the avoidance of pneumonia after upper abdominal incisions.
we propose a way to achieve across-population sharing within the authors' model in a way that is plausibly in accordance with human evolution, and also a simple way to capture ecological structure. finally, we briefly reflect on the model's scope and limits in modeling linguistic communication.
Macromolecular X-ray crystallography underpins the vigorous field of structural molecular biology having yielded many protein, nucleic acid and virus structures in fine detail. The understanding of the recognition by these macromolecules, as receptors, of their cognate ligands involves the detailed study of the structural chemistry of their molecular interactions. Also these structural details underpin the rational design of novel inhibitors in modern drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, from such structures the functional details can be inferred, such as the biological chemistry of enzyme reactivity. There is then a vast number and range of types of biological macromolecules that potentially could be studied. The completion of the protein primary sequencing of the yeast genome, and the human genome sequencing project comprising some 105 proteins that is underway, raises expectations for equivalent three dimensional structural databases.
Recounting our past experiences is a pervasive part of social interaction. Whether we are talking with old friends or new acquaintances, speaking with faraway relatives, or simply chatting with our family around the dinner table, we talk about the past. In fact, estimates based on spontaneous conversations among families indicate that conversations about past events occur as often as five to seven times an hour (Blum-Kulka & Snow, 1992; Miller, 1994). Why is talk about the past so prevalent? Clearly, when recounting an experience to someone who was not present, the narrative has an informative function. By telling someone about the kinds of events that we have experienced, we are both telling the listener something about the kind of person we are (e.g., Brewer, 1986; Bruner, 1987; Fitzgerald, this volume; Fivush, 1988), as well as imparting important or interesting information about events in the world.
But much of social interaction focuses on recounting events with others who shared these experiences with us. This kind of joint remembering, or reminiscing, serves a very special purpose, that of creating interpersonal bonds based on a sense of shared history. In the process of recounting, interpreting, and evaluating our experiences together, we are creating a shared understanding and representation of our world and the ways in which our lives are intertwined (see also Bruner & Feldman and Hirst & Manier, this volume).
The objective of this study was to identify factors which contributed to the financial performance of 81 selected dairy farms in Tennessee. The study analyzes several measures of financial performance including cash farm income, net farm income, and returns to operator labor and management. Regressions with ten explanatory variables were used to determine factors that explained the variation in the measures of financial performance. Production per cow, number of cows, price received for milk, forage costs, and level of debt use appeared to influence financial performance.
This paper describes two women. The first was admitted to hospital having suddenly, and without adequate reason, developed the idea that a senior married colleague at her workplace had fallen deeply in love with her. The second woman is her mother, who had been admitted to the same hospital twenty-two years earlier with a well systematized delusion that her husband was unfaithful. Both syndromes have been described by de Clérambault as two of the three forms of psychose passionnelle. The present report is intended to clarify the concepts of psychose passionnelle and demonstrate the similarities between jealousy and erotomania. We believe these case histories describe the first reported instance of psychose passionnelle in successive generations of one family.
Studies using objective tests have found that two relatively independent types of thought disorder occur in patients diagnosed as “schizophrenic”. In several studies (Payne, 1961) approximately half the acute schizophrenic patients showed an extreme degree of intellectual and motor retardation, more severe than that found even among retarded depressed patients, while half suffered from overinclusive thinking, as measured by the tests used. There was a significant tendency in one study (Payne and Hewlett, 1960) for these two types of thought disorder not to occur in the same acute schizophrenic patients.
For the last ten years, the elementary courses (first two semesters) in foreign languages at the University of Texas have comprised five contact hours per week. They carry four semester hours credit in accordance with the well-known formula, 1 hour/week: 1 semester hour credit; 2 laboratory hours/week: 1 semester hour credit. Coincidentally, beginning in 1946, drill sessions were provided, in French and Spanish, for oral-aural practice outside of class. The oral-aural emphasis became then the established procedure. When, in 1952, the three departments of foreign languages (Germanic, Romance, Slavic) moved into their new building, Batts Hall, the new facilities made possible further development.
If we take any integral number, and suppose it written round the circumference of a circle, it is possible to form differences by subtracting each digit from its neighbour on the right. If the result is negative, 10 is added to bring the answer positive. The second and successive differences may be formed similarly. It is found that at some stage the lines of differences start to repeat those occurring before.