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Product modularisation continuously draws attention of scholars and practitioners since it supports organizations and industries to sustain in high product and service variety at reasonable costs and greater flexibility. This paper aims at revealing current trends and developments in the field of product modularisation by identifying the intellectual structure using a bibliometric review. Our sample accrues 1,366 publications from 2016 up to 2020 across disciplines while using bibliometric coupling composes a network. Analysing the network on similarities, we can not only find clusters of servitisation, closed-loop supply chains, and platform collaboration, because we also identify three trends of digital innovation, sustainability, and platform eco-systems. An analysis of authors currently indicates less integrated communities, which do not entirely refer to each other despite the similarity in their research. Collectively, the study suggests a timely update of current scholar activities and discussions in the field of product modularisation.
The increased demand for customer-adapted product solutions shows an increasing trend of product variety, leading to an increased internal variety and therefore -costs. The concept of modularization provides apossible solution to this challenge by developing modular kits. Nevertheless, modularization methods to not lead to one individual modular kit, but to several alternatives. The decision of which alternative to implement can be crucial to the applying companys succes. During this decision-making both customer- and company perspectives need to be taken into account. This contribution is to present a simulation-based approach to support the decision making by using a model-based configuration system. Furthermore, as classical decision-making processes are based upon historical data, future aspects are usually not taken into account. In order to counteract this situation, this contribution intends to simulate as well future aspects impacting the modular product architecture. In this case, the simulation is used in order to evaluate the individual performances of a Design-for-Variety product architecture as opposed to a Design-for-Future-Robustness by applying this method to the example of customer-individual laser machines.
By developing and using modular product families, large savings can be achieved through reuse and combinability along the entire value chain of a company. Since these potentials often have a very long-term character, the lifetime of a modular product family should be as long as possible. Change drivers, such as changing customer and production requirements, however, result in changes having to be made to the initially developed modular product family, which not only causes a great effort but also prevents the long-term benefits from being fully exploited. With the Change Allocation Model, we introduce a tool that makes it possible to align the essential future changes to the product architecture and to identify and redesign the change-critical components taking into account the existing component variety of the product family. This enables future changes in variety to be considered in the product architecture and a future robust modular product family to be developed. The new visualization is illustrated using the example of a product family of pressure regulating valves and is finally discussed with regard to further potentials and challenges.
Young adults with heart disease constitute a growing group with the risk of cognitive and physical impairment. The knowledge of their academic performance and mental and physical health is, however, scant. This study aimed to compare young adults with CHDs or arrhythmia with their peers.
Information on physical health (Somatic Symptom Scale-8), mental health problems (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25), quality of life (Satisfaction With Life Scale), physical activity, and academic performance was collected online in a national cross-sectional survey in Norway among students in higher education (the SHoT2018 study).
Among 50,054 students, 172 (0.34%) reported CHD and 132 (0.26%) arrhythmias. Students reporting arrhythmias scored significantly higher than the control group on somatic symptoms (OR = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.62–3.27)), anxiety (OR = 1.60 (1.08–2.37)), depression (OR = 1.49 (1.05–2.11)), self-harm, and suicide attempt (OR = 2.72 (1.56–4.75)), and lower quality of life (OR 1.64 (1.16–2.32)) and more loneliness (OR = 1.99 (1.28–3.10)) compared to participants without heart disease. Participants with CHD reported an increased somatic symptom burden (OR = 1.58 (1.16–2.16)). Despite a tendency to a higher score, this group did not differ significantly from the control group on anxiety or depression, quality of life, or loneliness. However, the risk of self-harm thoughts and suicidality was significantly increased (OR for suicide attempt 2.22 (1.3–3.77)). There was no difference between the groups on academic performance.
Although Norwegian students with heart disease reported more somatic symptoms, their academic progress was not reduced compared to students without heart disease. Students with CHD or arrhythmias showed an increased risk of self-harm thoughts and suicidality.
The cognitive control system matures gradually with age and shows age-related sex differences. To gain knowledge concerning error adaptation in familial high-risk groups, investigating error adaptation among the offspring of parents with severe mental disorders is important and may contribute to the understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk individuals. We identified an observational cohort through Danish registries and measured error adaptation using an Eriksen flanker paradigm. We tested 497 7-year-old children with a familial high risk of schizophrenia (N = 192) or bipolar disorder (N = 116) for deficits in error adaptation compared with a control group (N = 189). We investigated whether error adaptation differed between high-risk groups compared with controls and sex differences in the adaptation to errors, irrespective of high-risk status. Overall, children exhibited post-error slowing (PES), but the slowing of responses did not translate to significant improvements in accuracy. No differences were detected between either high-risk group compared with the controls. Boys showed less PES and PES after incongruent trials than girls. Our results suggest that familial high risk of severe mental disorders does not influence error adaptation at this early stage of cognitive control development. Error adaptation behavior at age 7 years shows specific sex differences.
The spatial distribution of collaborative targets and the information collaboration process are two important factors affecting the efficiency of real-time collaborative navigation. Addressing these factors, this paper presents the following work. First, the collaborative communication process between navigation targets is designed and illustrated with an application example. Second, the feature and error condition of the spatial distribution of collaborative targets is analysed. Then, a method based on CGDOP (collaborative geometric dilution of precision) value is proposed for the evaluation of the actual spatial distribution conditions of collaborative targets. Finally, a simulated experiment is conducted to evaluate the collaborative navigation process and the collaboration effect of the collaborative navigation network in different spatial shapes. Overall, the results of this study optimised the observation and application efficiency of navigation data, and improved the stability and reliability of real-time navigation service through multi-target collaborative navigation.
In many countries, we have seen an increase in economic inequality over the past 20 to 25 years. The populations might therefore have changed their attitude about how and how much different countries should intervene to reduce the extent of economic inequality. A question is whether there is any connection between changes in redistribution preferences and trends in economic inequality in the prosperous Nordic welfare states. This article contributes by examining whether there are differences in redistribution attitude and changes herein based upon socio-economic criteria, which might include self-interest arguments. Nordic countries are interesting because there have been differences in development, and even strong growth in economic inequality, especially in Sweden and Denmark, although these countries in the literature have been seen as highly equal societies. The analysis shows that support for redistribution is relatively stable over time in each country, but also that there are major differences between countries, with support being much higher in Finland compared with Denmark. Females, discriminated groups and the unemployed generally support redistribution to a higher degree. Ageing generally increases redistributional support, while more education reduces support for government redistribution in Finland. In all four countries, the highest income groups are less supportive of redistribution of income.
DNA sequence data have become a crucial tool in assessing the relationship between morphological variation and genetic and taxonomic groups, including in the Antarctic biota. Morphologically distinct populations of submersed aquatic vascular plants were observed on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, potentially representing the two species of such plants listed in the island's flora, Limosella australis R.Br. (Scrophulariaceae) and Ranunculus moseleyi Hook.f. (Ranunculaceae). To confirm their taxonomic identity, we sequenced a nuclear locus (internal transcribed spacer; ITS) and two plastid loci (trnL-trnF, rps16) from three specimens collected on Marion Island and compared the sequences with those in public sequence databases. For all three loci, sequences from the Marion Island specimens were nearly identical despite morphological dissimilarity, and phylogenetic analyses resolved them to a position in Limosella. In phylogenetic trees and comparisons of species-specific sequence polymorphisms, the Marion Island specimens were closest to a clade comprising Limosella aquatica L., L. curdieana F.Muell. and L. major Diels for ITS and closest to L. australis for the plastid loci. Cytonuclear discordance suggests a history of hybridization or introgression, which may have consequences for morphological variability and ecological adaptation.
This Element synthesizes the current state of research on organizational learning from performance feedback and develops a new perspective that deals with the influence of multiple goals. In keeping with the centrality of motives in Cyert & March's influential model, this new perspective rests on a foundation of individual level behaviors that are responsive to mechanisms at the organizational and environmental level of analysis. A key aim is to lay out an agenda for a new wave of empirical research on the interconnections of decision-makers, organizations, and the environment that influence organizational responses to performance.
Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
In order to meet an increasing internal variety, a solution can be the modularization of products. To motivate modularization projects throughout all phases of life, different effects of modular product families were collected in previous works on a literature basis. In this paper, a validation concept is presented, which will investigate these effects by using statements directly from industry representatives. In particular, the industry background is included in the evaluation to generate a more differentiated overall picture of impacts of modular product families.
Neurocognitive and social cognitive impairments are central characteristics of schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, of bipolar disorder. Birth cohorts and familial high risk studies have described cognitive impairments in subjects before onset of diagnosis as well as in children with increased genetic risk for development of the disorders.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the correlations between neurocogntion and social cognition in parents and offspring simultaneously and with the same methodology. We will divide the parents into subgroups (cognitive impairment and good cognitive functioning) and use these subgroups to describe correlations with their offspring. Identifying associations between parents and offspring can add important clues to risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and, on the long-term, help the development of more effective and potentially preventive treatments.
This study is part of the Danish high risk and resilience study–VIA7. The VIA7 cohort consists of 522 children age 7 with zero, 1 or 2 parents diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and both of their biological parents. We assessed neurocognition and social cognition with a comprehensive test battery including: intelligence (RIST), executive functions (WAIS-IV, D-KEFS, CANTAB), verbal memory (TOMAL2), attention, emotion recognition, decision making and response control (CANTAB), theory of mind (animated triangles) and social perception (TASIT). Parental subgroups were based on the 95% CI of the controls (cognitive impairment < 95%CI and good cognitive functioning > 95% CI).
Data analysis is ongoing and results will be presented at the conference.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Compared with other Western European countries, the Danish oil adventure began rather late in 1972 when production started from the Dan Field. Gas production did not commence until 1984, also from the Dan Field. Since production commenced offshore, 48 steel platforms and five subsea installations have been placed on the seabed. The steel platform topsides facilities weigh between 7,000 and 15,000 tonnes, with a jacket weight of up to 3,500 tonnes. All installations are made of steel except for the South Arne Platform which has a concrete gravity-based storage (GBS) that is used to store oil before transporting this via the SAL system. In addition, approximately 1,700 km of pipelines have been installed ranging from 1” to 42” in diameter. Currently many of the facilities on the continental shelf are ageing and some of the early platforms are standing idle or only process water, having exhausted the oil and gas reservoirs in their original field. Although the Danish Continental Shelf is considered to be a “mature province”, no meaningful decommissioning activities have been carried out to date. However, this is set to change in the coming years. The Danish Energy Agency has estimated that decommissioning of existing facilities, including the plugging and abandonment of wells and related activities will cost approximately DKK 41 billion (€5.5 billion).
The Kingdom of Denmark consists of continental Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. The Danish Constitution applies to all areas of the Danish Kingdom, although the Faroe Islands and Greenland have their own home rule arrangements and have established independent hydrocarbon regulatory regimes. So far, hydrocarbons have only been produced in continental Denmark and only in the Danish sector of the North Sea. From 1993 until 2014 Denmark has been a self-sufficient oil-producing nation. In fact in 1993 Denmark was the only country in the EU which was self-sufficient in both oil and gas. Although no longer fully self-sufficient, Denmark is still an exporter of oil and gas. Denmark is presently the third-largest oil producer in Western Europe after Norway and the United Kingdom, and the fifth-largest gas producer in Western Europe after Norway, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany.
The experiments reported in this research paper aimed to determine the technological properties of indigenous Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from Lait caillé, a spontaneous fermented milk, from the perspective of starter culture development. Fermentations were conducted to determine the acidification patterns. The ropy character, growth in 0.04 g/ml NaCl and citrate metabolism were additionally tested. Furthermore, the rheological properties of samples from selected strains and the impact of cold storage were evaluated. Based on the rate of acidification, the indigenous strains were divided into 2 groups depending on their fermentation time, i.e. 10–13 h (fast acidifier), and up to 72 h (slow acidifier), respectively. The physiological tests suggested that most of these strains produced exopolysaccharides but none could ferment citrate. The flow properties of the samples inoculated by the fast acidifier strains showed a time-dependent shear thinning behaviour, while their viscoelastic properties corresponded structurally to those of weak gels. Cold storage decreased the viscosity and CFU counts for most of the indigenous strains tested. This study is a step towards the definition of starter cultures for African spontaneous fermented milks such as Lait caillé.
This chapter reads Cormac McCarthy’s fiction as a twentieth-century American variant of what may be called metaphysical inquiries by literary means. I argue that what is missing in the current scholarship is a proper reexamination of the resonance between McCarthy’s fiction and the deeply philosophical traditions into which it taps. I critically approach such a reexamination, first, by showing how exemplary readings have connected nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy to McCarthy’s oeuvre, and, second, by proposing a recontextualization of the author’s work to the past 200 years of Western philosophical thought. I do so by presenting a new approach to the epilogue of Cities of the Plain (1998), informed by McCarthy’s recently published non-fictional essays on the origin of language, or what the writer calls “The Kekulé Problem” (2017). This approach ultimately inquires into McCarthy’s concept of nature and his notion of being human.
The spatial distribution of basal water critically impacts the evolution of ice sheets. Current estimates of basal water distribution beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contain large uncertainties due to poorly constrained boundary conditions, primarily from geothermal heat flux (GHF). The existing GHF models often contradict each other and implementing them in numerical ice-sheet models cannot reproduce the measured temperatures at ice core locations. Here we utilize two datasets of radar-detected basal water in Greenland to constrain the GHF at regions with a thawed bed. Using the three-dimensional ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, we iteratively adjust the GHF to find the minimum GHF required to reach the bed to the pressure melting point, GHFpmp, at locations of radar-detected basal water. We identify parts of the central-east, south and northwest Greenland with significantly high GHFpmp. Conversely, we find that the majority of low-elevation regions of west Greenland and parts of northeast have very low GHFpmp. We compare the estimated constraints with the available GHF models for Greenland and show that GHF models often do not honor the estimated constraints. Our results highlight the need for community effort to reconcile the discrepancies between radar data, GHF models, and ice core information.
As todays’ global market trends lead to an increasing demand for individualised products, manufacturers need to cope with a high degree of internal and external variety, which has a severe impact on complexity and therefore -costs. When implementing modular product architectures, it becomes obvious, that the actual Engineer-to-Order (ETO) processes cannot cope with the requirements of such a product architecture. It is crucial to develop a complying Configure-to-Order (CTO) process in order to make full use of its suppled benefits. As there is no existing approach about how to methodically change an existing ETO process into an adequate CTO process, we intend to fill this gap with this paper by showing an approach for the development of a CTO process for modular product architectures. Furthermore, we show the application and evaluation of this approach in a case study with a special equipment manufacturer (SME), that is already implementing modular architectures.
We use the full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice to investigate the present dynamics of Bowdoin Glacier, a marine-terminating outlet glacier in northwestern Greenland. Short-term speed variations of the glacier were observed, correlating with air temperature and precipitation, and with the semi-diurnal ocean tides. We use a control inverse method to determine the distribution of basal friction. This reveals that most of the glacier area is characterized by near-plug-flow conditions, while some sticky spots are also identified. We then conduct experiments to test the sensitivity of the glacier flow to basal lubrication and tidal forcing at the calving front. Reduction of the basal drag by 10–40% produces speed-ups that agree approximately with the observed range of speed-ups that result from warm weather and precipitation events. In agreement with the observations, tidal forcing and surface speed near the calving front are found to be in anti-phase (high tide corresponds to low speed, and vice versa). However, the amplitude of the semi-diurnal variability is underpredicted by a factor ~ 3, which is likely related to either inaccuracies in the surface and bedrock topographies or mechanical weakening due to crevassing.