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Despite the lack of guidance available for practitioners, extensive polypharmacy has become the primary method of treating patients with severe and chronic mood, anxiety, psychotic or behavioral disorders. This ground-breaking new book provides an overview of psychopharmacology knowledge and decision-making strategies, integrating findings from evidence-based trials with real-world clinical presentations. It adopts the approach and mind-set of a clinical investigator and reveals how prescribers can practice 'bespoke psychopharmacology', tailoring care to the individualized needs of patients. Practitioners at all levels of expertise will enhance their ability to devise rationale-based treatments, targeting manifestations of dysfunctional neural circuitry and dimensions of psychopathology that cut across conventional psychiatric diagnoses. Presented in a user-friendly, practical, full-colour layout and incorporating summary tables, bullet points, and illustrative case vignettes, it is an invaluable guide for all healthcare professionals prescribing psychotropic medications, including psychiatry specialists, primary care physicians, and advanced practice registered nurses.
The tragedian Aeschylus is said to have called his plays slices from Homer’s banquet, by which he presumably meant slices from what Homer had left behind on the table.1 It is much easier, as Aeschylus knew (and so famously did), to develop stories that Homer probably knew but did not tell or (as Roman poets eventually did) to weave new stories using Homeric techniques than it is to rework in an artistically effective way what Homer had already done in the Iliad and Odyssey. A change of genre may certainly make that task easier, and the aim of this essay is to look specifically at what happens when a slice from Homer’s own platter becomes a libretto and then, in turn, a performable opera. The specific process in question involves the self-styled poème lyrique of the prolific dramatist, librettist, and actor René Fauchois and Pénélope, the opera made from it by Gabriel Fauré.
Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) may occur in patients treated with antipsychotics. The CommonGround Program supports the recovery and healing of psychiatric outpatients through tools which facilitate better patient-doctor communication regarding psychiatric symptoms, DIMDs, and the effectiveness of treatment.
Patients responses to CommonGround’s web-based waiting-room questionnaire were analyzed in patients who responded yes to having concerns about developing DIMDs (MD-YES) and those who responded no to this question (MD-NO). These groups were compared descriptively to assess the potential effects of DIMD concerns on self-reported functioning and beliefs about prescribed psychiatric medications.
Of 7874 responding patients, 312 (4.0%) and 7562 (96.0%) were in the MD-YES and MD-NO subgroups, respectively. A higher percentage of MD-YES patients reported poor / not so good ability to keep up with daily responsibilities (21.2% vs 15.2% vs MD-NO), along with low energy levels (37.1% vs 26.3% for MD-NO), bothersome thoughts/beliefs/fears (30.5% vs 16.0%), and nervousness/anxiety (35.3% vs 27.5%) all / most of the time. MD-YES patients were also more likely to wonder about stopping their medications (9.3% vs 0.6% for MD-NO) and were concerned about side effects such as sleepiness (31.4% vs 3.9%) and weight gain (37.2% vs 5.7%).
Patients from community mental health centers who were concerned about developing DIMDs tended to express problems with daily functioning and concerns about their psychiatric medications. For these patients, recognizing their fears and concerns may help clinicians discuss treatment options for DIMDs, which could increase patient confidence, encourage adherence to current psychiatric medications, and potentially improve outcomes.
Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors including valbenazine are first-line therapies for tardive dyskinesia (TD), a persistent movement disorder associated with antipsychotic exposure. This real-world study was performed to assess the association between patient awareness of TD symptoms and clinician-assessed symptom severity.
Clinicians who treated antipsychotic-induced TD with a VMAT2 inhibitor within the past 24 months were asked to extract demographic/clinical data from patients charts and complete a survey for additional data, including patient awareness of TD (yes/no) and TD symptom severity (mild/moderate/severe).
Data for 601 patients were provided by 163 clinicians (113 psychiatrists; 46 neurologists; 4 primary care physicians). Patient demographics: 50% male; mean age 50.6 years; 55% schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder; 29% bipolar disorder; 16% other psychiatric diagnoses. Positive relationships were seen between patient awareness and clinician-assessed symptom severity. Awareness was highest in patients with severe symptoms in specific body regions: face (88% vs 78%/69% [awareness by severe vs moderate/mild symptoms]); jaw (90% vs 80%/67%); wrists (90% vs 69%/63%). In other regions, awareness was similar in patients with severe or moderate symptoms: lips (85%/86% vs 68% [severe/moderate vs mild]); tongue (81%/80% vs 73%); neck (80%/78% vs 68%); arms (67%/66% vs 62%); knees (67%/67% vs 53%).
In patients prescribed a VMAT2 inhibitor for TD, patient awareness was generally higher in those determined to have moderate-to-severe symptom severity as assessed by the clinician. More research is needed to understand how awareness and severity contribute to TD burden, and whether different treatment strategies are needed based on these factors.
Prior to bacteriology, miasma theory advanced a climatic theory of health: vapors carrying disease were understood to be exacerbated by heat and humidity, and their dispersal changed depending on weather patterns. The story goes that germ theory corrected miasma’s mistakes, shifting attention away from humid, malodorous air and toward a new comprehension of the role played by microorganisms. But, in fact, a number of American writers resisted this paradigm shift. As these writers saw it, the dénouement of miasmatic depictions of disease heralded an evisceration of a familiar grammar of climatic reflexivity, which they felt compelled to retain and recuperate.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The purpose of the T1-T4 in 3 Minutes program is to improve trainees’ capacity for communication of complex to a non-scientific audience as well as to ensure that our community stakeholders have access to, and understanding of, ongoing clinical and translation research OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The T1-T4 in 3 Program: ο Increases knowledge of research across institution; ο Increases capacity of trainees to convey complex science to lay audiences, funders, colleagues, and the media; ο Increases health and scientific literacy; ο Bridges gaps between trainees and potential entrepreneurial mentors METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: T1-T4 in 3 (Minutes) is an adaptation of the University of Queensland’s Three Minute Thesis competition in which PhD students present their thesis in 3 minutes or less to a lay audience. The competition enables them to cogently communicate their ideas and research findings to a non-specialist audience. Our adapted version, T1-T4 in 3, requires a presentation in three minutes or less to a lay audience, but rather than a thesis, the topics are on trainees’ research, and in this particular case, an idea for a commercial venture. The competition provides awards for the first- and second-best projects as determined by a panel of judges, and a ‘people’s choice’ award determined by a lay audience. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This exercise is anticipated to improve trainees’ capacity for communications as well as ensure that community stakeholders and research and business community partners have access to, and understanding of, ongoing clinical and translation research with potential commercial applications. Further, the increased ability of our faculty and trainees to effectively communicate complex science to the public and other audiences’‘ including potential funders’‘ supports additional stakeholder dissemination mechanisms by increasing their confidence in their abilities to converse with non-specialists about their research, thus increasing the likelihood of participation in other community-based activities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: To increase ITS commercialization efforts, we envision involving numerous external partners to educate, fund, and support new ventures. T1-T4 in 3 judges will include commercialization scholars from regional and national institutions as well as pharmaceutical entities and regional angel investors.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Genomic data can be used by policy and decision makers to guide, and assess the impact of, public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our objective is to investigate the transmission and population dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in New Mexico and other Mountain West states using whole genome sequencing. Understanding how the virus is spreading within and between communities is vital for the design of rational, evidence-based control measures. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We obtained an aliquot of 500ul - 1 ml of inactivated viral transport media (VTM) from positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs as determined by qPCR from the New Mexico Department of Health, TriCore Reference Laboratory, Idaho Bureau of Laboratories, and Wyoming Public Health Laboratory. We extracted viral RNA from the VTM, and sequenced the genomes using the methodology as described by the widely adopted ARTIC amplicon tiling protocol for SARS-CoV-2. Viral genomes were then sequenced on either an Illumina MiSeq or an Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) GridION. We placed these samples within the context of globally representative sequences made available via the GISAID database. Consensus sequences were aligned and added into this global dataset using the Nextstrain augur pipeline. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We sequenced over 1,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes thus far from New Mexico (n=861), Wyoming (n=213) and Idaho (n=44). We used this sequence data to infer the transmission dynamics and spread of the virus, both within states and in context of regional and international spread. We inferred at least 128 separate introductions of the virus into New Mexico and at least 29 introductions into Wyoming. The origins of these introductions are diverse, spread across multiple regions in the US and abroad. We also sequenced samples from an individual who had multiple positive tests over time. Our results suggest that this individual was re-infected with a different strain than that of the initial infection. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our data show that New Mexico and other Mountain West states have continually experienced many introductions of the virus that then seed local outbreaks. By understanding the number of introductions over time, we can assess the impact of travel restrictions on transmission. Our data also supports that some individuals can be re-infected.
Bashir Bashir, Amos Goldberg, and seventeen contributors have produced a powerful and incisive book that deserves the attention of everyone interested in central European history. Bashir and Goldberg's volume engages readers methodologically as well as intellectually, politically, ethically, and personally. It challenges us to think, write, and do things differently, to take risks, and to welcome the invigorating and disruptive presence of people in every aspect of our work.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Evaluate the impact that the Kidney Allocation System has had on racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric deceased donor kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Racial and ethnic minority pediatric transplant candidates have known disparities in access to kidney transplantation. The Kidney Allocation System (KAS), implemented in 2014, was designed in part to alleviate some of these disparities thereby making transplant more equitable. We investigated the effect of KAS on reported disparities. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We utilized Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) data to determine differences in new waitlist registrants, deceased donor (DDKT) and living donor kidney transplants (LDKT), HLA mismatch, and allograft survival among pediatric patients of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Black pediatric patients represented 21.3% of new waitlist registrants pre-KAS and 18.9% post-KAS. Waitlist time increased for pediatric patients of all races post-KAS with the highest increase (131 days) in Asian patients (p < 0.01). The racial distribution of DDKT pre- and post-KAS was unchanged (White 38.4% vs 38.3%, Black 24.5% vs 22.5%, Hispanic 30.6% vs 31.1%, Asian 3.7% vs 4.4%, p = 0.12). The 3-yr graft failure rate is disproportionately worse in Black children compared to other races pre- and post-KAS (White 6.8% vs 5.3%, Black 14% vs 8.7%, Hispanic 8% vs 4.5%, Asian 6.6% vs 6.7%, Other 6.5% vs 2.9%) although there is a trend towards better graft survival in the post-KAS era. Graft survival worsened in Asian children in the post-KAS era (HR 2.34,95% CI 1.05 - 5.25, p=0.038). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric ESRD patients have not been ameliorated by KAS. Children of color have longer waitlist time and are more likely to have graft failure. Alarmingly, allograft failure rate increased in Asian patients post-KAS, which merits further evaluation.
The extent and profiles of heterogeneity in cognitive functioning among participants in clinical trials of antidementia medication are unknown. We aimed to quantify and identify profiles of heterogeneity of cognition in Alzheimer’s disease.
Individual-level participant data were analyzed from five pivotal clinical trials of donepezil for Alzheimer’s disease (N = 2,919). Based on Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale total scores from baseline up to week 12, a latent class model was used to identify heterogeneous groups. A logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with group membership. Sensitivity analysis was conducted, restricted to the donepezil, and then the placebo arm.
The latent class model identified three classes labeled as low scorers (i.e., least cognitive impairment; N = 1,666, 76.04%), improvers (N = 27, 1.23%), and high scorers (N = 498, 22.73%). Logistic modeling showed that donepezil compared to placebo was significantly (p < 0.05) positively associated with membership in the improvers class (OR = 6.88, 95% CI = 2.03, 42.95), and negatively with high scorers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64, 0.98). Sensitivity analysis restricted to the placebo, then donepezil arms replicated similar heterogeneity patterns.
Our results inform clinicians regarding the extent of heterogeneity in cognitive functioning during treatment and contribute to trial design considerations.
Hurricane Harvey (2017) forced the closure of hemodialysis centers across Harris County, Texas (USA) disrupting the provision of dialysis services. This study aims to estimate the percentage of hemodialysis clinics flooded after Harvey, to identify the proportion of such clinics located in high-risk flood zones, and to assess the sensitivity of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) for estimation of flood risk.
Data on 124 hemodialysis clinics in Harris County were extracted from Medicare.gov and geocoded using ArcGIS Online. The FIRMs were overlaid to identify the flood zone designation of each hemodialysis clinic.
Twenty-one percent (26 of 124) of hemodialysis clinics in Harris County flooded after Harvey. Of the flooded clinics, 57.7% were in a high-risk flood zone, 30.8% were within 1km of a high-risk flood zone, and 11.5% were not in or near a high-risk flood zone. The FIRMs had a sensitivity of 58%, misidentifying 42% (11 of 26) of the clinics flooded.
Hurricanes are associated with severe disruptions of medical services, including hemodialysis. With one-quarter of Harris County in the 100-year floodplain, projected increases in the frequency and severity of disasters, and inadequate updates of flood zone designation maps, the implementation of new regulations that address the development of hemodialysis facilities in high-risk flood areas should be considered.
To examine the use of early intervention services in infants with CHD after open-heart surgery and identify factors associated with receipt of services.
Surveys were administered to caregivers of infants who underwent open-heart surgery before 1 year of age at a single institution between July, 2017 and July, 2018. Information regarding the infant’s use of early intervention services and the caregiver’s experience with the programme was obtained. Clinical data were retrieved from the medical record review. Logistic regression identified factors associated with receipt of services.
The study included 158 eligible infants. Ninety-eight caregivers (62%) completed the surveys. Of those surveyed, 53.1% of infants were currently or previously enrolled in early intervention services. Infants most frequently received physical therapy (76.9%). The majority of caregivers found services to be moderately/very helpful (92.3%) and sufficient for their child (76.9%). In the univariate analysis, single-ventricle disease, known syndrome/genetic abnormality, extracardiac anomaly, and longer intensive care and hospital length of stay were associated with receipt of services. Single-ventricle disease (p = 0.004) and known syndrome/genetic abnormality (p < 0.0001) remained independently associated with receipt of services in the multivariable analysis.
Amongst infants at risk for neurodevelopmental deficits, approximately half received services after open-heart surgery. Caregivers expressed satisfaction with the programme. While infants with single-ventricle disease and a known syndrome/genetic abnormality were more likely to receive early intervention services, many at-risk infants with CHD failed to receive services. Further research is needed to identify barriers to early intervention services and promote developmental outcomes.
Our qualitative descriptive study compared how older patients and their informal caregivers experienced the care transition from acute care or rehabilitation to home. We recruited patients 65 years of age or older, or their informal caregivers, from in-patient units within acute care hospitals and rehabilitation facilities to participate in semi-structured interviews. We identified emergent themes via thematic analysis. In all, 16 patients and four patient caregivers participated. Across all care settings, caregivers were integral in facilitating the transition as well as experiencing variable discharge preparation, health care providers’ optimizing transitions, and missed care and medication discrepancies at transition points. Orthopedic and rehabilitation patients more commonly voiced prior transition experiences in discharge preparation, including having to unexpectedly coordinate and wait for outpatient services. Differing responses between acute care and orthopedic settings suggest that transitional care practices and policies favor an individualized approach that considers patients’ previous experiences, needs, and care expectations.
Scientific interest in the therapeutic effects of classical psychedelics has increased in the past two decades. The psychological effects of these substances outside the period of acute intoxication have not been fully characterized. This study aimed to: (1) quantify the effects of psilocybin, ayahuasca, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on psychological outcomes in the post-acute period; (2) test moderators of these effects; and (3) evaluate adverse effects and risk of bias.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies (single-group pre-post or randomized controlled trials) that involved administration of psilocybin, ayahuasca, or LSD to clinical or non-clinical samples and assessed psychological outcomes ⩾24 h post-administration. Effects were summarized by study design, timepoint, and outcome domain.
A total of 34 studies (24 unique samples, n = 549, mean longest follow-up = 55.34 weeks) were included. Classical psychedelics showed significant within-group pre-post and between-group placebo-controlled effects on a range of outcomes including targeted symptoms within psychiatric samples, negative and positive affect-related measures, social outcomes, and existential/spiritual outcomes, with large between-group effect in these domains (Hedges' gs = 0.84 to 1.08). Moderator tests suggest some effects may be larger in clinical samples. Evidence of effects on big five personality traits and mindfulness was weak. There was no evidence of post-acute adverse effects.
High risk of bias in several domains, heterogeneity across studies, and indications of publication bias for some models highlight the need for careful, large-scale, placebo-controlled randomized trials.