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Akathisia, dystonia, dyskinesia and parkinsonism, the four main categories of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS), represent major disadvantages in antipsychotic therapy. In vulnerable patients, acute EPS may progress into potentially irreversible forms such as tardive dystonia and tardive dyskinesia. In the psychiatric clinic, these EPS are often insufficiently recognised or permitted to exist without treatment. In order to ensure a better EPS diagnosis, a simple examination procedure is described. EPS rating scales may serve as an aid in this process. Guidelines are given to prevent and treat EPS. Thus, EPS are best prevented by a course of neuroleptic medication involving as little antidopaminergic D2 effect as possible, including the use of the lowest effective dose (sometimes obtained by addition of a benzodiazepine or carbamazepine) and with antipsychotic drugs which produce low D2 receptor blockade. Treating EPS also consists of using the lowest effective dose and antipsychotics with a low D2 dopamine receptor occupancy. At present, clozapine is the only drug that produces antipsychotic benefits at doses that cause far less D2 receptor antagonism in the basal ganglia of the brain than that seen with standard neuroleptics; however, newer drugs, such as olanzepine, seroquel and sertindole, are on the way.
Farmland bird populations in Germany are declining at a higher speed than species inhabiting other habitats. We studied potential causes for bird population changes based on data from standardised German breeding bird monitoring schemes. We related population trends to covariates describing the changes in the agricultural landscape in Germany, weather conditions during the breeding season and for some migratory species, conditions at stopover and wintering sites. Linear mixed effect models were used to analyse effect strength at species level and conclusions are drawn for the overall group of farmland bird species. The area of grassland and fallow land was shown to have the strongest positive effects and the area of maize and rapeseed the strongest negative effects on farmland bird population trends. The results obtained also indicate that despite the consistent influence of weather conditions during the breeding season, land-use changes had a stronger impact on bird populations than weather. Conditions at Sahel wintering sites did not show a consistent effect on population trends. Based on these findings the study quantitatively underpins and ranks key factors shaping farmland bird populations in Germany.
The chapter disaggregates victim numbers during Bangladesh‘s war of independence in 1971 according to social groups. Based on findings from the secondary literature, medical studies, official Bangladeshi data, diplomatic and UN records, the chapter argues that overall 500,000 to one million lives were destroyed, less than often assumed. Violence was multi-polar (including killings by civilian crowds) and struck many groups in different ways, which blurred the line between armed formations and civilians, though members of the former were killed at higher rates. In absolute figures, rural dwellers (mostly dying from conflict-related famine) and Hindus were worst affected. In relative terms, certain armed formations (police and army units made up of Bengalis) were hardest hit. Killings struck urbanites at higher rates than villagers. Urban workers and pro-Bangladesh political activists bore an elevated risk of losing their life. In general, Pakistani massacres were widespread but data suggest that there was no attempt to exterminate the Bengali intelligentsia. Mass migration as a survival strategy was enormous; ten million civilians fled to India, mostly Hindus, and 16 or 17 million were internally displaced, mostly Muslims.
Several studies have suggested that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy may influence long-term health of offspring by altering the offspring epigenome. Whether maternal leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy might have this effect is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal LTPA during pregnancy and offspring DNA methylation. Participants were recruited from the Archive for Research on Child Health study. At enrollment, participants’ demographic information and self-reported LTPA during pregnancy were determined. High active participants (averaged 637.5 min per week of LTPA; n=14) were matched by age and race to low active participants (averaged 59.5 min per week LTPA; n=28). Blood spots were obtained at birth. Pyrosequencing was used to determine methylation levels of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) (global methylation) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC1-α), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2). We found no differences between offspring of high active and low active groups for LINE-1 methylation. The only differences in candidate gene methylation between groups were at two CpG sites in the P2 promoter of IGF2; the offspring of low active group had significantly higher DNA methylation (74.70±2.25% methylation for low active v. 72.83±2.85% methylation for high active; P=0.045). Our results suggest no effect of maternal LTPA on offspring global and candidate gene methylation, with the exception of IGF2. IGF2 has been previously associated with regulation of physical activity, suggesting a possible role of maternal LTPA on regulation of offspring physical activity.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemented condensed tannins (CT) from the bark of the Black Wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii) on production variables and N use efficiency in high yielding dairy cows. A feeding trial with 96 lactating German Holstein cows was conducted for a total of 169 days, divided into four periods. The animals were allotted to two groups (control (CON) and experimental (EXP) group) according to milk yield in previous lactation, days in milk (98), number of lactations and BW. The trial started and finished with a period (period 1 and 4) where both groups received the same ration (total-mixed ration based on grass and maize silage, ensiled sugar beet pulp, lucerne hay, mineral premix and concentrate, calculated for 37 kg energy-corrected milk). In between, the ration of EXP cows was supplemented with 1% (CT1, period 2) and 3% of dry matter (DM) (CT3, period 3) of a commercial A. mearnsii extract (containing 0.203 g CT/g DM) which was mixed into the concentrate. In period 3, samples of urine and faeces were collected from 10 cows of each group and analyzed to estimate N excretion. Except for a tendency for a reduced milk urea concentration with CT1, there was no difference between groups in period 2 (CON v. CT1; P>0.05). The CT3 significantly reduced (P<0.05) milk protein yield, the apparent N efficiency (kg milk N/k feed N) and milk urea concentration; but total milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by treatment. Furthermore, as estimated from 10 cows per group and using urinary K as a marker to estimate the daily amount of urine voided, CT3 caused a minor shift of N compounds from urine to faeces, as urea-N in urine was reduced, whereas the N concentration in faeces increased. As an improvement in productivity was not achieved and N use efficiency was decreased by adding the CT product it can be concluded that under current circumstances the use in high yielding dairy cows is not advantageous.