To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This essay surveys some of the most prominent metaphors used to characterize infectious diseases in eighteenth-century literature. These include military metaphors that portray the disease as the enemy; ‘othering’ metaphors that categorize infection as a foreign immigrant, import, or invader; and commercial metaphors that compare the circulation of a disease with the circulation of currency or commodities. Using Defoe’s Journal of the Plague Year as a test case, I demonstrate that multiple disease metaphors often operate within a single text, creating a more nuanced and complex portrait of infection than we might otherwise expect in this period. Ultimately, I argue that disease metaphors in eighteenth-century literature are almost always complicated and equivocal, with writers like Defoe drawing attention to the social and ethical meanings of an epidemic, and not just its terrifying destructive force.
Description of a model to improve care for patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) by small targeted investment and maximisation of existing resources.
Treatment of MUS presents several challenges including a lack of clarity on the best models of care and limited service provision. Patients typically present with a physical complaint to physical health outlets: here limited confidence in professionals around how to address these often leads to poor patient/doctor experience, inappropriate use of resources and repeated attendance. Evidence shows that integration of care, psychological interventions and upskilling physicians in interventions such as positive communication, can significantly improve outcomes. Psychiatric Liaison Teams (PLT) are positioned at the interface of mental and physical health services and can play a crucial role for these patients, when provided with the right skill-mix.
1FTE Clinical Psychologist specialising in MUS was integrated into the PLT. Pathways to triage between primary, secondary psychology and the new service were agreed, alongside channels of communication and supervision. The job plan included integrated sessions in Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and PLT. The activities included: assessments, formulations and discharges; brief psychological interventions; group sessions for patients; one-day long courses to GP trainees and physicians, and input in specialities MDTs. Clinical outcomes, numbers of patients seen and signposted, teaching sessions and simulation training delivered were collected.
Over 20 months the service was able to process 237 referrals, 35 were managed over the phone. Referral sources: Gastroenterology 32%, Rheumatology 37%, Psychiatric liaison 28%.
116 patients attended 315 face to face appointments and 21 phone contacts were made. Core-10 data show reduction from moderately severe to mild psychological distress in a sample of patients. 58% of patients were referred on for continuing care. The service ran 8 patient groups including sessions on pain management and joint sessions with Rheumatology. It ran 9 one-day long courses for GP and physician trainees, training a total of 120 doctors: feedback showed increased confidence in managing and recognising MUS. Attendances to Emergency Departments covered by Barking Havering and Redbridge and Bart's Health Trusts combined (5 sites) reduced by 22%, saving an estimated £19,200, while ambulance usage in the cohort dropped by 29%, saving an estimated £9072.
The integration of a specialist psychologist with a mix of educational, advisory and clinical role to a PLT can provide an effective and efficient stepped-up model to increase the provision of care for patients with MUS
Australian mainstream school teachers report a severe shortage of accessible autism-focused resources, strategies, and professional development (PD). This 2-part mixed methods study investigated the effect of using a web-based model of practice (MoP) for PD. The MoP contains evidence-based, autism-specific educational practices and resources designed for mainstream teachers of students on the autism spectrum. The aim was to examine teacher responses to using the MoP and the impact of the mode of delivery. In Part 1, 3 PD delivery conditions for using the MoP were trialled (8 weeks): face-to-face support, online support, or web-based access to detailed resources only. Support was provided by expert autism educators. Teachers (N = 15) reported that the MoP was an accessible, comprehensive, and practical support for educational decision-making, and that support encouraged implementation of the MoP practices. Part 2 trialled a hybrid PD model in 6 regional schools. Limited face-to-face and online support plus access to the MoP was trialled. Interview data indicated that a hybrid model can be an effective method of providing immediate support for teachers.
In this paper, we examine how the Chinese state controls social media. While social media companies are responsible for censoring their platforms, they also selectively report certain users to the government. This article focuses on understanding the logic behind media platforms’ decisions to report users or content to the government. We find that content is less relevant than commonly thought. Information control efforts often focus on who is posting rather than on what they are posting. The state permits open discussion and debate on social media while controlling and managing influential social forces that may challenge the party-state's hegemonic position. We build on Schurmann's “ideology and organization,” emphasizing the Party's goals of embedding itself in all social structures and limiting the ability of non-Party individuals, networks or groups to carve out a separate space for leadership and social status. In the virtual public sphere, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) continues to apply these principles to co-opt, repress and limit the reach of influential non-Party “thought leaders.” We find evidence to support this logic through qualitative and quantitative analysis of leaked censorship documents from a social media company and government documents on information control.
This volume provides an edition and translation of the crown pleas, largely consisting of criminal proceedings, from the surviving roll made for the King's justices at their eyre held in Suffolk in AD 1240. Its publication completes the process of making available for the first time the earliest such roll to survive in full for Suffolk, complementing the edition of the civil pleas which the Suffolk Records Society published as its volume 52 in 2009. The latter was edited by Dr Eric Gallagher, who laid the essential foundations for the present volume. Circumstances prevented his bringing it to completion, however, and that work has therefore been undertaken by Dr Henry Summerson, who has supplied the introduction and where necessary revised the text and indexes.
Dr Gallagher writes: Much of the research for the edition was done as part of my doctoral thesis on the 1240 civil pleas, and depended on the staff of The National Archives, whom I thank for their advice and help, as I do members of the Suffolk Records Society for guidance with the county's place-names, particularly the late John Blatchly, the late Peter Northeast, David Dymond, David Butcher and Keith Briggs. I am also grateful for the support of the Institute of Historical Research, London, both for its facilities and for the help freely given by scholars attending seminars there. I am obliged, too, to Christopher Whittick and the late Lesley Boatwright for their assistance in transcribing and translating the text.
Dr Summerson adds: The realisation of this text was accomplished in difficult circumstances during the nationwide lockdown which resulted from the Covid-19 pandemic of 2020. It was possible only because essential source material, unpublished and printed, was accessible through the websites of the Anglo-American Legal Tradition project (AALT) and the Institute of Historical Research respectively. My thanks go to them, and also to the British Library and the library of the Society of Antiquaries of London for access to books in the closing stages of work. I, too, am most grateful to Keith Briggs for help with place-names, as I am to Nick Bingham of The Boydell Press for essential help with the production of this book.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
PLEAS OF THE CROWN TAKEN AT IPSWICH BEFORE WILLIAM OF YORK, PROVOST OF BEVERLEY, HENRY OF BATH, AND THEIR FELLOWS, JUSTICES ITINERANT IN THE COUNTY OF SUFFOLK IN THE TWENTY-FOURTH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF KING HENRY THE SON OF KING JOHN IN THREE WEEKS FROM EASTER DAY
1 That is Sunday 6 May 1240, a week after the start of the eyre in Suffolk. See 1240 Suffolk Civil Pleas, p. 3, n. 1 for the heading.
THE HUNDRED OF BOSMERE COMES BY 12 [JURORS] – BOSMERE1
1 The hundred name is repeated three times. Nothing is said about past or present sheriffs and coroners, as is commonly the case in other crown pleas rolls.
1161. William of Eye killed Henry de Swinedon at the house of John de Helles in Offton vill, and he fled to Offton church and there acknowledged the death and abjured the realm. He was not in a tithing, but he was of the household of William Talebot, who is in mercy (amercement). Because Offton vill did not pursue it is in mercy (amercement). He had no chattels. Richard Stubbard and Richard Cook, who were with William when he killed him, fled and are not suspected, so they may return if they wish, and are to be under sureties. Richard Cook was not in a tithing, but Richard Stubbard was in the tithing of Gerard Stubbing in Offton, so it is in mercy for his flight (amercement). Four near neighbours, attached for that death, come and are not suspected, nor is anyone else. Englishry was presented by two, namely one on the father's side and another on the mother’s.
1 in manupastu – literally ‘mainpast’, meaning that he ate the bread of his lord, who was responsible for his good behaviour and was amerced if he committed felony.
1162. Matilda the widow of Nicholas de Westwode appealed Adam of Boulogne of the death of William her son, and Adam was arrested and imprisoned in the gaol at Ipswich, and he died there. Godfrey the son of Sephul of Creeting, Roger Aunsel of the same and Nicholas the son of William de Cape, who were with Adam when he killed him are not suspected, nor were they attached, so the sheriff is in mercy, namely Robert de Brywes (amercement).
The text which follows constitutes the second and concluding portion of the roll of the Suffolk eyre of 1240, and is made up of the pleas of the crown and the record of their financial yield. The first part of the roll, recording the county's civil pleas, consisted almost entirely of litigation over land. The crown pleas, by contrast, were made up of what today would be described as criminal business, together with matters affecting the government of the county and the interests of the King, and in particular his revenues. A modest number of people involved in civil litigation can be identified as having also taken part in the conduct of criminal proceedings, and a very few suits over land gave rise to, or were associated with, acts of violence which were recorded among pleas of the crown. The two sections are numbered continuously, but overall the differences between them, as well as editorial convenience, are such as to justify their being presented separately.
Suffolk in 1240
The value of an eyre roll does not lie only in the light it can shed on the operations of the medieval legal system, or on the functions of local and central government; it can also illuminate many aspects of the life of a county, and do so at social levels which are otherwise hard to penetrate. For Suffolk in 1240, moreover, it can serve this purpose for decades not especially well provided for by other sources – positively murky, indeed, when looked at between the searchlights provided by Domesday Book at the end of the eleventh century, and the growing numbers of court rolls and estate accounts which from the last decades of the thirteenth century onwards have provided so many insights into the workings of East Anglian society. In its physical shape the county has changed little in the last 800 years, except along its North Sea coast, already fighting a largely losing battle against erosion. Prosperous Dunwich had yet to disappear under the waves, but in 1228 a lawsuit between the men of Yarmouth and the keeper of the royal manor of Lothingland, at Suffolk's north-east tip, found that the latter's market, presumably at Southtown (formerly known as Little Yarmouth), had recently had to be moved to a site where it was less likely to be ‘swamped and covered by the sea’.