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A history of pastoral nomads in the Islamic Middle East from the rise of Islam, through the middle periods when Mongols and Turks ruled most of the region, to the decline of nomadism in the twentieth century. Offering a vivid insight into the impact of nomads on the politics, culture, and ideology of the region, Beatrice Forbes Manz examines and challenges existing perceptions of these nomads, including the popular cyclical model of nomad-settled interaction developed by Ibn Khaldun. Looking at both the Arab Bedouin and the nomads from the Eurasian steppe, Manz demonstrates the significance of Bedouin and Turco-Mongolian contributions to cultural production and political ideology in the Middle East, and shows the central role played by pastoral nomads in war, trade, and state-building throughout history. Nomads provided horses and soldiers for war, the livestock and guidance which made long-distance trade possible, and animal products to provision the region's growing cities.
Due to the important roles of resistance training and protein consumption in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, we assessed the efficacy of post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption on lean mass, strength, and skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. Thirty healthy untrained older males (age = 68 ± 4 yr) were randomly assigned to Icelandic yogurt (IR; n =15, 18 g of protein) or an iso-energetic placebo (PR; n =15, 0 g protein) immediately following resistance training (3x/week) for eight weeks. Before and after training, lean mass, strength, and skeletal muscle regulatory factors (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], transforming growth factor-beta 1 [TGF-β1], growth differentiation factor 15 [GDF15], Activin A, myostatin [MST], and follistatin [FST]) were assessed. There were group x time interactions (p < 0.05) for body mass (IR: Δ 1, PR: Δ 0.7 kg), body mass index (IR: Δ 0.3, PR: Δ 0.2 kg∙m−2), lean mass (IR: Δ 1.3, PR: Δ 0.6 kg), bench press (IR: Δ 4, PR: 2.3 kg), leg press (IR: Δ 4.2, PR: Δ 2.5 kg), IGF-1 (IR: Δ 0.5, Δ PR: 0.1 ng∙mL−1), TGF-β (IR: Δ −0.2, PR: Δ −0.1 ng∙mL−1), GDF15 (IR: Δ −10.3, PR: Δ −4.8 pg∙mL−1), Activin A (IR: Δ −9.8, PR: Δ −2.9 pg∙mL−1), MST (IR: Δ −0.1, PR: Δ −0.04 ng∙mL−1), and FST (IR: Δ 0.09, PR: Δ 0.03 ng∙mL−1), with Icelandic yogurt consumption resulting in greater changes compared to placebo. The addition of Icelandic yogurt consumption to a resistance training program improved lean mass, strength, and altered skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males compared to placebo. Therefore, Icelandic yogurt as a nutrient-dense source and cost-effective supplement enhances muscular gains mediated by resistance training and consequently may be used as a strategy for the prevention of sarcopenia.
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a classification system that seeks to organize psychopathology using quantitative evidence – yet the current model was established by narrative review. This meta-analysis provides a quantitative synthesis of literature on transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology to evaluate the validity of the HiTOP framework.
Published studies estimating factor-analytic models from diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnoses were screened. A total of 120,596 participants from 35 studies assessing 23 DSM diagnoses were included in the meta-analytic models. Data were pooled into a meta-analytic correlation matrix using a random effects model. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted using the pooled correlation matrix. A hierarchical structure was estimated by extracting one to five factors representing levels of the HiTOP framework, then calculating congruence coefficients between factors at sequential levels.
Five transdiagnostic dimensions fit the DSM diagnoses well (comparative fit index = 0.92, root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, and standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.03). Most diagnoses had factor loadings >|0.30| on the expected factors, and congruence coefficients between factors indicated a hierarchical structure consistent with the HiTOP framework.
A model closely resembling the HiTOP framework fit the data well and placement of DSM diagnoses within transdiagnostic dimensions were largely confirmed, supporting it as valid structure for conceptualizing and organizing psychopathology. Results also suggest transdiagnostic research should (1) use traits, narrow symptoms, and dimensional measures of psychopathology instead of DSM diagnoses, (2) assess a broader array of constructs, and (3) increase focus on understudied pathologies.
Membranous ventricular septal aneurysm is a known entity but rarely causes severe right ventricular outflow obstruction. We report a 40-year-old female with trisomy 18 who developed severe right ventricular outflow obstruction caused by an enormous membranous septal aneurysm associated with unrepaired inlet ventricular septal defect with perimembranous extension.
Sleep and circadian timing shifts later during adolescence, conflicting with early school start times, and resulting in circadian misalignment. Although circadian misalignment has been linked to depression, substance use, and altered reward function, a paucity of experimental studies precludes the determination of causality. Here we tested, for the first time, whether experimentally-imposed circadian misalignment alters the neural response to monetary reward and/or response inhibition.
Healthy adolescents (n = 25, ages 13–17) completed two in-lab sleep schedules in counterbalanced order: An ‘aligned’ condition based on typical summer sleep-wake times (0000–0930) and a ‘misaligned’ condition mimicking earlier school year sleep-wake times (2000–0530). Participants completed morning and afternoon functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during each condition, including monetary reward (morning only) and response inhibition (morning and afternoon) tasks. Total sleep time and circadian phase were assessed via actigraphy and salivary melatonin, respectively.
Bilateral ventral striatal (VS) activation during reward outcome was lower during the Misaligned condition after accounting for the prior night's total sleep time. Bilateral VS activation during reward anticipation was lower during the Misaligned condition, including after accounting for covariates, but did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation during response inhibition was lower during the Misaligned condition, before and after accounting for total sleep time and vigilant attention, but only during the morning scan.
Our findings provide novel experimental evidence that circadian misalignment analogous to that resulting from school schedules may have measurable impacts on healthy adolescents' reward processing and inhibition of prepotent responses.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may develop following exposure to a potentially traumatic event. In developing our understanding of PTSD, identifying potential differences in prevalence, development, maintenance, and prognosis between sexes (Olff, 2017; Breslau, 2002) has been of great interest. Many theories and models have been developed to try to explain sex differences, and improve understanding, treatment, and recovery from this disorder. This chapter provides a snapshot of the current state of knowledge of PTSD with a special focus on the disorder in men, as well as providing insight into future directions and innovative approaches for studying and treating PTSD.
STEM Education in the Primary School introduces pre-service teachers to the theory, skills and practice of teaching STEM through a project-based learning approach. Science, technology, engineering and mathematics are presented as professions, mindsets and practices, and each element of STEM is integrated with the Australian Curriculum through a school garden project case study. Popular STEM topic areas, such as health, shelter and space, are explored using tested and age-appropriate project examples that illustrate the translation of STEM ideas to classroom practice. This textbook connects current research in STEM education to teaching practice through detailed discussion of topics including assessment, learning spaces, community and STEM futures. Encouraging readers to consolidate their knowledge, the text is supported by short-answer and reflection questions, information boxes and real-world scenarios. Suggested activities and downloadable templates in the VitalSource enhanced eBook provide guidance for readers when implementing projects and practices in their classroom.
Assessments need to demonstrate that students have achieved the intended outcomes as anticipated. For students to succeed, they also need to be assessed in ways that support their learning and for tasks to be structured in a way that is ongoing, so they can learn and grow from the feedback. Thus, assessment is meant to be more than an exam or an assignment that is given at the end of the unit. An integrated STEM project draws upon multiple disciplines. This chapter is about assessment, project based-learning, integrated STEM, the Australian Curriculum and the connections between them. It also raises some of the issues and challenges that have been highlighted in the literature on these areas. The chapter also focuses on how diagnostic, formative and summative assessments can be administered. Connections are made between these assessment strategies and how they can be situated in some of the projects that are presented in this book. The chapter also presents some suggestions on how the General Capabilities of the Australian Curriculum can be incorporated into integrated STEM projects.
In this chapter, we first introduce reades to the book and recommend how it could be used. The ‘reverse’ sequencing of content and activities throughout the book – early introduction of classroom-ready activities rather than theory and other considerations – is unlike most textbooks in the STEM education genre and is a deliberate strategy designed to provide you with the most useful sections that are hands-on and engaging before we explain the literature behind these ideas. Second, we discuss the importance of STEM education in today’s primary classrroms and how the approach we present in this book will help you to implement engaging learning experiences for students. Third, we provide some information about project-based learning and why we feel this is the most useful approach to adopt when planning integrated STEM learning and teaching experiences. Finally, we present a Garden Challenge as an example of an integrated STEM project.
Human health in primary school contexts is a perfect launching pad for integrating STEM as well as health and physical education learning outcomes, and should focus on promoting and sustaining students' emotional, physical and social wellbeing. The environment, lifestyle choices, accidents and disease are significant factors influencing human health, and for primary-aged children it is important that learning opportunities link these areas to their out-of-school lives. Cross-cultural understandings are understood and reinforced when in-school and out-of-school experiences are integrated, and they also provide opportunities for developing students' future decision-making capabilities. This chapter presents some common alternative conceptions associated with human health, and describes three integrated STEM projects linked to current issues in primary school. The F–2 project looks at designing and producing a hat for a pet, the 3–4 project involves an optimal exercise program, and the 5–6 project focuses on developing an online social media platform for tweens.
This chapter is about mathematics and how it is taught in Australian primary schools. Teachers in the current education landscape need to reinvent the wheel by bringing about a change to some existing classroom practices in mathematics, and must make the subject-matter as meaningful to students’ lives as possible. The first section of this chapter presents an overview of mathematics as a discipline and how it is applied in the real world. The second sections deals with mathematics education, with some key details on the intentions and expectations of the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. The next section shows the connections between learning theories and how they can be applied to concepts from the Australian Curriculum. The chapter concludes with some ideas on how the curriculum can be applied through a Garden Challenge project.
Science is one of eight learning areas in the Australian Curriculum. In this chapter, the world of scientists and what they do is explained and then explored within the context of Foundation to Year 6 settings. Using Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, 2019) documents and a science concepts lens, relevant knowledge and understanding, skills and human endeavours for the years F–2, 3–4 and 5–6 are identified and mapped to a range of activities in a Garden Challenge project to provide examples of authentic, engaging learning opportunities for students that reflect how scientists work and think when tackling problems. This chapter takes you through the process of how to work and think as scientists do, and how to apply these strategies in Australian primary school classrooms.
Should cars be fuelled by petrol or electricity? Should houses use electricity sourced from a renewable resource such as solar panels, or from a coal-fired power station? Energy is a significant topic from both a global and local perspective, with topical election issues such as these polarising the community. Energy cannot be seen directly – we can only experience its effects as it interacts with living things and materials, In the F–6 energy learnng progression in the Australian Curriculum, there is a focus on sound energy in Years F–2, on heat energy in Years 3–4 and on electrical energy in Years 5–6. Investigating the properties of a range of energy forms such as light, sound, heat, movement and electrical energy, and how they interact with materials, provides students with entry points to identify solutions to real-life issues. This chapter presents some common alternative conceptions associated withenergy, then describes three integrated STEM projects for primary school children.
As a teacher, not only will you be providing a rich context for effective STEM project-based learning, but you will be setting up your students for careers of the future. It is quite a challenge to prepare students for careers that have not yet been invented. This chapter looks at some of the future careers, first considering opportunities to form partnerships and the way they can be developed. It then outlines some of the STEM connections that exist in Australia at three levels: through governments (both federal and state), at the organisational level and at the local level through industry and community groups. STEM informal and formal learning opportunities, activities and events are presented as mini-case studies that fit within these three areas.
What is the future of STEM education and how will it be enacted and viewed over the next decade? This chapter uses the 100-plus years of collective STEM education wisdom of the authors to predict the future of STEM in Australian primary schools. The chapter first presents a short historical review of the ascent of STEM from its birth and then maps its current trajectory. Next it discusses careers of the future and the need for both STEM skills and STEM content knowledge, with an emphasis on the former. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are discussed as a context for the globalisation of STEM education, followed by a discussion of future trends spurred by the use of innovative technologies. Lastly, the chapter focuses on how to develop your own STEM identity.
This chapter is about technologies and how this subject area is taught in Australian primary schools. The first section presents an overview of technology as a discipline. Its connections with engineering and other disciplines are also highlighted. Two examples of technologies developed by Australians are presented to demonstrate how ideas are transformed into products in the real world. The second section deals with technology education and the expectations of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies. The third section shows the connections between the theories of constructivism and constructionism, and how they relate to the delivery of the curriculum.
How would you go about identifying and then setting up a successful STEM learning space in a school? Some teachers hold the view that STEM education is complex, difficult and requires a range of expensive resources to be used in a particularly designed STEM learning space. In the first section, we explore the research related to STEM learning environments and the history and design of makerspaces.The chapter then identifies key aspects of STEM learning spaces, and looks at those materials/resources that are essential and those that are optional for supporting STEM activities. The chapter then examines the views of experienced teachers regarding STEM education and considers the mindset required by STEM teachers.