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Non-compliance with or misinterpretation of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs) when assessing vessel encounters, and the lack of good communication between the vessels involved in a critical situation, are primary contributing factors in collisions. Vessels engaged in an encounter should be aware that they are part of the same scenario and situation, which can become critical. Sharing and contrasting their information about the encounter would help those responsible to take manoeuvring decisions in a consistent way. There are situations whose evaluation by the respective officers in charge of the navigational watch may diverge and lead to disagreements on the actions to be taken. If there is no proper inter-ship communication, a collision may result. This paper presents a proposal for safety communication implemented in a programmable system using common equipment (automatic identification system), and applies it to a case study of one such special situation, showing how it could help to reduce the risk of collision.
Maternal nutrition is critical in mammalian development, influencing the epigenetic reprogramming of gametes, embryos, and fetal programming. We evaluated the effects of different levels of sulfur (S) and cobalt (Co) in the maternal diet throughout the pre- and periconceptional periods on the biochemical and reproductive parameters of the donors and the DNA methylome of the progeny in Bos indicus cattle. The low-S/Co group differed from the control with respect to homocysteine, folic acid, B12, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose. The oocyte yield was lower in heifers from the low S/Co group than that in the control heifers. Embryos from the low-S/Co group exhibited 2320 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the genome compared with the control embryos. We also characterized candidate DMRs linked to the DNMT1 and DNMT3B genes in the blood and sperm cells of the adult progeny. A DMR located in DNMT1 that was identified in embryos remained differentially methylated in the sperm of the progeny from the low-S/Co group. Therefore, we associated changes in specific compounds in the maternal diet with DNA methylation modifications in the progeny. Our results help to elucidate the impact of maternal nutrition on epigenetic reprogramming in livestock, opening new avenues of research to study the effect of disturbed epigenetic patterns in early life on health and fertility in adulthood. Considering that cattle are physiologically similar to humans with respect to gestational length, our study may serve as a model for studies related to the developmental origin of health and disease in humans.
Due to conflicts between classic and molecular systematics of Camallanidae, different data types were used for the first time, to better understand the evolutionary history and taxa consistency within this family. Genetic [18S and 28S rDNA; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA], morphological and life history traits were used to infer phylogenies using Bayesian inference, reconstructed from separated and concatenated datasets. The consistency of tree and morphological traits was evaluated using the consistency index. Characters were mapped on the trees and the phylogenetic informativeness of genetic markers was estimated. Phylogenetic informativeness of 18S provided better resolution for outer nodes, COI for inners and 28S had an intermediate profile. New sequences for two camallanid species were obtained. Phylogenies of genetic and concatenated data largely agreed, showing more divergence in the COI dataset, due to its higher mutation rate vs stable morphology for diagnosing higher taxa. No genus sustained monophyly. The lack of autapomorphy and phylogenetic proximity supported the partition of Batrachocamallanus as synonym of Procamallanus and Spirocamallanus, which should not be considered as subgenera. Although traits of buccal capsule, male tail, habitat, host and biogeographic were highly consistent, intrinsic patterns varied according to different taxa assemblages. Morphological systematics of Camallanidae, based on buccal capsule, is artificial for certain taxa.
Tropical forest hotspots have a high diversity of species but have lost > 70% of their original vegetation cover and are characterized by a multitude of small and isolated fragments. Paradoxically, conservation actions in these areas are still mainly focused on protection of large tracts of forests, a strategy now infeasible because of the small area of forest remnants. Here we use the Vulnerable black-handed titi monkey Callicebus melanochir as a model to study the effects of habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation on arboreal mammals and to provide insights for science-driven conservation in fragmented landscapes in tropical forest hotspots. We surveyed 38 Atlantic Forest fragments in Bahia State, Brazil and assessed the effects of patch area, quality and visibility, and landscape connectivity on the occurrence of our model species. Patch area was the single best model explaining species occurrence. Nonetheless, patch quality and visibility, and landscape connectivity, positively affect occurrence. In addition to patch area, patch quality, patch visibility and landscape connectivity are useful for predicting the occurrence of arboreal mammals in the fragments of tropical forest hotspots. We encourage the assessment of habitat quality (based on remotely sensed vegetation indices) and habitat visibility (based on digital elevation models) to improve discoverability of arboreal mammal populations and selection of fragments for conservation purposes across fragmented landscapes of tropical forest hotspots. Large remnants of tropical forest hotspots are scarce and therefore we require baseline data to support conservation actions and management in small forest fragments.
The Cold War triggered the appearance of U.S.-sponsored re-distributive policies in Latin America with the goal of decreasing the influence of the Soviet Union. We study how organized groups of workers increased the intensity of one of the largest programs of the time, Salvador Allende’s land reform in Chile (1970–1973). Using original data in an event study research design, we find that the local political actions of workers—proxied by land invasions—affected the intensity and location of expropriations. We argue this result can be explained by a threat of political unrest.
To estimate the burden of weight excess in Brazilian adolescents.
Systematic review with meta-analysis.
We searched the literature in four databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SciELO and LILACS). Studies were included if they had cross-sectional or cohort design and enrolled Brazilian adolescents. Studies based on self-reported measures were excluded. Random effect models were used to calculate prevalence estimate and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI).
Brazilian adolescents (10 to 19 years old).
One hundred and fifty-one studies were included. Trend analyses showed a significant increase in the prevalence of excess weight in the last decades: 8.2% (95%CI:7.7-8.7) until year 2000, 18.9 (95%CI:14.7-23.2) from 2000 to 2009, and 25.1% (95%CI:23.4-26.8) in 2010 and after. A similar temporal pattern was observed in the prevalence of overweight and obesity separately. In sensitivity analyses, lower prevalence of excess weight was found in older adolescents and those defined using IOTF cutoff points. The Southeast and South regions had the highest prevalence of excess weight, overweight and obesity. No significant difference in prevalence by sex was found, except for studies before the year 2000.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazilian adolescents is high and continues to rise. Public policies on an individual level and targeting modifications in the obesogenic environment are necessary.
Although bovine embryo in vitro production (IVP) is a common assisted reproductive technology, critical points warrant further study, including sperm traits and oxidative status of sperm for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Our aim was to evaluate whether the lipid peroxidation index of commercial bull semen is influenced by sperm traits and oxidative status of sperm populations selected using Percoll® gradient. Semen straws from 48 batches from 14 Nelore bulls were thawed individually, analyzed for motility and subjected to Percoll selection. After Percoll, the lipid peroxidation index of the extender was evaluated, whereas selected sperm were analyzed for motility, acrosome and membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, chromatin resistance and oxidative potential under IVF conditions. Batches were divided retrospectively in four groups according to lipid peroxidation index. Sperm from Group 4 with the lowest index of lipid peroxidation had, after Percoll selection, greater plasma membrane integrity (81.3%; P = 0.004), higher mitochondrial potential (81.1%; P = 0.009) and lower oxidative potential (135.3 ng thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)/ml; P = 0.026) compared with Group 1 with highest lipid peroxidation index (74.3%, 73% and 213.1 ng TBARS/ml, respectively). Furthermore, we observed negative correlations for the lipid peroxidation index with motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial potential, and positive correlations with oxidative potential. In conclusion, oxidative stress in semen straws, as determined using lipid peroxidation in the extender, is associated with sperm traits and their oxidative potential under IVF conditions. These results provided further insights regarding the importance of preventing oxidative stress during semen handling and cryopreservation, as this could affect sperm selected for IVF. Finally, Percoll selection did not completely remove sperm with oxidative markers.
Elasmobranchs in the Gulf of California have been found with malformations, probably originated during embryonic development or caused by environmental anomalies and pollution associated with intense mining activity in the region. Clasper malformations are reported for the first time in two specimens of Pseudobatos buthi, a species recently described from the Gulf of California. The function of the claspers was not affected by the size difference, because specimens presented the distinctive characteristics of an adult individual. The reproductive system did not show any malformation, with symmetrical testes. Histological analysis of the testes revealed a normal spermatogenic development. To elucidate the causes and to detect a possible effect of the morphological malformations due to high levels of heavy metals, trace concentration values (cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, silver, lead and zinc) were determined in muscle and liver. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the muscle of the two specimens were below the permissible limit for human consumption (<0.05 mg kg−1); however, iron and zinc presented high values (0.455, 4.024 mg kg−1 in muscle and 21.931, 3.694 mg kg−1 in liver respectively). Mining activity and heavy metal pollution in the sampling area may have caused the malformations, which might be attributed to the high values of iron and zinc discovered in the muscle and liver.
Food insecurity has been shown to be associated with fast-food consumption. However, to date, studies on this specific topic are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between food insecurity and fast-food consumption in adolescents aged 12-15 years from 68 countries (7 low-income, 27 lower middle-income, 20 upper middle-income, 14 high-income countries). Cross-sectional, school-based data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analyzed. Data on past 30-day food insecurity (hunger) and fast-food consumption in the past 7 days were collected. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. Models were adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. There were 180,164 adolescents aged 12-15 years [mean (SD) age 13.8 (1.0) years; 50.8% boys] included in the analysis. Overall, severe food insecurity (i.e., hungry because there was not enough food in home most of the time or always) was associated with 1.17 (95%CI=1.08-1.26) times higher odds for fast-food consumption. The estimates pooled by country-income levels were significant in low-income countries (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.30; 95%CI=1.05-1.60), lower middle-income countries (aOR=1.15; 95%CI=1.02-1.29), and upper middle-income countries (aOR=1.26; 95%CI=1.07-1.49), but not in high-income countries (aOR=1.04; 95%CI=0.88-1.23). The mere co-occurrence of food insecurity and fast-food consumption is of public health importance. To tackle this issue, a strong governmental and societal approach is required to utilize effective methods as demonstrated in some high-income countries such as the implementation of food banks and the adoption of free school meals.
The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the relationship of subsidiaries of multinational companies with local partners. The focus is on MNCs from advanced markets and their influence on the development of reverse innovations in emerging markets. Unlike the regular flow, reverse innovations consist of the development of new products, processes, and services created initially to meet the local demands of EMs, but that are later understood as fundamental by the multinational for generating gains of global competitive advantage, only to be disseminated to the headquarters and applied in developed markets. Through the use of statistical techniques in 113 subsidiaries of foreign multinationals operating in Brazil, we found that the quality of the relationship with local partners is significant, as it offers subsidiaries access to both local resources and the knowledge acquired by local partners. In addition, we found that innovations developed by subsidiaries were not restricted to them, thanks to the gains in competitive advantage they provide to headquarters and other units operating in developed markets. Finally, we point out that it is not only subsidiaries but also local partners who enjoy gains from such access, an indication of the strategic importance of quality relationships between local partners and subsidiaries in emerging markets for competitive gains on both ends.
This chapter sheds light on the growing relevance of frugal innovation as EMNCs leverage competitive advantages through its means. We highlight the three component parts (open, sustainable and cost innovation) of this process. Drawing on case studies and a survey of Brazilian MNCs, we demonstrate the stakes of frugal innovation as a catch-up strategy.
Habitat specialists are particularly vulnerable to extinction when habitat conditions are altered. Information on the habitat use of such species is thus important because it provides insight into factors that influence distribution and abundance, which is crucial for conservation. Here, we aimed to identify factors that influence the patterns of presence and abundance of the Endangered volcano rabbit Romerolagus diazi, a rare leporid with a patchy distribution. Through exhaustive sampling of its range in the Sierra Chichinautzin and Sierra Nevada volcanic fields, Mexico, and using generalized linear models, we found that the probability of patch occupancy was higher where bunchgrass cover exceeded 75%, rock cover exceeded 5%, no cattle grazing was observed and human settlements were at least 7 km away. Patches with greater relative abundance were those with similar characteristics, but located at elevations > 3,600 m, and with rock cover < 15%. Cattle grazing was identified as a major threat to local populations of the volcano rabbit, particularly in the Sierra Chichinautzin. Because of the significance of bunchgrasses for this species, the protection of the mountain grasslands is required in both volcanic fields.
The recent discovery of an exceptionally rich grave at La Almoloya in south-eastern Spain illuminates the political context of Early Bronze Age El Argar society. The quantity, variety and opulence of the grave goods emphasise the technological, economic and social dimensions of this unique culture. The assemblage includes politically and ideologically emblematic objects, among which a silver diadem stands out. Of equally exceptional character is the building under which the grave was found—possibly one of the first Bronze Age palaces identified in Western Europe. The architecture and artefacts from La Almoloya provide new insight into emblematic individuals and the exercise of power in societies of marked economic asymmetry.
There are limited data regarding the reproductive biology of the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) in Ecuadorian waters, which limits the development of appropriate management measures of its populations. A total of 1664 S. lewini specimens were recorded in Manta, Ecuador in 2003–2009. Specimens were caught by local commercial fisheries and measured between 50–310 cm total length (TL). Females were more frequently caught, with a sex ratio of 1M:1.8F. The median size at maturity was 178.1 cm TL for males and 219.4 cm TL for females, which was larger compared with other localities. Gravid females, which measured 246–298 cm TL, contained 16–22 embryos. Embryos, which were observed from October–July, measured between 11.1–54.6 cm TL and the available data agreed with a gestation period of 10–11 months that starts in September and ends in June/July. Size at birth was 47–55 cm TL. Sampling data indicated that most fishing activity occurred in nearshore and around seamounts in the central-eastern Pacific Ocean, with much of the landed catch comprising immature individuals. This study documents the reproductive biology of S. lewini in the central-eastern Pacific Ocean and provides additional information to improve management and conservation measures for this species.
America's first urban centers may have been located in the Supe Valley, Peru. After investigating the location and the orientation of the main built structures, we show that it is not only the presence of the Supe River that determines their orientation but also that astronomical relationships within the orientation of the buildings dictate their setting within the valley. The southernmost position of moonrise on the horizon seems to be the most important astronomical target. There is the possibility of a trend toward attributing greater importance to the June solstice sunrise and the rising of certain stars or asterisms. These orientations could relate to specific moments throughout the year, in particular to seasonal rains, subsequent river flooding, and agricultural cycles. This is one of the earliest examples of the interaction of land- and skyscapes in human cultures and indeed the first in the Americas.
To evaluate the impact of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) on a public hospital in a middle-income country.
A retrospective, observational study analyzing the economic data retrieved on the dehospitalization of patients on antibiotic therapy.
Public university trauma hospital.
Data were collected from June 2017 to May 2020. Antibiotic cost, hospital length of stay, and risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR) infection or colonization were reviewed, along with the break-even point at which a balance occurs between OPAT antimicrobial costs and all in-hospital costs. A cumulative risk curve was constructed showing the incidence of MDR during the review period.
In total, 225 patients were studied. The implementation of OPAT resulted in a reduction of $156,681 (49.6%), which is equivalent to an average of $696 per patient, as well as a shortened length of stay, from 33.5 to 15.7 days. OPAT reduces the risk of acquiring infection by MDR bacteria by having the final treatments administered outside of the hospital environment. The breakeven curves, comparing the duration of the OPAT to daily medication costs, allowed for the prediction of the time and dollar costs of antibiotic therapy.
OPAT presented a significant cost savings, shortened length of stay, and reduced risk of contamination of patients by MDR.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
To develop and validate protocols for photographed food record directed to visually impaired people.
Photographic techniques were established for capturing food images using a smartphone, and written protocols were defined. Thereafter, visually impaired people made photographic records of three standardised meals (breakfast, lunch/dinner, and snack) following the previously developed protocols. These photographs were then evaluated by a panel of experts (nutritionists and photographer) to indicate whether the framing, focus and angle were suitable to identify the food type, food amount and portion size. Agreement between the experts was assessed using Fleiss’ Kappa.
Natal, the capital of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
Visually impaired people (n 40); nutritionists (n 2); professional photographer (n 1).
Both protocols obtained a high proportion of satisfactory photos for all the items in the three dimensions investigated. When overall quality was assessed, the experts’ agreement was a substantial that through the images it would be possible to identify the food type and portion size, both for Frontal Photos (k = 0·70 and k = 0·62, respectively) and Aerial Photos (k = 0·68 and k = 0·70, respectively). The degree of agreement that the photos presented a satisfactory global quality was moderate for the Frontal Photo (k = 0·43) and substantial for the Aerial Photo (k = 0·64). Participants who frequently used smartphone-type cell phones obtained better quality images for all these attributes for both protocols.
The protocols for photographed food record developed for visually impaired people in this study are feasible and present themselves as an alternative strategy to qualitatively assess their dietary intake.