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To review the experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and service users on the provision and receipt of home enteral nutrition (HEN) in primary care settings, respectively.
HEN supports the nutritional needs of service users in primary care settings who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone. While HEN supports service users to remain in their home, the provision of HEN services can be variable. The prevalence of HEN is increasing as health systems shift delivery of care from acute to primary care settings, and therefore the evolving needs of HCPs and service users in relation to HEN deserve exploration.
Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they described (1) practices that support best outcomes in adults on HEN and residing in their own homes and/or (2) service user and HCP experiences of HEN. Studies on the economics of HEN were included. Databases searched included MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Publications up to March 2021 were included. A descriptive analytical approach was used to summarise the findings.
Key themes included the importance of initial education to enable service users to adapt to HEN and the need for support from knowledgeable HCPs. Access to support from HCPs in primary care was limited, and some HCPs felt their knowledge of HEN was inadequate. Service users highlighted the significant impact of HEN on daily living and emphasised the need for support from a HEN team. HEN services were also associated with reduced hospital admissions, lengths of stay in hospital, and costs of hospitalisation.
A specialist HEN service can manage enteral nutrition-related complications, reduce unnecessary hospital admissions, and improve quality of care and patient satisfaction. Further education of HCPs is needed on the provision of HEN.
Overall, engagement and compliance from the crowd-sourced hand hygiene observation program, Clean-In-Clean-Out (CICO), were similar between 2019 (96.6%) and 2020 (96.7%) despite fluctuations within 2020 that reflected our hospital’s coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience. Shared responsibility and just-in-time reminders can allow manual hand hygiene observation models to be sustainable.
Few investigations have evaluated the validity of current body composition technology among racially and ethnically diverse populations. This study assessed the validity of common body composition methods in a multi-ethnic sample stratified by race and ethnicity. One hundred and ten individuals (55 % female, age: 26·5 (sd 6·9) years) identifying as Asian, African American/Black, Caucasian/White, Hispanic, Multi-racial and Native American were enrolled. Seven body composition models (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), two bioelectrical impedance devices (BIS, IB) and three multi-compartment models) were evaluated against a four-compartment criterion model by assessing total error (TE) and standard error of the estimate. For the total sample, measures of % fat and fat-free mass (FFM) from multi-compartment models were all excellent to ideal (% fat: TE = 0·94–2·37 %; FFM: TE = 0·72–1·78 kg) compared with the criterion. % fat measures were very good to excellent for DXA, ADP and IB (TE = 2·52–2·89 %) and fairly good for BIS (TE = 4·12 %). For FFM, single device estimates were good (BIS; TE = 3·12 kg) to ideal (DXA, ADP, IB; TE = 1·21–2·15 kg). Results did not vary meaningfully between each race and ethnicity, except BIS was not valid for African American/Black, Caucasian/White and Multi-racial participants for % fat (TE = 4·3–4·9 %). The multi-compartment models evaluated can be utilised in a multi-ethnic sample and in each individual race and ethnicity to obtain highly valid results for % fat and FFM. Estimates from DXA, ADP and IB were also valid. The BIS may demonstrate greater TE for all racial and ethnic cohorts and results should be interpreted cautiously.
A Mediterranean-style eating pattern (MED-EP) may include moderate red meat intake. However, it is unknown if the pro-atherogenic metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is affected by the amount of red meat consumed with a MED-EP. The results presented are from a secondary, retrospective objective of an investigator-blinded, randomised, crossover, controlled feeding trial (two 5-week interventions separated by a 4-week washout) to determine if a MED-EP with 200 g unprocessed lean red meat/week (MED-CONTROL) reduces circulating TMAO concentrations compared to a MED-EP with 500 g unprocessed lean red meat/week (MED-RED). Participants were seventy-seven women and twelve men (n 39 total) who were either overweight or obese (BMI: mean (30·5) (sem 0·3) kg/m2). Serum samples were obtained following an overnight fast both before (pre) and after (post) each intervention. Fasting serum TMAO, choline, carnitine and betaine concentrations were measured using a targeted liquid chromatography-MS. Data were analysed to assess if (a) TMAO and related metabolites differed by intervention and (b) if changes in TMAO were associated with changes in Framingham 10-year risk score. Serum TMAO was lower post-intervention following MED-CONTROL compared with MED-RED intervention (post-MED-CONTROL 3·1 (sem 0·2) µmv. post-MED-RED 5·0 (sem 0·5) µm, P < 0·001), and decreased following MED-CONTROL (pre- v. post-MED-CONTROL, P = 0·025). Exploratory analysis using mixed model ANCOVA identified a positive association between changes in TMAO and changes in homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0·036). These results suggest that lower amounts of red meat intake lead to lower TMAO concentrations in the context of a MED-EP.
Hospital-associated fungal infections from construction and renovation activities can be mitigated using an infection control risk assessment (ICRA) and implementation of infection prevention measures. The effectiveness of these measures depends on proper installation and maintenance. Consistent infection prevention construction rounding with feedback is key to ongoing compliance.
To test the hypothesis that higher level of purpose in life is associated with lower likelihood of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Brazilians.
As part of the Pathology, Alzheimer’s and Related Dementias Study (PARDoS), informants of 1,514 older deceased Brazilians underwent a uniform structured interview. The informant interview included demographic data, the Clinical Dementia Rating scale to diagnose dementia and MCI, the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for depression, and a 6-item measure of purpose in life, a component of well-being.
Purpose scores ranged from 1.5 to 5.0 with higher values indicating higher levels of purpose. On the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, 940 persons (62.1%) had no cognitive impairment, 121 (8.0%) had MCI, and 453 (29.9%) had dementia. In logistic regression models adjusted for age at death, sex, education, and race, higher purpose was associated with lower likelihood of MCI (odds ratio = .58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .43, .79) and dementia (odds ratio = .49, 95% CI: .41, .59). Results were comparable after adjusting for depression (identified in 161 [10.6%]). Neither race nor education modified the association of purpose with cognitive diagnoses.
Higher purpose in life is associated with lower likelihood of MCI and dementia in older black and white Brazilians.
The clinical value of tonsillectomy continues to cause much debate, despite tonsil disease representing a significant burden to patients, caregivers and healthcare systems. This study assessed the long-term effect of adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy on the Paediatric Throat Disorders Outcome Test (‘T-14’), a validated tool used to objectively assess obstructive and infective symptoms in paediatric throat disorders.
Patients aged under 16 years undergoing adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy were recruited consecutively from 2018 into our prospective observational study. The Paediatric Throat Disorders Outcome Test questionnaire was completed by the children's caregivers pre-operatively (n = 80), and at 21 days (n = 68) and 2 years (n = 66) post-operatively.
Significant reductions were noted in mean total Paediatric Throat Disorders Outcome Test scores at 21 days and 2 years post-operatively (p ≤ 0.003).
Our results provide supporting evidence that paediatric adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy significantly improves quality of life up to two years post-operatively, and therefore remains a valuable use of healthcare resources.
Bayesian analysis has emerged as a rapidly expanding frontier in qualitative methods. Recent work in this journal has voiced various doubts regarding how to implement Bayesian process tracing and the costs versus benefits of this approach. In this response, we articulate a very different understanding of the state of the method and a much more positive view of what Bayesian reasoning can do to strengthen qualitative social science. Drawing on forthcoming research as well as our earlier work, we focus on clarifying issues involving mutual exclusivity of hypotheses, evidentiary import, adjudicating among more than two hypotheses, and the logic of iterative research, with the goal of elucidating how Bayesian analysis operates and pushing the field forward.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances and obesity. Treatment of PCOS includes modifying lifestyle behaviours associated with weight management. However, poor sleep in the non-PCOS population has been associated with poorer lifestyle behaviours. The aim was to investigate whether sleep disturbance confounds or modifies the association between lifestyle factors and PCOS. This was a cross-sectional analysis from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health cohort aged 31–36 years in 2009 were analysed (n 6067, 464 PCOS, 5603 non-PCOS). Self-reported data were collected on PCOS, anthropometry, validated modified version of the Active Australia Physical Activity survey, validated FFQ and sleep disturbances through latent class analysis. Women with PCOS had greater adverse sleep symptoms including severe tiredness (P = 0·001), difficulty sleeping (P < 0·001) and restless sleep (P < 0·001), compared with women without PCOS. Women with PCOS also had higher energy consumption (6911 (sd 2453) v. 6654 (sd 2215) kJ, P = 0·017), fibre intake (19·8 (sd 7·8) v. 18·9 (sd 6·9) g, P = 0·012) and diet quality (dietary guidelines index (DGI)) (88·1 (sd 11·6) v. 86·7 (sd 11·1), P = 0·008), lower glycaemic index (50·2 (sd 4·0) v. 50·7 (sd 3·9), P = 0·021) and increased sedentary behaviour (6·3 (sd 2·8) v. 5·9 (sd 2·8) h, P = 0·009). There was a significant interaction between PCOS and sleep disturbances for DGI (P = 0·035), therefore only for women who had adequate sleep was PCOS associated with a higher DGI. For women with poorer sleep, there was no association between PCOS and DGI. The association between PCOS and improved diet quality may only be maintained if women can obtain enough good quality sleep.
As part of the Pathology, Alzheimer’s and Related Dementias Study, we conducted uniform structured interviews with knowledgeable informants (72% children) of 1,493 older (age > 65) Brazilian decedents.
The interview included measures of social isolation (number of family and friends in at least monthly contact with decedent), emotional isolation (short form of UCLA Loneliness Scale), and major depression plus the informant portion of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale to diagnose dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Decedents had a median social network size of 8.0 (interquartile range = 9.0) and a median loneliness score of 0.0 (interquartile range = 1.0). On the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, 947 persons had no cognitive impairment, 122 had MCI, and 424 had dementia. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education, sex, and race, both smaller network size (odds ratio [OR] = 0.975; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.962, 0.989) and higher loneliness (OR = 1.145; 95% CI: 1.060, 1.237) were associated with higher likelihood of dementia. These associations persisted after controlling for depression (present in 10.4%) and did not vary by race. After controlling for depression, neither network size nor loneliness was related to MCI.
Social and emotional isolation are associated with higher likelihood of dementia in older black and white Brazilians.
We evaluated the ability of an ultraviolet-C (UV-C) room decontamination device to kill Candida auris and C. albicans. With an organic challenge (fetal calf serum), the UV-C device demonstrated the following log10 reductions for C. auris of 4.57 and for C. albicans of 5.26 with direct line of sight, and log10 reductions for C. auris of 2.41 and for C. ablicans of 3.96 with indirect line of sight.
To determine clinical characteristics associated with false-negative severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results to help inform coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing practices in the inpatient setting.
A retrospective observational cohort study.
All patients 2 years of age and older tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March 14, 2020, and April 30, 2020, who had at least 2 SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests within 7 days.
The primary outcome measure was a false-negative testing episode, which we defined as an initial negative test followed by a positive test within the subsequent 7 days. Data collected included symptoms, demographics, comorbidities, vital signs, labs, and imaging studies. Logistic regression was used to model associations between clinical variables and false-negative SARS-CoV-2 test results.
Of the 1,009 SARS-CoV-2 test results included in the analysis, 4.0% were false-negative results. In multivariable regression analysis, compared with true-negative test results, false-negative test results were associated with anosmia or ageusia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–50.5; P = .02), having had a COVID-19–positive contact (aOR, 10.5; 95% CI, 4.3–25.4; P < .0001), and having an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (aOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2–9.3; P = .03). Demographics, symptom duration, other laboratory values, and abnormal chest imaging were not significantly associated with false-negative test results in our multivariable analysis.
Clinical features can help predict which patients are more likely to have false-negative SARS-CoV-2 test results.
Fontan fenestration allows right-to-left shunting increasing cardiac output and oxygen delivery. Increased shunting occurs as cardiac function and ventricular end-diastolic pressures improve, potentially decreasing oxygen saturation. Complete closure may result in impaired Fontan haemodynamics and low cardiac output; however, there are no dedicated devices to reduce fenestration size. We describe Fontan fenestration size reduction using the Atrial Flow Regulator.
To describe a pilot project infection prevention and control (IPC) assessment conducted in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in New York State (NYS) during a pivotal 2-week period when the region became the nation’s epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A telephone and video assessment of IPC measures in SNFs at high risk or experiencing COVID-19 activity.
SNFs in 14 New York counties, including New York City.
A 3-component remote IPC assessment: (1) screening tool; (2) telephone IPC checklist; and (3) COVID-19 video IPC assessment (ie, “COVIDeo”).
In total, 92 SNFs completed the IPC screening tool and checklist: 52 (57%) were conducted as part COVID-19 investigations, and 40 (43%) were proactive prevention-based assessments. Among the 40 proactive assessments, 14 (35%) identified suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVIDeo was performed in 26 (28%) of 92 assessments and provided observations that other tools would have missed: personal protective equipment (PPE) that was not easily accessible, redundant, or improperly donned, doffed, or stored and specific challenges implementing IPC in specialty populations. The IPC assessments took ∼1 hour each and reached an estimated 4 times as many SNFs as on-site visits in a similar time frame.
Remote IPC assessments by telephone and video were timely and feasible methods of assessing the extent to which IPC interventions had been implemented in a vulnerable setting and to disseminate real-time recommendations. Remote assessments are now being implemented across New York State and in various healthcare facility types. Similar methods have been adapted nationally by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Neighborhood disadvantage was significantly associated with brain structure and function in trauma-exposed adults, providing evidence that contextual factors should be assessed in mental health research, particularly in high-risk populations. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Over 13 percent of Americans live in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood. Previous work has linked lower individual socioeconomic position to alterations in brain structure and function. However, the neural effects of area-level socioeconomic factors, such as neighborhood disadvantage, are unclear. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We recruited two-hundred and fifteen traumatically-injured participants from an Emergency Department in southeastern Wisconsin. An Area Deprivation Index (ADI) score, a national measure of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, was derived from each participant’s home address. Two-weeks post-trauma, participants underwent a battery of self-report measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Using a multi-modal approach, we investigated the impact of ADI on brain structure as well as neural activation during rest and during an emotional uncertainty task. We sought to disentangle the relationship between neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position and neural activity in the context of trauma. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We demonstrated that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with decreased volume and alterations of resting state functional connectivity of structures implicated in affect processing, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These results held even after controlling for relevant individual variables, including acute post-traumatic stress symptoms and years of education. Moreover, individuals from disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibited heighted activation of these same structures in response to aversive stimuli. Thus, brain regions critical for recognizing and processing negative stimuli are susceptible to the effects of area-level socioeconomic factors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The results offer additional evidence that neurobiological mechanisms clarify how stress ‘gets under the skin’. Changes to key brain regions may explain why those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at a heighted risk of PTSD. Broadly, these findings should inform future policies and community-driven interventions aimed at reducing poverty.
Retrospectively apply criteria from Center to Advance Palliative Care to a cohort of children treated in a cardiac ICU and compare children who received a palliative care consultation to those who were eligible for but did not receive one.
Medical records of children admitted to a cardiac ICU between January 2014 and June 2017 were reviewed. Selected criteria include cardiac ICU length of stay >14 days and/or ≥ 3 hospitalisations within a 6-month period.
Measurements and Results:
A consultation occurred in 17% (n = 48) of 288 eligible children. Children who received a consult had longer cardiac ICU (27 days versus 17 days; p < 0.001) and hospital (91 days versus 35 days; p < 0.001) lengths of stay, more complex chronic conditions at the end of first hospitalisation (3 versus1; p < 0.001) and the end of the study (4 vs.2; p < 0.001), and higher mortality (42% versus 7%; p < 0.001) when compared with the non-consulted group. Of the 142 pre-natally diagnosed children, only one received a pre-natal consult and 23 received it post-natally. Children who received a consultation (n = 48) were almost 2 months of age at the time of the consult.
Less than a quarter of eligible children received a consultation. The consultation usually occurred in the context of medical complexity, high risk of mortality, and at an older age, suggesting potential opportunities for more and earlier paediatric palliative care involvement in the cardiac ICU. Screening criteria to identify patients for a consultation may increase the use of palliative care services in the cardiac ICU.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplementary materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.