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The aim of the current study was to replicate findings in adults indicating that higher sensitivity to stressful events is predictive of both onset and persistence of psychopathological symptoms in a sample of adolescents and young adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that sensitivity to mild stressors in particular is predictive of the developmental course of psychopathology.
We analyzed experience sampling and questionnaire data collected at baseline and one-year follow-up of 445 adolescent and young adult twins and non-twin siblings (age range: 15–34). Linear multilevel regression was used for the replication analyses. To test if affective sensitivity to mild stressors in particular was associated with follow-up symptoms, we used a categorical approach adding variables on affective sensitivity to mild, moderate and severe daily stressors to the model.
Linear analyses showed that emotional stress reactivity was not associated with onset (ß = .02; P = .56) or persistence (ß = -.01; P = .78) of symptoms. There was a significant effect of baseline symptom score (ß = .53; P < .001) and average negative affect (NA: ß = .19; P < .001) on follow-up symptoms. Using the categorical approach, we found that affective sensitivity to mild (ß = .25; P < .001), but not moderate (ß = -.03; P = .65) or severe (ß = -.06; P = .42), stressors was associated with symptom persistence one year later.
We were unable to replicate previous findings relating stress sensitivity linearly to symptom onset or persistence in a younger sample. Whereas sensitivity to more severe stressors may reflect adaptive coping, high sensitivity to the mildest of daily stressors may indicate an increased risk for psychopathology.
English overseas colonialism is generally traced to the anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish ideologies of Richard Hakluyt, Humphrey Gilbert, and other exponents in the 1570s and 1580s. This article puts Florida at the forefront of English colonialism by taking seriously Thomas Stukeley's proposed colonisation expedition in 1563. The focus on the 1560s reveals how a dynastic rivalry with France, rather than a religious rivalry with Spain, gave birth to England's first colonial impulse. Jean Ribault, well known as the founder of French Florida, serves as the connecting link between Florida and England. His previously unappreciated role in European diplomacy unwittingly turned his fledgling colony into a pawn to be traded among France, Spain, and England. Furthermore, Queen Elizabeth's interest in joining the race for colonies may have been fuelled more by her desire to regain Calais from the French than to plant settlers in America. But while her motives may well have been cynical, the English public for the first time began to see itself as a colonising people. The end result was that Florida not only emerged as part of the fountainhead of English colonialism, but also came to play an important role in European politics.
Meta-analyses suggest that clinical psychopathology is preceded by dimensional behavioral and cognitive phenotypes such as psychotic experiences, executive functioning, working memory and affective dysregulation that are determined by the interplay between genetic and nongenetic factors contributing to the severity of psychopathology. The liability to mental ill health can be psychometrically measured using experimental paradigms that assess neurocognitive processes such as salience attribution, sensitivity to social defeat and reward sensitivity. Here, we describe the TwinssCan, a longitudinal general population twin cohort, which comprises 1202 individuals (796 adolescent/young adult twins, 43 siblings and 363 parents) at baseline. The TwinssCan is part of the European Network of National Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia project and recruited from the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. The main objective of this project is to understand psychopathology by evaluating the contribution of genetic and nongenetic factors on subclinical expressions of dimensional phenotypes at a young age before the onset of disorder and their association with neurocognitive processes, such as salience attribution, sensitivity to social defeat and reward sensitivity.
Porphyrins absorb light to initiate photocatalytic activity. The complex, asymmetric structures of natural porphyrins such as heme, chlorophyll, and their derivatives hold unique interest. A platform for biosynthesis of porphyrins in Escherichia coli is developed with the aim of producing a variety of porphyrins for examining their photocatalytic properties within a porous material. Bioderived protoporphyrin IX is tethered inside the highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 via solvent-assisted ligand incorporation. This MOF catalyzes the photocatalytic oxidation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide with improved performance over an expanded range of the visible spectrum when compared to unmodified NU-1000.
We apply a deep convolutional neural network segmentation model to enable novel automated microstructure segmentation applications for complex microstructures typically evaluated manually and subjectively. We explore two microstructure segmentation tasks in an openly available ultrahigh carbon steel microstructure dataset: segmenting cementite particles in the spheroidized matrix, and segmenting larger fields of view featuring grain boundary carbide, spheroidized particle matrix, particle-free grain boundary denuded zone, and Widmanstätten cementite. We also demonstrate how to combine these data-driven microstructure segmentation models to obtain empirical cementite particle size and denuded zone width distributions from more complex micrographs containing multiple microconstituents. The full annotated dataset is available on materialsdata.nist.gov.
During South Africa's first two decades as a democracy, the Western Cape Province has undergone radical changes to its healthcare system in an effort to address the extensive socioeconomic inequities that remain in the aftermath of the apartheid era. Although progress has been made, there is a clear need for interventions that support parents and children receiving health services in the public sector who are vulnerable to multiple psychosocial risks associated with extreme poverty. In this mixed-method study, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention called Mothering from the Inside Out that was developed for mothers who are vulnerable to similar risks in the United States. Using qualitative methods, we documented the collaborative process that was guided by principles of community-based participatory research and examined themes in the Western Cape collaborators’ perspectives about the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Using quantitative methods, we tested the preliminary efficacy of the adapted version of Mothering from the Inside Out for improving maternal reflective functioning and mother–child interactions. Although findings from both study components indicated preliminary promise, a number of obstacles and challenges at multiple levels underscore the need for (a) flexibility and contextual support for intervention research conducted in under-resourced communities, (b) clinical sensitivity to the unique experiences of parents rearing children in highly stressful, under-resourced environments, and (c) equal partnerships that allow the expertise of local providers to inform the design proposals of consulting investigators.
Mothers with histories of alcohol and drug addiction have shown greater difficulty parenting young children than mothers with no history of substance misuse. This study was the second randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of Mothering From the Inside Out (MIO), a 12-week mentalization-based individual therapy designed to address psychological deficits commonly associated with chronic substance use that also interfere with the capacity to parent young children. Eighty-seven mothers caring for a child between 11 and 60 months of age were randomly assigned to receive 12 sessions of MIO versus 12 sessions of parent education (PE), a psychoeducation active control comparison. Maternal reflective functioning, representations of caregiving, mother–child interaction quality, and child attachment were evaluated at baseline and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Mother–child interaction quality was assessed again at 12-month follow-up. In comparison with PE mothers, MIO mothers demonstrated a higher capacity for reflective functioning and representational coherence at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, compared to PE cohorts, MIO mothers demonstrated greater sensitivity, their children showed greater involvement, and MIO dyads showed greater reciprocity. As addiction severity increased, MIO also appeared to serve as a protective factor for maternal reflective functioning, quality of mother–child interactions, and child attachment status. Results demonstrate the promise of mentalization-based interventions provided concomitant with addiction treatment for mothers and their young children.
To determine the effect of graft choice (allograft, bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, or hamstring autograft) on deep tissue infections following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions.
Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING AND POPULATION
Patients from 6 US health plans who underwent ACL reconstruction from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2008.
We identified ACL reconstructions and potential postoperative infections using claims data. A hierarchical stratified sampling strategy was used to identify patients for medical record review to confirm ACL reconstructions and to determine allograft vs autograft tissue implanted, clinical characteristics, and infection status. We estimated infection rates overall and by graft type. We used logistic regression to assess the association between infections and patients’ demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and choice of graft.
On review of 1,452 medical records, we found 55 deep wound infections. With correction for sampling weights, infection rates varied by graft type: 0.5% (95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) with allografts, 0.6% (0.1%–1.5%) with bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts, and 2.5% (1.9%–3.1%) with hamstring autograft. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found an increased infection risk with hamstring autografts compared with allografts (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.8–12.8). However, there was no difference in infection risk among bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts vs allografts (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.3–4.8).
The overall risk for deep wound infections following ACL reconstruction is low but it does vary by graft type. Infection risk was highest in hamstring autograft recipients compared with allograft recipients and bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft recipients.
In this work, we report a comparative investigation of InxGa1-xN (SL) and InxGa1-xN/GaN (MQW) structures with an indium content equivalent to x=10%. Both structures are grown on (0001) sapphire substrates using MOCVD and MBE growth techniques. Optical properties are evaluated for samples using PL characteristics. Critical differences between the resulting epitaxy are observed. Microstructures have been assessed in terms of crystalline quality, density of dislocations and surface morphology. We have focused our study towards the fabrication of vertical PIN photodiodes. The technological process has been optimized as a function of the material structure. From the optical and electrical characteristics, this study demonstrates the benefit of InGaN/GaN MQW grown by MOCVD in comparison with MBE for high speed optoelectronic applications.
To explore the feasibility of identifying anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft implantations and infections using claims.
Retrospective cohort study.
We identified ACL reconstructions using procedure codes at 6 health plans from 2000 to 2008. We then identified potential infections using claims-based indicators of infection, including diagnoses, procedures, antibiotic dispensings, specialty consultations, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Patients’ medical records were reviewed to determine graft type, validate infection status, and calculate sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for indicators of ACL allografts and infections.
A total of 11,778 patients with codes for ACL reconstruction were identified. After chart review, PPV for ACL reconstruction was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94%–97%). Of the confirmed ACL reconstructions, 39% (95% CI, 35%–42%) used allograft tissues. The deep infection rate after ACL reconstruction was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7%–1.4%). The odds ratio of infection for allografts versus autografts was 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19–0.78). Sensitivity of individual claims-based indicators for deep infection after ACL reconstruction ranged from 0% to 75% and PPV from 0% to 100%. Claims-based infection indicators could be combined to enhance sensitivity or PPV but not both.
While claims data accurately identify ACL reconstructions, they poorly distinguish between allografts and autografts and identify infections with variable accuracy. Claims data could be useful to monitor infection trends after ACL reconstruction, with different algorithms optimized for different surveillance goals.
Background: Given the lack of consensus on the factor structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), as well as the fact that the GDS factor structure appears to vary across diverse cultural and/or language groups, the present meta-analysis examined whether the factor structure of the GDS varies by language.
Methods: A total of 26 published studies using exploratory factor analysis (14,669 participants; 10 languages) were included in the meta-analysis. The factor structure of the GDS was assessed in the overall sample as well as in each language that had been examined in at least two different studies.
Results: The analysis of the full sample resulted in a four-factor structure, whereas analyses of the individual languages produced structures with 4 to 6 factors. The mean variable cosines between languages ranged from 0.612 to 0.839, suggesting that the different languages produced distinct factor structures. The three factors of dysphoria, social withdrawal-apathy-cognitive impairment, and positive mood were commonly observed across different languages. Of these, the positive mood factor was the most similar across the languages.
Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence of language differences in the factor structure of the GDS. The findings suggest a need for researchers and clinicians to be careful when administering the GDS in different languages, as well as a need to take structural differences into account when interpreting results of the GDS.
This chapter explores sibling and peer relationships in light of contextual events, particularly those that include parents and caregivers. The literatures on sibling and peer relationships have included attention to the contributions of parental involvement, yet treatments in the two literatures have entailed somewhat distinctive types of approaches and implicit aims. The large body of work documenting the importance of peer relationships to children's mental health and social adjustment has stimulated considerable interest in the foundations of peer friendships. Toward the overarching goal of unraveling the complex social network, a number of studies have examined child development in triadic environments where third parties have sometimes been construed as exerting influences that are indirect. Notions about social competencies such as, sociability, empathy, and social understanding are likely to be advanced, if not reshaped dramatically, by augmenting attention to the child's social functioning in caregiver-child-child contexts.
The flu has an interesting history with respect to health care rationing in the United States. Consider that just about two years ago, the American public faced a shortage of influenza vaccine. Dire predictions were made about how many people might perish, and rationing protocols were created. However, many of the rationing protocols were ignored. Luckily, that flu season did not result in the horrible fatalities that were predicted. For these reasons, problems of health care rationing around issues of the flu were postponed, rather than resolved.
Over the last year, the public has focused its anxious attention on the possible avian influenza pandemic. Last week I noticed that at least once each day I heard mention in some discussion or another of the threat of this disease becoming easily transmissible from human to human.
In order to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injecting drug users (IDUs), we conducted a prospective cohort study of HCV- and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative IDUs in the North and East of France. A total of 231 HCV and HIV IDUs who had injected drugs at least once in their lifetime were followed up every 3 months over a 12-month period. Serum anti-HCV and anti-HIV were tested at inclusion in the study and at the end of the follow-up. Data on injecting practices were collected at inclusion and at each visit. Of the 231 participants included, 165 (71·4%) underwent a final HCV and HIV serum test. The incidence was nil for HIV infection and 9/100 person-years (95% CI 4·6–13·4) for HCV infection. In a multivariable analysis, we found that syringe and cotton sharing were the only independent predictive factors of HCV seroconversion.
This paper describes the nursing home component of the population-based health information system developed in Manitoba, and four years (1989/90 to 1992/93) of data produced by this information system. The study presents regional comparisons of nursing home bed ratios, admissions per 1,000 elderly, days of care per capita, mean expected length of stay for new admissions and median length of waiting time prior to admission. Selected hospital indicators for long-stay patients are also presented. The study indicates that a population-based information system is a useful tool for managing the nursing home sector by highlighting the degree to which a province achieves distributional equity and equality of access to nursing home beds.