To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Robert Heizer excavated Leonard Rockshelter (26Pe14) in western Nevada more than 70 years ago. He described stratified cultural deposits spanning the Holocene. He also reported obsidian flakes purportedly associated with late Pleistocene sediments, suggesting that human use extended even farther back in time. Because Heizer never produced a final report, Leonard Rockshelter faded into obscurity despite the possibility that it might contain a Clovis Era or older occupation. That possibility prompted our team of researchers from the University of Nevada, Reno and Desert Research Institute to return to the site in 2018 and 2019. We relocated the excavation block from which Heizer both recovered the flakes and obtained a late Pleistocene date on nearby sediments. We minimally excavated undisturbed deposits to rerecord and redate the strata. As an independent means of evaluating Heizer's findings, we also directly dated 12 organic artifacts housed at the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Our work demonstrates that people did not visit Leonard Rockshelter during the late Pleistocene. Rather, they first visited the site immediately following the Younger Dryas (12,900–11,700 cal BP) and sporadically used the shelter, mostly to store gear, throughout the Holocene.
Fluting is a technological and morphological hallmark of some of the most iconic North American Paleoindian stone points. Through decades of detailed artifact analyses and replication experiments, archaeologists have spent considerable effort reconstructing how flute removals were achieved, and they have explored possible explanations of why fluting was such an important aspect of early point technologies. However, the end of fluting has been less thoroughly researched. In southern North America, fluting is recognized as a diagnostic characteristic of Clovis points dating to approximately 13,000 cal yr BP, the earliest widespread use of fluting. One thousand years later, fluting occurs more variably in Dalton and is no longer useful as a diagnostic indicator. How did fluting change, and why did point makers eventually abandon fluting? In this article, we use traditional 2D measurements, geometric morphometric (GM) analysis of 3D models, and 2D GM of flute cross sections to compare Clovis and Dalton point flute and basal morphologies. The significant differences observed show that fluting in Clovis was highly standardized, suggesting that fluting may have functioned to improve projectile durability. Because Dalton points were used increasingly as knives and other types of tools, maximizing projectile functionality became less important. We propose that fluting in Dalton is a vestigial technological trait retained beyond its original functional usefulness.
Entrepreneurial action is the central idea that motivates the study of law and entrepreneurship.1 Promoting entrepreneurial action is a fundamental goal of the US legal system.2 Although existing definitions of entrepreneurial action are legion,3 these definitions have been difficult to operationalize in a legal context because the application of legal rules does not turn on whether someone is acting as an entrepreneur.4 In this chapter, therefore, we offer a new conception of entrepreneurship that is consistent with understandings of entrepreneurship in other disciplines while being accessible and meaningful to legal scholars. We assert, in simplest terms, that the core function of entrepreneurs is to challenge incumbency.
The conference that prompted the publication of this volume was motivated by a simple idea, that the core function of entrepreneurs is to challenge incumbency. The novelty inherent in entrepreneurial action implies uncertainty, and hence experimentation, learning, and selection. We invited conference participants to explore issues such as: the incentive effect of legal rules on startup activity; the role of private ordering in facilitating or impeding entrepreneurial action; the influence of legal rules and practices on the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities; the role of law in promoting or foreclosing market entry; or the effect of entrepreneurial action on legal doctrine. This volume is the result of that invitation.
Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of synthetic auxin herbicides at simulated exposure rates applied to ‘Covington’ sweetpotato propagation beds on the quality of nonrooted stem cuttings (slips). Treatments included DGA salt of dicamba, 2,4-D choline plus nonionic surfactant (NIS), or 2,4-D choline plus glyphosate at 1/10, 1/33, or 1/66 of a 1× application rate (560 g ae ha-1 dicamba, 1065 g ae ha-1 2,4-D choline, 1130 g ae ha-1 glyphosate) applied at 2 or 4 wk after first slip harvest (WASH). Injury to sweetpotato 2 wk after treatment was greatest when herbicides were applied 2 WASH (21%) compared to 4 WASH (16%). More slip injury was caused by 2,4-D choline than dicamba, and the addition of glyphosate did not increase injury over 2,4-D choline alone. Two wk after the second application, sweetpotato slips were cut 2 cm above the soil surface and transplanted into production fields. In 2019, sweetpotato ground coverage 8 wk after transplanting was reduced 37 and 26% by the 1/10× rates of dicamba and 2,4-D choline plus NIS, respectively. Though dicamba caused less injury to propagation beds than 2,4-D choline with or without glyphosate; after transplanting, slips treated with 1/10× dicamba did not recover as quickly as those treated with 2,4-D choline. In 2020, sweetpotato ground coverage was 90% or greater for all treatments. Dicamba applied 2 WASH decreased marketable sweetpotato storage root yield by 59% compared to the nontreated check, whereas treatments including 2,4-D choline reduced marketable yield 22 to 29%. All herbicides applied at 4 WASH reduced marketable yield 31 to 36%. The addition of glyphosate to 2,4-D choline did not increase sweetpotato yield. Results indicate caution should be taken when deciding whether to transplant sweetpotato slips that are suspected to have been exposed to dicamba or 2,4-D choline.
In this randomized study, use of alcohol-based hand-rub disinfection significantly reduced bacterial bioburden of stethoscopes in routine clinical use. Prior cleaning of stethoscopes on the study day did not affect baseline contamination rates, which suggests that the efficacy of alcohol disinfection is short-lived and may need to be repeated between patients.
Law plays a key role in determining the level of entrepreneurial action in society. Legal rules seek to define property rights, facilitate private ordering, and impose liability for legal wrongs, thereby attempting to establish conditions under which individuals may act. These rules also channel the development of technology, regulate information flows, and determine parameters of competition. Depending on their structure and implementation, legal rules can also discourage individuals from acting. It is thus crucial to determine which legal rules and institutions best enable entrepreneurs, whose core function is to challenge incumbency. This volume assembles legal experts from diverse fields to examine the role of law in facilitating or impeding entrepreneurial action. Contributors explore issues arising in current policy debates, including the incentive effect of legal rules on startup activity; the role of law in promoting or foreclosing market entry; and the effect of entrepreneurial action on legal doctrine.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To describe and evaluate an innovative university-community vaccination and food access model for minority, immigrant, and underserved individuals experiencing food insecurity during a global pandemic. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Purdue University Center for Health Equity and Innovation (CHEqI) partnered with the two largest food banks in the Midwest and Walgreens to offer free COVID-19 and Flu vaccinations alongside food distribution. Goals included addressing food insecurity, increasing vaccine access, and decreasing vaccine hesitancy. CHEqI acquired funding, recruited volunteers and interpreters, assessed interest and addressed vaccine hesitancy. Food bank/pantry partners distributed food and provided access to clientele and marketing assistance. Walgreens procured, administered, and documented vaccinations. The Model accommodated drive-through and indoor processes. Unidentifiable observational and self-report data were collected. Descriptive statistics were computed to characterize program outcomes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 11 vaccination events occurred between June and October 2021 at three food bank/pantry locations. Of these 11 events, nine (82%) were drive-through and two (18%) took place indoors, eight (72%) offered COVID-19 vaccinations only, and three (27%) offered both COVID-19 and Flu vaccinations. Food was distributed to a total of 5,108 families and 416 vaccines (314 COVID, 102 Flu) were administered. Of the 396 individuals who received at least one vaccine, 20 (5%) received both a COVID and Flu vaccine. Of the 386 individuals who received at least one vaccine and reported their sex, 194 (50%) identified as female and the average age of those who received at least one vaccine was 45 years old. Of those who reported race (N = 228) or ethnicity (N = 253), 43% identified as Black or African American and 53% identified as LatinX. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Findings offer an innovative vaccination and food access model for diverse individuals experiencing food insecurity during a global pandemic. By drawing on cost effective, accessible, and culturally contextualized practices to optimize the reach and quality of vaccination services we can improve access barriers and mitigate health disparities.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The primary goals of this study are 1) expand our understanding of the neural circuitry influenced by the neuropeptide Neuromedin U (NMU) via its receptor Neuromedin U Receptor 2 (NMUR2), and 2) provide alternative top-down mechanisms for how NMU regulates high fat food intake and cocaine taking. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NMUR2 and cell markers was performed on rat brain tissue containing the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To identify the source of the presynaptic NMUR2, anterograde tracing from the paraventricular nucleus or dorsal raphe nucleus to the mPFC utilizing an AAV2- dsRed-synaptobrevin fusion protein were performed (n=3) and will be followed by IHC. Using in vivo calcium imaging technology (InScopix nVista), neuronal activity (calcium transients) was recorded from the mPFC of two awake, freely behaving rats. Each animal underwent a single session of 30 minutes baseline activity, intraperitoneal NMU administration, and 30 minutes of post-treatment activity. Activity was then processed and recorded as distinct events using the InScopix data acquisition software. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Medial prefrontal cortex staining for NMUR2 revealed a characteristic “beads on a string” motif, consistent with presynaptic receptor expression. Furthermore, we expect the anterograde tracing experiment will show colocalization of the dsRed-synaptobrevin fusion protein with NMUR2 on synaptic inputs into the medial prefrontal cortex. Following quantification of pre- and post- treatment events using the InScopix data acquisition software, total events during the pre- and post-treatment time periods were calculated. In these studies, both animals demonstrated a clear increase in calcium transient activity between pre- and post- treatment evaluations, suggesting that NMU administration increases the neuronal activity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This research provides a new site of action for the known therapeutic effects of NMU. We demonstrate the presence of presynaptic NMUR2 in the mPFC and show that systemic administration of NMU increases mPFC neuronal activity. This illustrates NMU may act as a top-down mediator for substance use disorders and binge eating behaviors.
We explored the acceptability of a personalised proteomic risk intervention for patients at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and their healthcare providers, as well as their experience of participating in the delivery of proteomic-based risk feedback in UK primary care.
Advances in proteomics now allow the provision of personalised proteomic risk reports, with the intention of achieving positive behaviour change. This technology has the potential to encourage behaviour change in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
A semi-structured interview study was carried out with patients at risk of type 2 diabetes and their healthcare providers in primary care in the North of England. Participants (n = 17) and healthcare provider (n = 4) were interviewed either face to face or via telephone. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. This qualitative study was nested within a single-arm pilot trial and undertaken in primary care.
The personalised proteomic risk intervention was generally acceptable and the experience was positive. The personalised nature of the report was welcomed, especially the way it provided a holistic approach to risks of organ damage and lifestyle factors. Insights were provided as to how this may change behaviour. Some participants reported difficulties in understanding the format of the presentation of risk and expressed surprise at receiving risk estimates for conditions other than type 2 diabetes. Personalised proteomic risk interventions have the potential to provide holistic and comprehensive assessments of risk factors and lifestyle factors which may lead to positive behaviour change.
Are diets with a greater environmental impact less healthy? This is a key question for nutrition policy, but previous research does not provide a clear answer. To address this, our objective here was to test whether American diets with the highest carbon footprints predicted greater population-level mortality from diet-related chronic disease than those with the lowest.
Baseline dietary recall data were combined with a database of greenhouse gases emitted in the production of foods to estimate a carbon footprint for each diet. Diets were ranked on their carbon footprints and those in the highest and lowest quintiles were studied here. Preventable Risk Integrated Model (PRIME), an epidemiological modelling software, was used to assess CVD and cancer mortality for a simulated dietary change from the highest to the lowest impact diets. The diet–mortality relationships used by PRIME came from published meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.
Baseline diets came from adults (n 12 865) in the nationally representative 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
A simulated change at the population level from the highest to the lowest carbon footprint diets resulted in 23 739 (95 % CI 20 349, 27 065) fewer annual deaths from CVD and cancer. This represents a 1·83 % (95 % CI 1·57 %, 2·08 %) decrease in total deaths. About 95 % of deaths averted were from CVD.
Diets with the highest carbon footprints were associated with a greater risk of mortality than the lowest, suggesting that dietary guidance could incorporate sustainability information to reinforce health messaging.