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Acute kidney injury leads to worse outcomes following paediatric cardiac surgery. There is a lack of literature focusing on acute kidney injury after the Hybrid stage 1 palliation for single ventricle physiology. Patients undergoing the Hybrid Stage 1, as a primary option, may have a lower incidence of kidney injury than previously reported. When present, kidney injury may increase the risk of post-operative morbidity and mortality.
A retrospective, single centre review was conducted in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent Hybrid Stage 1 from 2008 to 2018. Acute kidney injury was defined as a dichotomous yes (meeting any injury criteria) or no (no injury) utilising two different criteria utilised in paediatrics. The impact of kidney injury on perioperative characteristics and 30-day mortality was analysed.
The incidence of acute kidney injury is 13.4–20.7%, with a severe injury rate of 2.4%. Patients without a prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome have a higher incidence of kidney injury than those prenatally diagnosed, (40% versus 14.5%, p = 0.024). Patients with acute kidney injury have a significantly higher incidence of 30-day mortality, 27.3%, compared to without, 5.6% (p = 0.047).
The incidence of severe acute kidney injury after the Hybrid Stage 1 palliation is low. A prenatal diagnosis may be associated with a lower incidence of kidney injury following the Hybrid Stage 1. Though uncommon, severe acute kidney injury following Hybrid Stage 1 may be associated with higher 30-day mortality.
This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
Numerical simulations have been conducted to study the spatial growth rate and emission topology of the cyclotron-maser instability responsible for stellar/planetary auroral magnetospheric radio emission and intense non-thermal radio emission in other astrophysical contexts. These simulations were carried out in an unconstrained geometry, so that the conditions existing within the source region of some natural electron cyclotron masers could be more closely modelled. The results have significant bearing on the radiation propagation and coupling characteristics within the source region of such non-thermal radio emissions.
We present an investigation of the amplitude modulation of an external magnetic field-aligned right-hand circularly polarized electromagnetic electron-cyclotron (EMEC) wave in a strongly magnetized electron-positron plasma. It is shown that the dynamics of the modulated EMEC wave packet is governed by a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The latter reveals that a modulated wave packet can propagate in the form of either a dark or a grey envelope soliton. This result could have relevance to the transport of electromagnetic wave energy over long distances via envelope solitons in the magnetospheres of pulsars and magnetars.
Stress and electromigration voids are believed to nucleate at the metal/passivation interface. In this study, modified interfaces were synthesized to experimentally elucidate the role of the interface on stress voiding for comparison with theoretical predictions. Interfaces were modified by depositing photoresist in a controlled manner on Ti/Algfi lines prior to passivation deposition. Stress voiding susceptibility was assessed in as-received lines as well as those subjected to storage anneals for 1, 5, and 25 days at 190°C to accelerate void formation. The global textures of all the lines were <111> fiber and were not significantly affected by the interface modification. Differences in stress voiding were attributed to the different interfaces. Higher ratios of voids in modified regions to voids in unmodified regions were observed both in as-received lines and those given a 1 day storage anneal due to the heterogeneous nucleation sites provided by the photoresist contamination in the modified regions. However, the void ratio appears to decrease exponentially with longer time anneals. Lowered driving force for void formation in the modified regions leads to less voiding with time, while higher driving force and a limited number of nucleation sites in the unmodified regions leads to more voiding with time. Local textures at a limited number of voided sites in modified and unmodified regions were identical to the global texture of the line. In our limited sampling, voids did not form in local regions of weaker <111> texture.
We present a case of bilateral absence of the eighth cranial nerve in the internal auditory meatus (IAM). This caused total failure of responses after cochlear implantation in a six-year-old patient with congenital deafness. Pre-operative magnetic resonance (MR)imaging is important to show not only the anatomy of the middle and inner ears but also the structures in the IAM.
We report self-diffusion studies of silicon between 855 and 1388°C in highly enriched epitaxial 28Si layers. Diffusion profiles of 30Si and 29Si are determined with high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The temperature dependence of the Si self-diffusion coefficients is accurately described with an activation enthalpy of 4.76 eV and a pre-exponential factor of 560 cm2s-1. The single activation enthalpy indicates that Si self-interstitials dominate self-diffusion over the whole temperature range investigated. Self- and interdiffusion in buried Al71GaAs/Al69GaAs/71GaAs isotope heterostructures with different Al composition is measured between 800 and 1160°C. Ga self-diffusion in AlGaAs and interdiffusion of Al and Ga at the AlGaAs/GaAs interface show that Ga diffusion decreases with increasing Al composition and that the interdiffusion coefficient depends linearly on Al concentration. Furthermore Al is found to diffuse more rapidly into GaAs than Ga diffuses in GaAs. The temperature dependence of Ga and Al diffusion in GaAs and of Ga diffusion in AlGaAs is described by a single activation enthalpy in the range of 3.6±0.1 eV, but by different pre-exponential factors. Differences found for Ga and Al diffusion in GaAs and for Ga diffusion in AlGaAs with different Al concentrations are discussed.
Methods for dispensing tsetse attractants using sealed polyethylene sachets and bottles were studied in the laboratory and field. 1-Octen-3-ol (octenol), 4-methylphenol and 3-n-propylphenol were dispensed singly or as blends from sachets 25–200 cm2 in surface area and with a wall thickness of 0.06–0.32 mm; butanone was dispensed from polyethylene bottles. The release rates of attractants, assessed gravimetrically or by GC analysis of volatiles released, were independent of the amount present. The rates were related directly to surface area, inversely related to wall thickness and increased exponentially with temperature. With blends of the attractants, the release rates of the two phenols were directly proportional to the concentration present, but that of octenol showed an exponential dependence. A similar exponential effect was seen with blends of the attractants and an involatile diluent. For mixtures of chemicals, the ratio of the released components was not affected significantly by temperature, sachet size or wall thickness. Release rates from polyethylene sachets and bottles in the field varied 100-fold according to temperature differences related to the time of day, season, and degree of insolation. Day-degree models to predict the losses of attractants from a polyethylene sachet in shade or in full sunlight were highly correlated (r2 = 0.84 and 0.81 respectively) with observed losses. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Existing work in the mechanical behavior of thin films focuses mainly on measurement of macroscopic properties without strong correlation to microstructural features. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the microstructures of free-standing copper thin films both before and after monotonic tensile deformation in an ex-situ thin film tensile testing system, as well as during in-situ loading in the TEM. The defect structures contributing to plastic deformation were investigated with an emphasis on comparison to mechanisms known to operate in bulk copper. The thin film exhibited much lower ductility (approximately 1%) than that normally observed in bulk form (greater than 40%). The predominant plastic deformation mechanisms did not include the typical dislocation activity that occurs in bulk copper, but rather greatly inhibited dislocation interactions typical of stages I and II hardening only. The absence of those structures normally found in tensile-deformed bulk copper is attributed to the differences in characteristic sizes of features within the microstructure available for deformation in bulk versus evaporated thin film material, that is, grain size and film thickness. The thin film ductility is an order of magnitude lower than what has been observed in bulk, ultrafine-grained copper, implying that a pure thin film effect on ductility exists and is significant. Microstructural features both near to and far from the fracture surface regions will be presented.
This list includes mainly the results of datings done from 1967 to 1969. Methods are essentially the same as those described in Radiocarbon, 1966, v. 8, p. 46–53, 1967, v. 9, p. 38–42, and 1969, v. 11, p. 15–21. Samples synthesized to benzene and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Age calculations are based on 95% of the activity of the NBS oxalic acid standard and computed from the Libby half-life of 5570 yr and reference A.D. 1950. The error listed is the one-sigma statistical counting error. Most samples were counted for 2000 to 3000 min. HCL and NaOH pretreatments were applied to samples as required.