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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI or TAVR) is a newly introduced medical procedure enabled by a new device. Although its introduction does not represent that of all medical devices, it does illustrate a situation in which a device provides a new alternative to standard care in a specific group of patients. Unlike drugs, the medical device category is highly heterogeneous and includes both diagnostic and treatment (accessories, implantable, enablers) and capital equipment. The TAVI- case was discussed as one of the examples in the Policy Forum Meeting and the authors were acting as facilitators that summed up both the case as presented and the discussion between the members that followed. We wish to give a special thanks to the participants of the group work for their input to the discussion.
For the considered scheme of the external electron bunch injection in front of a laser pulse, the influence of the nonlinear driving laser pulse dynamics and electron bunch self-action to the processes of electron bunch compression and acceleration in the laser wakefield is analyzed. Self-consistent modelling results confirm that the nonlinear laser pulse dynamics limits the bunch compression due to variations of the phase velocity of the wake. A growth of the injected bunch charge leads to some extent to an increase of the trapped and accelerated bunch charge and to decrease of the trapped bunch radius and emittance due to increased self-focusing bunch. The three-dimensional theoretical model is elaborated and used to describe the propagation of laser pulses in dielectric capillary waveguides under imperfect coupling and focusing conditions with broken cylindrical symmetry. The role of cone entrances to the cylindrical part of a capillary is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that matching cones can considerably increase the transmission of laser pulses through the capillary, but cannot mitigate the requirements on the precision of the laser pulse focusing into a capillary. In order to avoid a speckle structure and strong transverse gradients of the fields, which can prevent the process of regular electron bunch acceleration, one has to ensure a small laser angle of incidence into the capillary not exceeding 1 mrad.
LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) is one of the four candidate missions currently
under assessment study for the M3 mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision program to be launched in
2024. LOFT will carry two instruments with prime sensitivity in the 2–30 keV range: a 10
m2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1° collimated field of view
and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle,
and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of
the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide field of
view and good energy resolution of <500 eV, the WFM will be an excellent instrument
for detecting and studying GRBs and X-ray flashes. The WFM will be able to detect
~150 gamma ray bursts per year, and a burst alert system will enable the
distribution of ~100 GRB positions per year with a ~1 arcmin location
accuracy within 30 s of the burst.
The World Heritage Site of Wanar in Senegal features 21 stone circles, remarkable not least because they were erected in the twelfth and thirteenth century AD, when Islam ruled the Indian Ocean and Europe was in its Middle Ages. The state of preservation has benefited the exemplary investigation currently carried out by a French-Senegalese team, which we are pleased to report here. The site began as a burial ground to which monumental stones were added, perhaps echoing the form of original funerary houses. Found in a neighbouring field were scoops left from the cutting out of the cylindrical monoliths from surface rock. While the origins of Wanar lie in a period of state formation, the monuments are shown to have had a long ritual use. The investigation not only provides a new context for one of the most important sites in West Africa but the precise determination of the sequence and techniques used at Wanar offers key pointers for the understanding of megalithic structures everywhere.
This paper discusses on the miniaturization of radiofrequency (RF) front-end components such as half-wavelength resonators based on new magneto-dielectric heterostructures combining high permeability (µ = 150–250) and high permittivity (ε = 18–150). Size reduction is evaluated by means of 2-cm-long coplanar waveguides realized with silicon technology and having a resonance frequency of about 3 GHz. The experimental results show a physical length reduction of 11.2% due to the dielectric contribution (ε = 18) and 14.8% by cumulating dielectric and magnetic effects (ε = 18 and µ = 150). These results are significant with respect to the moderate thickness of the preliminary material used here (only 150 nm). In a second part, a predictive model is proposed with µ and ε as variables. When adjusting the material properties in a realistic way (µ = 250 and ε = 150), the model predicts size reduction of ~50% for the same thickness. Larger values can be expected with increasing the film thickness.
We report on the performance of the digital baseband feedback circuit developed to readout and process signals from arrays of transition edge sensors for SPICA-SAFARI in frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). The standard procedure to readout the SQUID current amplifiers is to use a feedback loop (flux-locked loop: FLL). However the achievable FFL bandwidth is limited by the cable transport delay td, which makes standard feedback inconvenient. A much better approach is to use baseband feedback. We have developed a model of the electronic readout chain for SPICA-SAFARI instrument by using an Anlog-digital co-simulation based on Simulink-System Generator environment.
Introduction. À l’instar d’autres secteurs de produits destinés à l’alimentation humaine, une restructuration profonde de la filière ananas martiniquaise s’accomplit pour répondre à de nouvelles exigences de sécurité alimentaire et de protection de l’environnement : management de la qualité sur l’ensemble de la filière et exploitation de nouvelles variétés d’ananas. À partir de l’analyse des pratiques actuelles, les auteurs ont évalué les besoins de changements, puis proposé quelques outils pour la mise en œuvre d’un système de production. Matériel et méthodes. Des enquêtes ont permis de connaître les pratiques et stratégies actuelles des producteurs d’ananas et d’établir une typologie des exploitations. Un comité de pilotage associant des représentants de l’ensemble de la filière élabore le système de management de la qualité en se basant sur la norme Agriconfiance®. De nouvelles variétés sont en cours d’évaluation pour couvrir au mieux les besoins en ananas de qualité pour la transformation ou pour la vente en frais. Résultats et discussion. Les écarts constatés entre recommandations et pratiques culturales sont apparus très variables mais souvent importants : trop d’intrants en général, soit les pesticides, soit les engrais, soit les deux. Le système de management appliqué repose sur un contrat entre une coopérative et les producteurs. Les règles de qualité sont fixées dans deux cahiers des charges, l’un concernant la qualité de la production au champ, l’autre, la qualité du fruit pour l’usine. Un système de traçabilité à l’échelle de la parcelle a été élaboré. Il permet la prévision et l’enregistrement de toute activité liée à la production, avec la parcelle comme unité de base. Enfin, de nouvelles variétés hybrides sélectionnées par le Cirad ont pu être testées dans le nouveau processus de transformation de la coopérative, donnant de meilleurs résultats que l’ancienne variété Cayenne lisse. Conclusion. La restructuration de la filière ananas en Martinique résulte avant tout de considérations économiques. Cette démarche a conduit au développement d’un programme global d’assurance qualité, avec instauration d’un système de traçabilité parcellaire, destiné à garantir la sécurité alimentaire. Une homogénéisation des pratiques culturales est nécessaire, en se rapprochant des recommandations pour améliorer la qualité. Elles pourraient être rassemblées dans un guide de culture spécifique. L’adoption de nouvelles variétés d’ananas permettant d’obtenir de meilleurs rendements de transformation ainsi qu’une qualité accrue du produit frais ou transformé sera aussi un élément déterminant du succès de la démarche.
Background and objective: Inhalation induction with sevoflurane provides acceptable conditions for tracheal intubation. Opioids significantly decrease the alveolar concentration needed to achieve tracheal intubation. The purpose of this study was to determine the target concentration of remifentanil providing excellent conditions for tracheal intubation with sevoflurane at 1 minimum alveolar concentration without muscle relaxant. Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients, aged 18–50 yr, ASA I or II, were studied. Induction of anaesthesia was performed with sevoflurane at age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration. Remifentanil was simultaneously administered using target-controlled infusion with the Minto model. Target plasma concentration of remifentanil was selected for each patient according to an up-and-down method. Results: The mean target concentration of remifentanil for successful tracheal intubation was 3.3 ng mL−1 (95% confidence interval: 2.6–3.9 ng mL−1). Arterial pressure, heart rate and bispectral index did not increase after tracheal intubation in the group of patients with successful intubation. Conclusions: Remifentanil at 3.3 ng mL−1 together with sevoflurane at 1 minimum alveolar concentration provides excellent conditions for tracheal intubation in 50% of patients.
Background and objective: The target effect-site concentration of propofol to insert a laryngeal mask airway was recently reported as almost 5 μg mL−1. The present study aimed to determine the target effect-site concentration with target-controlled infusion of propofol to place classical larnygeal mask airway or current laryngeal tube in adult patients. Methods: We included 40 patients scheduled for short gynaecological and radiological procedures under general anaesthesia in a randomized, double-blind manner using the Dixon's up-and-down statistical method. Monitoring included standard cardiorespiratory monitors, and bispectral index monitoring was used for all patients. Anaesthesia was conducted with a target-controlled infusion system: Diprifusor™. The initial target plasma concentration of propofol was 5 μg mL−1, and was changed stepwise by 0.5 μg mL−1 increments according to Dixon's up-and-down method. Criteria for acceptable insertion were: Muzi's score ≤2, and mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate or bispectral index variation <20% the baseline values.Results: Target effect-site concentration of propofol required to insert laryngeal tube was 6.3 ± 0.3 μg mL−1 with Dixon method and ED50 was 6.1 μg mL−1 (5.9–6.4) with logistic regression method. In the case of larnygeal mask airway they were 7.3 ± 0.2 μg mL−1 (Dixon method) and 7.3 μg mL−1 (7.1–7.5; with logistic regression) respectively (P < 0.05). ED95 (logistic regression) was 6.8 μg mL−1 (5.9–7.6) for laryngeal tube and 7.7 μg mL−1 (7.3–8.0) for larnygeal mask airway (P < 0.05). Haemodynamic incidents were 55% in the larnygeal mask airway group vs. 30% in the laryngeal tube group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The target effect-site concentration of propofol for insertion of laryngeal tube was lower than for larnygeal mask airway (P < 0.05), with a consequent reduction of the propofol induced haemodynamic side-effects.
Background and objective: The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to assess the value of pressure support ventilation during inhalational induction with sevoflurane in adult patients. Methods: Thirty-five adult patients, ASA I–II and scheduled for ear nose throat surgery were studied. Vital capacity induction with 8% sevoflurane in 8 L min−1 oxygen was performed. Pressure support ventilation was used in Group 1 with pressure set at 15 cmH2O. In Group 2, patients breathed spontaneously. After 2 min, sevoflurane was set to 3% and remifentanil 1 μg kg−1 was injected over 2 min followed by an infusion of 0.1μg kg−1 min−1. Two minutes after the end of the bolus, intubation was performed. Bispectral index, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, expired tidal volume and expired sevoflurane concentration were recorded every minute. Results: Eighteen patients were included in Group 1 and 17 in Group 2. Saturation, respiratory rate and end-tidal carbon dioxide were similar in the two groups. Expired tidal volume was significantly higher and bispectral index values significantly lower in Group 1. Intubating conditions were better in Group 1. Conclusions: Pressure support ventilation provides both better ventilation and deeper level of anaesthesia during inhalation induction with sevoflurane.
We give on overview of recent advances in collisionally pumped optical
field-ionization soft X-ray lasers developed at LOA. Saturated
amplification has been achieved on the 5d-5p transition in Xe8+
at 41.8 nm, and on the 4d-4p transition in Kr8+ at 32.8 nm. We
demonstrate a significant increase of the energy output from the
Xe8+ laser driven within two types of wave-guide. Finally, we
present results of a pioneering work aimed to set up and characterize the
first true soft X-ray laser chain.
We investigate experimentally and numerically the filling of a collapsible tube, motivated by venous hemodynamics in the lower limbs. The experiments are performed by filling an initially collapsed flexible tube, applying pressure through a hydraulic circuit. The tube law and the tube tension have been previously measured. The tube shape, the flow rate and the pressure at the two ends of the tube are measured continuously. The filling occurs in three stages: a rapid equilibration of the pressure near the tube entry with atmospheric pressure, a quasi-steady filling of the tube with a linearly rising pressure, and a final stage of tube inflation. Our numerical model is the classical one-dimensional collapsible tube equations. Excellent quantitative agreement is found between computations and experimental data. We show experimentally observed shapes near the tube end that indicate possible three-dimensional effects; however these effects do not impair significantly the ability of the one-dimensional model to describe the experiment. Travelling waves of large amplitude are observed in the simulations and the experiments.
Torsional Couette flow between a rotating disk and a stationary wall is studied experimentally. The surface of the disk is either rigid or covered with a compliant coating. The influence of wall compliance on characteristic flow instabilities and on the laminar–turbulent flow transition is investigated. Data obtained from analysing flow visualizations are discussed. It is found that wall compliance favours two of the three characteristic wave patterns associated with the transition process and broadens the parameter regime in which these patterns are observed. The results for the effects of wall compliance on the third pattern are inconclusive. However, the experiments indicate that the third pattern is not a primary constituent of the laminar–turbulent transition process of torsional Couette flow.
Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy with sub-bandgap excitation has been applied to explore tracing of common impurities (in particular of oxygen) in AlN. Bulk AlN crystals grown by the high temperature sublimation method were studied. PL bands have been observed at around 375 nm and at 560–660 nm and have been attributed to oxygen and to nitrogen vacancy/aluminium excess defects, respectively. The 375 nm UV PL band was found to shift with oxygen concentration. Micro-Raman spectra of the bulk AlN samples were measured in different polarisations. Besides normal Raman modes of AlN the presence of additional vibrational modes was detected. The modes were discussed and tentatively attributed to oxygen and silicon local vibrational modes (LVMs) in AlN.
Ablation depths of stainless steel targets irradiated by 80-fs
laser pulses at a flux F ≤ 40 J/cm2
(intensity ≤ 5 × 1014 W/cm2)
in the presence of air at atmospheric pressure are experimentally
measured. These values are lower than the theoretical predictions
for metal targets in vacuum. Results are analyzed on the basis of
the role of the ambient gas and of crater formation on the behavior
of the ablated material.
New holococcolith–heterococcolith life-cycle associations are documented based on observations of combination coccospheres. Daktylethra pirus is shown to be a life-cycle phase of Syracosphaera pulchra and Syracolithus quadriperforatus a life-cycle phase of Calcidiscus leptoporus. In addition, new observations from cultures confirm the life-cycle associations of Crystallolithus braarudii with Coccolithus pelagicus and of Zygosphaera hellenica with Coronosphaera mediterranea. In all four cases previous work has shown that the heterococcolithophorid species is associated with another holococcolithophorid. Two other examples of a heterococcolithophorid being associated with two holococcolithophorids have previously been identified, so this seems to be a common phenomenon. The six examples are reviewed to determine whether a single underlying mechanism is likely to be responsible for all cases. It is concluded that there is no single mechanism but rather that the six examples fall into three categories: (a) in two cases the holococcolith types are probably simply ecophenotypic morphotypes; (b) in two other cases the holococcolith types are discrete and are paralleled by morphometric differences in the heterococcolith types; (c) in the final two cases the holococcolith types are discrete but are not paralleled by any obvious morphological variation in the heterococcolith morphology. We infer that cryptic speciation may be widespread in heterococcolithophorid phases and that study of holococcolithophorid phases can provide key data to elucidate this phenomenon.
Development of user-friendly and flexible scientific programs is a key to their usage, extension and maintenance. This paper presents an OOP (Object-Oriented Programming) approach for design of finite element analysis programs. General organization of the developed software system, called FER/SubDomain, is given which includes the solver and the pre/post processors with a friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces). A case study with graphical representations illustrates some functionalities of the program.
A conical resonator using the acoustic near-field technique has been designed and developed.
This resonator design is sensitive to the density and viscosity of liquids, as well as to the
modification, without discontinuity, of the rheological properties of viscoelastic media. The
experimental measurements agree with the results expected from the modelling of the resonator.